Matching Items (3)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

148040-Thumbnail Image.png

Development of a Game-Based Intervention to Promote HPV Vaccination Among Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis

Description

Purpose: This qualitative research aimed to create a developmentally and gender-appropriate game-based intervention to promote Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in adolescents. <br/>Background: Ranking as the most common sexually transmitted infection, about 80 million Americans are currently infected by HPV, and

Purpose: This qualitative research aimed to create a developmentally and gender-appropriate game-based intervention to promote Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in adolescents. <br/>Background: Ranking as the most common sexually transmitted infection, about 80 million Americans are currently infected by HPV, and it continues to increase with an estimated 14 million new cases yearly. Certain types of HPV have been significantly associated with cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers in women; penile cancers in men; and oropharyngeal and anal cancers in both men and women. Despite HPV vaccination being one of the most effective methods in preventing HPV-associated cancers, vaccination rates remain suboptimal in adolescents. Game-based intervention, a novel medium that is popular with adolescents, has been shown to be effective in promoting health behaviors. <br/>Methods: Sample/Sampling. We used purposeful sampling to recruit eight adolescent-parent dyads (N = 16) which represented both sexes (4 boys, 4 girls) and different racial/ethnic groups (White, Black, Latino, Asian American) in the United States. The inclusion criteria for the dyads were: (1) a child aged 11-14 years and his/her parent, and (2) ability to speak, read, write, and understand English. Procedure. After eligible families consented to their participation, semi-structured interviews (each 60-90 minutes long) were conducted with each adolescent-parent dyad in a quiet and private room. Each dyad received $50 to acknowledge their time and effort. Measure. The interview questions consisted of two parts: (a) those related to game design, functioning, and feasibility of implementation; (b) those related to theoretical constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Data analysis. The interviews were audio-recorded with permission and manually transcribed into textual data. Two researchers confirmed the verbatim transcription. We use pre-developed codes to identify each participant’s responses and organize data and develop themes based on the HBM and TPB constructs. After the analysis was completed, three researchers in the team reviewed the results and discussed the discrepancies until a consensus is reached.<br/>Results: The findings suggested that the most common motivating factors for adolescents’ HPV vaccination were its effectiveness, benefits, convenience, affordable cost, reminders via text, and recommendation by a health care provider. Regarding the content included in the HPV game, participants suggested including information about who and when should receive the vaccine, what is HPV and the vaccination, what are the consequences if infected, the side effects of the vaccine, and where to receive the vaccine. The preferred game design elements were: 15 minutes long, stories about fighting or action, option to choose characters/avatars, motivating factors (i.e., rewards such as allowing users to advance levels and receive coins when correctly answering questions), use of a portable electronic device (e.g., tablet) to deliver the education. Participants were open to multiplayer function which assists in a facilitated conversation about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Overall, the participants concluded enthusiasm for an interactive yet engaging game-based intervention to learn about the HPV vaccine with the goal to increase HPV vaccination in adolescents. <br/>Implications: Tailored educational games have the potential to decrease the stigma of HPV and HPV vaccination, increasing communication between the adolescent, parent, and healthcare provider, as well as increase the overall HPV vaccination rate.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2021-05

151859-Thumbnail Image.png

Knowledge in action: effectively teaching healthy behavior knowledge in physical education classes

Description

An intervention study was conducted with elementary physical education teachers and their use of a newly developed series of fitness segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). This study was designed to enable teachers to teach healthy behavior knowledge (HBK) in

An intervention study was conducted with elementary physical education teachers and their use of a newly developed series of fitness segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). This study was designed to enable teachers to teach healthy behavior knowledge (HBK) in their classes without sacrificing physical activity levels. This study has two phases. First, the intervention was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the KIA fitness segment intervention. Second, teachers' perceptions of both teaching HBK and the KIA fitness segments were investigated. Ten teacher participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Intervention teachers participated in professional development, provided with all teaching materials, and YouTube videos that modeled the teaching of the KIA fitness segments. Teacher fidelity was measured through observations. Student physical activity patterns were measured in randomly selected teachers' classes (both intervention and control) to determine potential physical activity pattern differences between groups. Teachers were interviewed from one to three times across the project in order to determine perceptions of teaching HBK and the KIA fitness segments. Researchers used constant comparison method to uncover possible common themes. Student knowledge was assessed pre/post using PE Metrics Standard 3 cognitive test to determine HBK changes. Data analysis included General liner models (GLM) at the student level (gender) and Hierarchical linear models (HLM) at the school level (treatment, school). There was a moderate mean teacher fidelity score (77.9%) found among the intervention teachers. HLM results showed students in the intervention group had a 3.4(20%) greater improvement in HBK scores when compared with their control counterparts (p<0.001). Student activity levels were found to be similar in both groups with 871.33 and 822.22 steps in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Although all of the teachers thought it was important to teach HBK they were not spending time on it during classes at pretest. Three common themes were discovered: (a) Effective Teacher Training of the Segments, (b), Teachers Learned a Novel Strategy, and (c) Teachers Recommended Modifications. In summary, the KIA fitness segments received favorable views and gave teachers a way to teach HBK without reducing physical activity time.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

152853-Thumbnail Image.png

Environmental and Behavioral Influences of Physical Activity In Middle School Students

Description

Background: Limited physical activity (PA) is a key factor contributing to obesity and independently protects from diseases in youth and later in life. Students spend most of their time in schools sedentary and have limited opportunities to engage in PA.

Background: Limited physical activity (PA) is a key factor contributing to obesity and independently protects from diseases in youth and later in life. Students spend most of their time in schools sedentary and have limited opportunities to engage in PA. By making changes to the school environment and developing a school culture that actively supports and reinforces PA behavior, Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs are designed to make PA engagement throughout each school day the accepted social norm. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of environmental and behavioral modifications to school-level PA participation for girls and boys.

Methods: This study used a hybrid reversal design by alternating baseline phases with two intervention phases that provided increased access and opportunity to PA, and behavioral prompting and reinforcing plus access and opportunity, for all students to engage in PA during lunch. Physical activity and contextual data were collected using a previously validated instrument (System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth; SOPLAY). Behavioral data were collected using a novel instrument (System for Observing Behavioral Ecology for Youth in Schools; SOBEYS) developed to measure prompting and reinforcement contingencies of PA participation consistent with the Behavioral Ecological Model.

Data Analysis: The number of students engaged in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and the proportion of students in MVPA were analyzed using visual analysis of graphic data and general linear statistical models, with environmental and behavioral variables as predictors.

Results: Increases in the number of girls and boys in MVPA were seen visually and statistically during the environmental and the environmental plus behavioral intervention phases compared to baseline. No differences were seen visually or statistically between intervention phases. Intervention effects were larger for boys than girls. The SOBEYS instrument was able to produce valid and reliable data regarding prompting and reinforcement of PA. However, environmental factors appear to have a greater influence on PA than behavioral factors.

Conclusion: Modifying the school environment to increase access and opportunity for PA during lunch can lead to positive changes in MVPA during the school day, with special consideration needed to engage more girls.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014