Matching Items (71)

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The association between screen time, physical activity levels, and metabolic markers in elementary school-aged children

Description

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure.

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause to this issue, specifically common sedentary behaviors in children that limit physical activity and it’s purpose in expending energy. Amongst these behaviors, amount of time spent on electronic devices has proven to have increased drastically in recent years. The relationship between screen time and electronic device use, specifically with television, video games, and computer usage, and physical activity levels, and how those affect cardiometabolic disease risk factors, were explored in this study. Participants of this study were elementary school-aged children from Maricopa County, AZ. Electronic device usage, physical activity amounts, and presence of the specific devices in the child’s were collected from the participants’ parents through self-reported survey questions. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic disease risk were directly measured. The average time spent engaged in physical activity per day by these participants was 20.02 ± 21.1 minutes and the average total screen time per day was 655 ± 605 minutes. Findings showed strong significance between total screen time and computer and video game use (r=0.482; p=0.01 and r=0.784; p=0.01, respectively). Video game time in the group of children with a video game in their room (350.66 ± 445.96 min/day) was significantly higher than the sample of kids without one in their room (107.19 ± 210.0 min/day ; p=0.000). Total screen time was also significantly greater with children who had a video game system in their room (927.56 ± 928.7 min/day) versus children who did not (543.14 ± 355.11 min/day; p=0.006). Additionally, significance was found showing children with a computer in the bedroom spent more time using the computer per day (450.95 ± 377.95 min/day), compared to those children who did not have a computer in their room (333.5 ± 395.6 min/day; p=0.048). No significant association was found between metabolic markers and screen time. However, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin proved to be dependent on BMI percentile (r=-0.582; p=0.01, r=0.476; p=0.01, r=0.704; p=0.01 respectively). Our data suggest further research needs to be done investigating other potential sources that limit physical activity so that strategies can focus on reducing obesity incidence and the associated health risks. Future studies should use larger sample sizes to be more representative of this population, and develop more direct observations instead of self-reported values to limit bias.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Prompt-To-Action Text Messages For Increasing Physical Activity

Description

The WalkIT Study is a mobile health study examining the efficacy of a four month text message-based intervention for increasing physical activity among 96 overweight adults. The purpose of this

The WalkIT Study is a mobile health study examining the efficacy of a four month text message-based intervention for increasing physical activity among 96 overweight adults. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the potency of the different types of motivational prompt-to-action text messages used in the WalkIT Study for increasing steps per day by examining the individual messages, creating qualitative themes and comparing themed groups, and evaluating the interaction between demographic subgroups and themed groups. A total of nine themes was created. The results found that Message 13, “It doesn't matter how old you are – it's never too early or too late to become physically active so start today; only then will you start to see results!”, had the highest median step count (7129 steps) and Message 71, “It's ok if you can't reach your goal today. Just push yourself more tomorrow.”, had the lowest median step count (5054 steps). For themes, the highest median step count (6640 steps) was found in Theme 6, Challenges, and the lowest median step count (5450 steps) was found in Theme 9, Unconditional Feedback. Theme 6 (Challenges) had the highest median step count for females, Theme 7 (Everyday Tips) had the highest median step count for males, Theme 4 (Nutrition) had the highest median step count for the 18-42 group, Theme 6 (Challenges) had the highest median step count for the 43-61 group, and Theme 9 (Unconditional Feedback) had the lowest median step count for both genders and both age groups. The results suggest the usefulness of analyzing the effectiveness of individual motivational text messages, themes, and the interaction between demographic groups and themes in physical activity interventions.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Exercise: for Self and State

Description

Exercise is a great boon to both the health of individuals and the national as a whole. Exercise provides a wide range of significant and well established benefits to both

Exercise is a great boon to both the health of individuals and the national as a whole. Exercise provides a wide range of significant and well established benefits to both physical and psychological health, with many benefits that are still being discovered. The effects of exercise on health are somewhat unique, as exercise is one of a limited number of ways to improve health that is not harm a reduction strategy, but instead increases health through direct benefit, rather than increasing health by decreasing damage and harm. Support is also given to the proposal that individuals are in best position to determine the intensity of exercise and to choose primary activities to participate in, in order to provide near maximum physical and psychological benefit, with the understanding that frequency of exercise is of the upmost importance for benefit. The accessibility of exercise and the tremendous health benefit of exercise, makes exercise a huge asset in reducing the exorbitant health care spending and improving mediocre health outcomes in this country; a reasonable goal as numerous countries have better health the United States, even though the United States spends the more than any other country on health.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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A 15-Minute Walk: The Short Term Effect of Low Intensity Physical Activity on the Hunger Levels of Pre-diabetic, Obese Adults

Description

Physical activity as a health or nutrition related intervention might stimulate appetite and increase hunger due to increased energy expenditure. This study analyzed the effect of a postprandial 15-minute walk

Physical activity as a health or nutrition related intervention might stimulate appetite and increase hunger due to increased energy expenditure. This study analyzed the effect of a postprandial 15-minute walk on the hunger and energy intake of 10 obese, pre-diabetic adults. Subjects participated in three 4-hour trials: a walk treatment (consume highly glycemic meal, walk for 15 minutes at a moderate pace, and rest for 4 hours), a fiber treatment (consume highly glycemic meal enriched with soluble fiber and rest for 4 hours), and a control treatment (consume highly glycemic meal without fiber and rest for 4 hours). The effects of each treatment on hunger and energy intake were measured using a Likert scale analysis (ranging from "completely satisfied" to "extremely hungry") at 4 hours post-treatment and pre/ post 24-hour dietary logs. The results showed no significant increase or decrease on hunger or energy intake for both the walk and the fiber treatment compared to the control treatment. This denies the idea that physical activity might increase short-term hunger, and supports the use of physical activity as a viable nutrition related intervention tool.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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The Relationship Between Healthcare Provider’s Physical Activity and Predictive Patient Care Treatment Plans

Description

This research evaluates the need for health providers to prioritize their personal health as a means to improve their patient care. Due to the traditional healthcare system maintaining a patient-centric

This research evaluates the need for health providers to prioritize their personal health as a means to improve their patient care. Due to the traditional healthcare system maintaining a patient-centric focus, physicians became victims to the very diseases they were treating their patents for. The sacrifice of one's own health caused physicians to be more susceptible to both institutional and perceptual barriers that limited their engagement in preventative care counseling. Their own personal lifestyle habits, such as physical activity, played an influential role when prescribing treatment plans, and thus, could serve as a compromising factor in substandard care of a patient. The research suggested that providers who sustained healthier lifestyles by practicing what they preach are more efficient at delivering quality care to their patients in comparison to providers living an unhealthy lifestyle. With a provider's responsibility and obligation to continuously provide optimal care, there is a need to promote the health of a provider to establish both reliable and standardize patient care within the healthcare system. In addition to the research, three personal testimonials are included to help demonstrate the potential effects of a physician’s personal health in their medical practice.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Effects of Physical Activity Prescriptions on Psychological Outcomes

Description

Research on the correlation between exercise and mental health outcomes has been a growing field for the past few decades. It is of specific interest to look at how

Research on the correlation between exercise and mental health outcomes has been a growing field for the past few decades. It is of specific interest to look at how physical activity affects psychological outcomes and it’s efficacy for treating mental health disorders. The current treatment options for depression and anxiety are not suitable for everyone and therefore there is a need for a more accessible and cost-effective form of treatment, like exercise. Furthermore, exercise as a treatment is also linked with many more health benefits. Indeed a wealth of studies have explored the relationships between exercise and depression as well as exercise and anxiety, showing exercise to be a positive predictor of mental health. The following paper will serve to: define depressive and anxiety disorders, explore the research on the effects of physical activity prescriptions on the outcomes of such disorders, create evidence-based applied recommendations for different disorders, and explore the mechanisms by which exercise mitigates symptoms to ultimately accredit the prescription of exercise as a form of treatment for mental health disorders.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Translation of Physical Activity from Adolescence to Adulthood in Women: Investigating the Relationship Between Adolescent Engagement in Coordination and Performance Activities and Adult Physical Activity Levels

Description

Physical activity has been shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006). Women tend

Physical activity has been shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006). Women tend to be much less active than males and are henceforth at a greater risk for developing these conditions (Biddle & Mutrie, 2008). This study addresses what impact type of physical activity in adolescence has on adult physical activity levels in the female population. Specifically, the study focuses on coordination and performance activities in adolescence, and how adult physical activity levels compare to both sedentary adolescents and adolescent endurance and ball sport athletes. Ninety-six female participants that were ages 20-29 (N=53) and 30-39 (N=43) were asked to fill out a survey about their adolescent activity levels and their current activity levels. Those participants who identified as participating in coordination and performance activity (N=43) were compared to those who were sedentary (N=14) and then further compared to those who engaged in other types of adolescent activity (N=39). It was determined that coordination and performance activities during adolescence did have a significant effect on frequency of female adult physical activity when compared to their sedentary counterparts (p=0.015). Adolescent endurance and ball sport athletes did tend to have a greater frequency of current activity in adulthood than those involved in coordination and performance activities, which was attributed to a greater frequency of practice per week in those sports. In conclusion, introducing a frequent amount of physical activity the female adolescent enjoys increases their likelihood of frequently engaging in physical activity as an adult.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Preschool Yogis: A Pilot Study to Determine the Feasibility of a Structured Classroom-Based Yoga Program

Description

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility (i.e., acceptability) of a yoga intervention implemented within a preschool with typically and atypically developing children.
Participants: 29 children

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility (i.e., acceptability) of a yoga intervention implemented within a preschool with typically and atypically developing children.
Participants: 29 children between the ages of three and five years that are currently attending the Mary Lou Fulton Teacher’s College Preschool.

Methods: Children participated in eight ~15-20-minute yoga sessions consisting of an opening circle, breathing, mindful movement, and a closing circle with relaxation time. Parents completed weekly homework assignments and surveys about the homework. Parents and teachers both completed daily behavior logs to track their child’s number of outbursts, mention of yoga, and use of yoga. Additionally, parents completed a post-intervention survey to determine overall satisfaction.

Results: The Preschool Behavior Questionnaire paired t-test results did not demonstrate any significant differences in pre-intervention (M=13.00, SD±7.55) and post-intervention (M=11.95, SD±6.92) scores, t(17)=0.94, p=0.36. There were no visible correlations between outbursts and use of yoga as reported by parents, but the use of yoga increased with the number of outbursts as reported by parents. Overall, parents felt the sessions had a positive effect on their child’s behavior and felt their children enjoyed the sessions.

Conclusion: Implementing classroom-based yoga programs could be an acceptable, realistic option to manage and prevent negative behaviors in preschool children.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Effects of a 12-week Lifestyle Intervention on Self-efficacy, Social Support, and Physical Activity in Obese Latino Adolescents

Description

Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth and can be seen with an increase incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. This increase in obesity can be attributed

Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth and can be seen with an increase incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. This increase in obesity can be attributed to physical inactivity. Increases in social support and self-efficacy are independently related to increases in physical activity. A lifestyle intervention can lead to increases in social support, self-efficacy and physical activity. Objective/Hypothesis: The objective of this study was to determine whether a 12-week lifestyle intervention could increase social support, self-efficacy and physical activity in obese Latino adolescents that participated in the intervention. It was hypothesized that adolescents that participated in the intervention would increase self-efficacy, social support from family and friends, and physical activity compared to their control counterparts. Study Design/Participants: In a randomized control trial, there were 125 Latino (n= 60 experimental group; n= 65 control group; mean age = 15.17 +- 1.65 Males n = 60; n = 65 females) participants included in this study. Participants were also required to have a BMI percentile >= 95th percentile for age and gender or BMI >= 30 kg/m2. Methods: The intervention, which was developed using the Social Cognitive Theory had components focusing on social support and self-efficacy and also consisted of nutrition education classes and physical activity sessions for 12 weeks. The psychosocial constructs of self-efficacy and social support were measured using the Adolescent Self-Efficacy for Diet and Activity Behaviors and Adolescent Social Support for Diet and Exercise Survey, respectively. Physical activity was assessed by the 3-day Physical Activity Recall. Results: We found significant increases in social support in family (p = 0.042) and vigorous physical activity (p = 0.001). There was also a significant difference between control and treatment group for moderate to vigorous physical activity after the intervention (p = 0.027). There were no changes in social support from friends or self-efficacy. Conclusion: We concluded that a 12-week lifestyle intervention did lead to changes in social support and physical activity behaviors. These changes could have been influenced by the intervention as they were measured these constructs pre/post intervention.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Fit Minded College Edition-Podcasts: Feasibility of using a Facebook page to promote physical activity in female college students as compared to a website discussion board

Description

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook as compared to a discussion board in an online, web-based intervention, Fit Minded College Edition-Podcasts (FMCEP),

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook as compared to a discussion board in an online, web-based intervention, Fit Minded College Edition-Podcasts (FMCEP), to improve physical activity and self-worth in female college students.
Methods: Participants (n=55) were randomly assigned to either a private Facebook group (FB) or the Fit Minded discussion board (DB) to participate in discussion of health and wellness related podcasts. FMCEP was a 6-week intervention guided by the self-determination theory (SDT) to target autonomy, relatedness and competence. Each week participants were instructed to complete three tasks: (1) listen to an assigned podcast, (2) complete a workbook assignment, and (3) participate in FB or DB online discussion. Participants completed assessments at baseline and post-intervention (6-weeks).
Results: Self-reported physical activity (p=0.032, η2= 0.193) and physical self-worth (p<0.001, η2=0.747) increased significantly over time, but no difference was seen between the groups for both physical activity (p=0.266, η2= 0.056) and physical self-worth (p=0.485, η2=0.024). Website use (measured by mean number of engagements per day, each week) declined across the 6-week intervention in the DB group but was consistent in the FB group.
Conclusion: These findings suggest web-based interventions, guided by SDT, can improve physical activity and physical self-worth among female college students, and the Facebook group may be more feasible and effective. Future studies are needed to optimize web-based physical activity interventions in college females.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05