Matching Items (80)

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The association between screen time, physical activity levels, and metabolic markers in elementary school-aged children

Description

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause to this issue, specifically common sedentary behaviors in children that limit physical activity and it’s purpose in expending energy. Amongst these behaviors, amount of time spent on electronic devices has proven to have increased drastically in recent years. The relationship between screen time and electronic device use, specifically with television, video games, and computer usage, and physical activity levels, and how those affect cardiometabolic disease risk factors, were explored in this study. Participants of this study were elementary school-aged children from Maricopa County, AZ. Electronic device usage, physical activity amounts, and presence of the specific devices in the child’s were collected from the participants’ parents through self-reported survey questions. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic disease risk were directly measured. The average time spent engaged in physical activity per day by these participants was 20.02 ± 21.1 minutes and the average total screen time per day was 655 ± 605 minutes. Findings showed strong significance between total screen time and computer and video game use (r=0.482; p=0.01 and r=0.784; p=0.01, respectively). Video game time in the group of children with a video game in their room (350.66 ± 445.96 min/day) was significantly higher than the sample of kids without one in their room (107.19 ± 210.0 min/day ; p=0.000). Total screen time was also significantly greater with children who had a video game system in their room (927.56 ± 928.7 min/day) versus children who did not (543.14 ± 355.11 min/day; p=0.006). Additionally, significance was found showing children with a computer in the bedroom spent more time using the computer per day (450.95 ± 377.95 min/day), compared to those children who did not have a computer in their room (333.5 ± 395.6 min/day; p=0.048). No significant association was found between metabolic markers and screen time. However, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin proved to be dependent on BMI percentile (r=-0.582; p=0.01, r=0.476; p=0.01, r=0.704; p=0.01 respectively). Our data suggest further research needs to be done investigating other potential sources that limit physical activity so that strategies can focus on reducing obesity incidence and the associated health risks. Future studies should use larger sample sizes to be more representative of this population, and develop more direct observations instead of self-reported values to limit bias.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Improving the Self-Efficacy of Adolescent Sex Trafficking Survivors Through Physical Activity

Description

Adolescent survivors of sex trafficking are at risk for poor health outcomes and may be less likely to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity. Survivors of childhood traumas may be less likely to engage in physical activity due

Adolescent survivors of sex trafficking are at risk for poor health outcomes and may be less likely to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity. Survivors of childhood traumas may be less likely to engage in physical activity due to lack of self-efficacy. The present study was a case-series of a pre-post, single-arm physical activity intervention to test whether the program could increase self-efficacy among adolescent survivors of sex trafficking. The intervention was 8-weeks of 60-minute aerobic physical activity classes offered three times per week at a residential center for adolescent girls who are survivors of sex trafficking and sexual abuse. The primary outcome was physical activity-related self-efficacy as measured by the Sport Competence subscale of the Physical Self Perception Profile (PSPP) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, emotional eating, and sleep habits. All outcomes were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Five participants were enrolled in the study. Two participants experienced an increase in the Sport Competence subscale of the PSPP Questionnaire by Week 4 of the study and then a decrease by Week 8 of the study. Another participant experienced no change in the Sport Competence subscale score. Scores for the last two participants could not be determined due to invalid data. These findings suggest that more research is needed on enhancing healthy behaviors among adolescent sex trafficking survivors.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Physical activity trajectories among newly-diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea patients

Description

The purpose of this thesis project was to examine the trajectories of physical activity among newly-diagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) patients within the UC+WS group of the SleepWell24 study across the first 60 days of CPAP use, alone and based

The purpose of this thesis project was to examine the trajectories of physical activity among newly-diagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) patients within the UC+WS group of the SleepWell24 study across the first 60 days of CPAP use, alone and based on Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), Body Mass Index (BMI), sex, and age. The study utilizes objective data from the SleepWell24 randomized controlled trial conducted by a collaborative research team at Arizona State University and Mayo Clinic Arizona and Rochester. Participants use wearable sensors to track activity behaviors, such as sleep, sedentary behavior, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The primary aim of the study was to examine the physical activity trajectories among newly-diagnosed OSA patients over the first 8 weeks of CPAP use, utilizing the physical activity data from wearable sensors. The secondary aim was to assess the trajectories of physical activity between categories of AHI, BMI, sex, and age. Multilevel modeling was used to account for clustering within participants considering between and within subject variations, and week was used as a level 1 predictor in the model for LPA, and MVPA, and total activity (sum of LPA and MVPA), while between subject factors of BMI, sex, age, and AHI were also included in the model. It was found that there were no statistically significant trajectories of LPA, MVPA or total activity over the first 8 weeks of CPAP use within the sample of 30 participants. However, a few notable differences in physical activity were seen between categories of age, sex, and BMI. Also, there was a significant interaction found between BMI and each week that influenced the trajectory of physical activity within obese patients, as compared to participants considered overweight or with a lower BMI. Ultimately, this study provides insight into patterns of physical activity seen in a clinical population of OSA patients over the initial period of CPAP use.

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Date Created
2019-05

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The Effect of an Exercise Program for Adults with Down Syndrome (ExDS) on Balance

Description

Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) are subject to a spectrum of behavioral, cognitive and physical impairments. This population is more predisposed to comorbidity and typically has an increased risk of inactivity resulting in a lower level of fitness. Previous studies

Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) are subject to a spectrum of behavioral, cognitive and physical impairments. This population is more predisposed to comorbidity and typically has an increased risk of inactivity resulting in a lower level of fitness. Previous studies on physical activity have shown that routine exercise has similar health benefits for those with DS as those individuals without a disability and in turn progresses their balance ability. Due to limited exercise program opportunities and studies that intentionally investigate the benefits of specific modes of exercise on the DS population, a community-based Exercise Program for Adults with DS (ExDS) was created with the goal of improving their physical and mental health and measuring changes in their balance capabilities throughout the program. ExDS partnered with Arizona State University (ASU) students to create biweekly customized workouts, that followed exercise prescription guidelines, consisting of an aerobic warm-up, main aerobic exercise bout, resistance training, balance training, and stretching for each participant with DS. Participant dynamic and static balance ability was measured using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) during program pre- and post-assessments. The BBS composite score did not change and no significant improvement was seen in the p-values for each line item of the BBS from pre- to post-testing. For follow-up analyses, the participants with low treatment fidelity were removed. Follow-up analyses showed significant increases in BBS composite score and line item 13 from pre- to post-testing. Treatment fidelity was a limitation in this study and future studies should aim to increase fidelity and consistency of tester for pre- and post-testing. In conclusion, holistic exercise programming for adults with DS appears to benefit balance as long as treatment fidelity is high. It is unclear which mode of exercise had the greatest impact on changes in balance.

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Created

Date Created
2018-12

The Effect of Exercise on Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive behavior due to cognitive and physical deficits. The aim of

Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive behavior due to cognitive and physical deficits. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise program would improve the adaptive behavior skills in persons with Down syndrome. The exercise intervention, Exercise for Adults with Down Syndrome (ExDS), was a semester long program where adults with Down syndrome participate in twice weekly workouts planned and executed by Arizona State University students. The workouts consisted of an aerobic warm up, aerobic exercises, resistance exercises, balance exercises and stretches. The participants' adaptive behavior and cognitive planning ability were assessed before ExDS and after ExDS. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Second Edition (ABAS-II) was used to measure adaptive behavior. The ABAS-II consisted of a forum that addressed the Social, Conceptual and Practical domains of adaptive behavior and was filled out by the participants' caregiver. The Tower of London (ToL) was used to measure cognitive planning ability. The change in the ABAS-II scores from pre- to post-testing were statistically insignificant. The change from pre- to post-testing in the ToL scores approached statistical significance. Limitations included bias caregiver perception and respondent inconsistency. There is a need for further research on the effect of exercise on the adaptive behavior in adults with Down syndrome.

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Date Created
2018-12

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Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cognition in Adults 3 Months or More Post-Stroke: A Meta-Analysis

Description

Background and Purpose— There is limited conclusive data on both pharmacological and holistic treatment options to improve cognition in adults after stroke. In particular, there is lacking evidence for cognitive rehabilitation in the subacute and chronic phases when cognitive impairment

Background and Purpose— There is limited conclusive data on both pharmacological and holistic treatment options to improve cognition in adults after stroke. In particular, there is lacking evidence for cognitive rehabilitation in the subacute and chronic phases when cognitive impairment may be more perceptible. In this meta-analytic review, our primary objective was to determine the cognitive effects of aerobic exercise on post-stroke adults in the post-acute phases. Secondary objectives were to investigate the differential effects of aerobic exercise on sub-domains of cognitive function.
Methods— Data were extracted and filtered from electronic databases PubMed (MEDLINE), CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and Scopus. Intervention effects were represented by Hedges’ g and combined into pooled effect sizes using random effects models. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Chi-squared (Q) and I-squared statistics.
Results— Five studies met inclusion criteria, representing data from 182 participants. The primary analysis produced a positive overall effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance (Hedges’ g [95% confidence interval]= 0.42 [0.007–0.77]). Effects were significantly different from zero for aerobic interventions combined with other physical activity interventions (Hedges’ g [CI] =0.59 [0.26 to 0.92]), but not for aerobic interventions alone (P= 0.40). In specific subdomains, positive moderate effects were found for global cognitive function (Hedges’ g [CI] =0.79 [0.31 to 1.26]) but not for attention and processing speed (P=0.08), executive function (P= 0.84), and working memory (P=0.92).
Conclusions— We determined that aerobic exercise combined with other modes of training produced a significant positive effect on cognition in adults after stroke in the subacute and chronic phases. Our analysis supports the use of combined training as a treatment option to enhance long-term cognitive function in adults after stroke. Further research is needed to determine the efficacy of aerobic training alone.

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Date Created
2019-05

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The Relationship Between Healthcare Provider’s Physical Activity and Predictive Patient Care Treatment Plans

Description

This research evaluates the need for health providers to prioritize their personal health as a means to improve their patient care. Due to the traditional healthcare system maintaining a patient-centric focus, physicians became victims to the very diseases they were

This research evaluates the need for health providers to prioritize their personal health as a means to improve their patient care. Due to the traditional healthcare system maintaining a patient-centric focus, physicians became victims to the very diseases they were treating their patents for. The sacrifice of one's own health caused physicians to be more susceptible to both institutional and perceptual barriers that limited their engagement in preventative care counseling. Their own personal lifestyle habits, such as physical activity, played an influential role when prescribing treatment plans, and thus, could serve as a compromising factor in substandard care of a patient. The research suggested that providers who sustained healthier lifestyles by practicing what they preach are more efficient at delivering quality care to their patients in comparison to providers living an unhealthy lifestyle. With a provider's responsibility and obligation to continuously provide optimal care, there is a need to promote the health of a provider to establish both reliable and standardize patient care within the healthcare system. In addition to the research, three personal testimonials are included to help demonstrate the potential effects of a physician’s personal health in their medical practice.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Translation of Physical Activity from Adolescence to Adulthood in Women: Investigating the Relationship Between Adolescent Engagement in Coordination and Performance Activities and Adult Physical Activity Levels

Description

Physical activity has been shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006). Women tend to be much less active than males and are henceforth

Physical activity has been shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006). Women tend to be much less active than males and are henceforth at a greater risk for developing these conditions (Biddle & Mutrie, 2008). This study addresses what impact type of physical activity in adolescence has on adult physical activity levels in the female population. Specifically, the study focuses on coordination and performance activities in adolescence, and how adult physical activity levels compare to both sedentary adolescents and adolescent endurance and ball sport athletes. Ninety-six female participants that were ages 20-29 (N=53) and 30-39 (N=43) were asked to fill out a survey about their adolescent activity levels and their current activity levels. Those participants who identified as participating in coordination and performance activity (N=43) were compared to those who were sedentary (N=14) and then further compared to those who engaged in other types of adolescent activity (N=39). It was determined that coordination and performance activities during adolescence did have a significant effect on frequency of female adult physical activity when compared to their sedentary counterparts (p=0.015). Adolescent endurance and ball sport athletes did tend to have a greater frequency of current activity in adulthood than those involved in coordination and performance activities, which was attributed to a greater frequency of practice per week in those sports. In conclusion, introducing a frequent amount of physical activity the female adolescent enjoys increases their likelihood of frequently engaging in physical activity as an adult.

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Created

Date Created
2015-12

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A 15-Minute Walk: The Short Term Effect of Low Intensity Physical Activity on the Hunger Levels of Pre-diabetic, Obese Adults

Description

Physical activity as a health or nutrition related intervention might stimulate appetite and increase hunger due to increased energy expenditure. This study analyzed the effect of a postprandial 15-minute walk on the hunger and energy intake of 10 obese, pre-diabetic

Physical activity as a health or nutrition related intervention might stimulate appetite and increase hunger due to increased energy expenditure. This study analyzed the effect of a postprandial 15-minute walk on the hunger and energy intake of 10 obese, pre-diabetic adults. Subjects participated in three 4-hour trials: a walk treatment (consume highly glycemic meal, walk for 15 minutes at a moderate pace, and rest for 4 hours), a fiber treatment (consume highly glycemic meal enriched with soluble fiber and rest for 4 hours), and a control treatment (consume highly glycemic meal without fiber and rest for 4 hours). The effects of each treatment on hunger and energy intake were measured using a Likert scale analysis (ranging from "completely satisfied" to "extremely hungry") at 4 hours post-treatment and pre/ post 24-hour dietary logs. The results showed no significant increase or decrease on hunger or energy intake for both the walk and the fiber treatment compared to the control treatment. This denies the idea that physical activity might increase short-term hunger, and supports the use of physical activity as a viable nutrition related intervention tool.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Walking Intervention Through Texting for Adolescents

Description

It is well established that physical activity (PA) directly correlates with many health benefits, especially when active habits are formed during childhood and adolescence. PA practiced in adolescence has been seen to carry into adulthood, helping to combat a host

It is well established that physical activity (PA) directly correlates with many health benefits, especially when active habits are formed during childhood and adolescence. PA practiced in adolescence has been seen to carry into adulthood, helping to combat a host of chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. However, in recent years there has been a steady decline in PA among adolescents, followed by a resulting rise in sedentary behavior. Walking Intervention Through Texting for Adolescents, or WalkIT-A, was an 11.5-week intervention that built upon behavioral theory to provide an incentive-based, adaptive, physical activity intervention to inactive adolescents. The goal of this study was to investigate an intervention which combined walking with pointed behavior change strategies to incite a larger increase in PA. Using single-case, reversal (ABA) design, the study was aimed at shaping physical activity behavior in adolescents aged 12-17 through a mobile health intervention that paired adaptive goal setting with financial incentives to increase step count. The intervention was delivered using a semi-automated texting, mobile-Health (mHealth) platform, which incorporated FitBit tracking technology, adaptive goals, motivational messages, performance feedback, and points/incentives. It was hypothesized that during the adaptive intervention phase participants would increase both steps per day and active minutes compared to baseline values. Upon conclusion of the study, the three adolescent participants exhibited increased steps and active minutes during the intervention period compared to baseline and withdrawal phases. However, the specific trends identified suggest the need for future research to incorporate even stronger intervention components to overcome PA "drop-off" midway through the intervention, along with other external, environmental influencers. Despite this need, the use of adaptive goal setting combined with incentives can be an effective means to incite PA behavior change in adolescents.

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Created

Date Created
2016-12