Matching Items (15)

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Implementing a Multicomponent Pediatric Health Promotion Program

Description

Health statistics for physical activity, nutrition, and psychological wellbeing demonstrate the tenuous status of youth in the United States (US). These factors significantly affect growth and development during this critical

Health statistics for physical activity, nutrition, and psychological wellbeing demonstrate the tenuous status of youth in the United States (US). These factors significantly affect growth and development during this critical period and indelibly influence adult health. Consequently, the successful utilization of multicomponent pediatric health promotion programs could improve current and future health, saving billions in health-care costs. The analysis of a literature review on this topic led to the development and completion of an evidence-based project. The project was guided by two conceptual frameworks, Pender’s Health Promotion Model and the Stetler Model for Evidence-based Practice. The project was completed in partnership with a local after-school youth program.

Methodology included a project intervention comprised of a single specialized training session. Data was collected using a pretest-posttest format with repeated measures from a survey adapted from the Organization Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) tool. Survey questions focused on participant’s knowledge, skills, attitudes, and use of the selected health promotion program. Descriptive Statistics, the Wilcoxon-Signed Rank Test, and the Friedman Test were completed for data analysis using IBM SPSS v25. Using a critical value p < .1, results from the data indicated improvement in median scores for participant’s knowledge and skills (p-value’s range = .05 - .082). Other changes were not statistically significant (p-value’s range = .135 - .317). The results indicate the project intervention’s efficacy. Future research may focus on optimal training formats, a comparison of repeat sessions versus supplemental web-accessible resources, and program sustainability via refresher sessions and/or designated management.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-04-25

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Development of a Game-Based Intervention to Promote HPV Vaccination Among Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis

Description

Purpose: This qualitative research aimed to create a developmentally and gender-appropriate game-based intervention to promote Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in adolescents. <br/>Background: Ranking as the most common sexually transmitted infection,

Purpose: This qualitative research aimed to create a developmentally and gender-appropriate game-based intervention to promote Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in adolescents. <br/>Background: Ranking as the most common sexually transmitted infection, about 80 million Americans are currently infected by HPV, and it continues to increase with an estimated 14 million new cases yearly. Certain types of HPV have been significantly associated with cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers in women; penile cancers in men; and oropharyngeal and anal cancers in both men and women. Despite HPV vaccination being one of the most effective methods in preventing HPV-associated cancers, vaccination rates remain suboptimal in adolescents. Game-based intervention, a novel medium that is popular with adolescents, has been shown to be effective in promoting health behaviors. <br/>Methods: Sample/Sampling. We used purposeful sampling to recruit eight adolescent-parent dyads (N = 16) which represented both sexes (4 boys, 4 girls) and different racial/ethnic groups (White, Black, Latino, Asian American) in the United States. The inclusion criteria for the dyads were: (1) a child aged 11-14 years and his/her parent, and (2) ability to speak, read, write, and understand English. Procedure. After eligible families consented to their participation, semi-structured interviews (each 60-90 minutes long) were conducted with each adolescent-parent dyad in a quiet and private room. Each dyad received $50 to acknowledge their time and effort. Measure. The interview questions consisted of two parts: (a) those related to game design, functioning, and feasibility of implementation; (b) those related to theoretical constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Data analysis. The interviews were audio-recorded with permission and manually transcribed into textual data. Two researchers confirmed the verbatim transcription. We use pre-developed codes to identify each participant’s responses and organize data and develop themes based on the HBM and TPB constructs. After the analysis was completed, three researchers in the team reviewed the results and discussed the discrepancies until a consensus is reached.<br/>Results: The findings suggested that the most common motivating factors for adolescents’ HPV vaccination were its effectiveness, benefits, convenience, affordable cost, reminders via text, and recommendation by a health care provider. Regarding the content included in the HPV game, participants suggested including information about who and when should receive the vaccine, what is HPV and the vaccination, what are the consequences if infected, the side effects of the vaccine, and where to receive the vaccine. The preferred game design elements were: 15 minutes long, stories about fighting or action, option to choose characters/avatars, motivating factors (i.e., rewards such as allowing users to advance levels and receive coins when correctly answering questions), use of a portable electronic device (e.g., tablet) to deliver the education. Participants were open to multiplayer function which assists in a facilitated conversation about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Overall, the participants concluded enthusiasm for an interactive yet engaging game-based intervention to learn about the HPV vaccine with the goal to increase HPV vaccination in adolescents. <br/>Implications: Tailored educational games have the potential to decrease the stigma of HPV and HPV vaccination, increasing communication between the adolescent, parent, and healthcare provider, as well as increase the overall HPV vaccination rate.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

Health Promotion Education for Overweight and Obesity in Adults with Endocrine Disorders

Description

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to implement health promotion education for overweight and obese adults with endocrine disorders. The overarching goal was to change dietary intake and improve

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to implement health promotion education for overweight and obese adults with endocrine disorders. The overarching goal was to change dietary intake and improve exercise to reduce the incidence, prevalence, and impact of comorbidities associated with obesity.

Background/Synthesis: Obesity is a significant epidemic facing the nation today with multiple impacts on the national healthcare system. There is often an association between obesity and endocrine disorders such as type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Both obesity and diabetes cost the nation billions of dollars annually in healthcare costs. Evidence shows that lifestyle modifications related to nutrition and physical activity are effective in weight reduction and prevention of chronic disease, especially when given by a healthcare provider.

Methods: Fifteen adult patients at an endocrinology office in Arizona received individual counseling using the teach-back method focusing on health promotion behaviors through nutrition and exercise with a two-week follow-up phone call. Short-term outcomes measured in this project included changes in dietary intake and exercise behaviors through a pre- and post-test adapted from an obesity-screening tool developed by Greenwood et al. (2008).

Outcomes/Results: Participants were primarily Caucasian and Hispanic, married, female, average age of 50 years, average BMI of 34.5, and some college education. There was a statistically significant increase in health promoting behavior on posttest scores (M=66, SD=6.23, range=58-76) compared to pretest scores (M=61, SD=4.72, range=50-66), t(14)=-2.55, p=0.023.

Conclusions and Implications: Overall, patient health promotion behaviors increased with this educational intervention. Clinical implications include a potential decrease in patient comorbidities related to overweight and obesity. Implications for the greater healthcare system include decreased comorbidities, utilization of healthcare resources, and costs associated with overweight and obesity. Future recommendations would include determining weight and BMI changes over a longer period of time for even better outcome measures.

Keywords: obesity, obese, overweight, health promotion, health education, diet, exercise, nutrition

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05-06

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Yoga for HEART (Health Empowerment and Realizing Transformation) intervention to enhance motivation for physical activity in older adults

Description

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the U.S. While physical activity can reduce CVD risk, most adults do not engage in adequate physical activity to

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the U.S. While physical activity can reduce CVD risk, most adults do not engage in adequate physical activity to maintain or improve health. Older adults are less likely to participate in physical activity and experience a greater burden of CVD compared to younger adults. Despite knowledge of motivators and barriers to physical activity, the challenge to reduce cardiovascular risk in the older adult population remains unmet. Older adults face unique and complex barriers to physical activity, including limited social contextual resources and behavioral change processes. Interventions to enhance wellness motivation have demonstrated potential in promoting health behavior change among older adults.

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of the Yoga for HEART (Health Empowerment and Realizing Transformation) Intervention to increase motivation for physical activity and improve cardiovascular health in older adults. A pilot randomized controlled trial design was used. The Intervention group received Yoga for HEART, a 12-week program to foster motivation for health behavior change. The Control group received a 12-week group yoga program that did not contain theory-based components. The intervention was based on Wellness Motivation Theory, conceptualizing health behavior change as dynamic process of intention formation and goal-directed behavior leading to the development of new and positive health patterns. Critical inputs (i.e., empowering education, motivational support, social network support) were designed to promote social contextual resources and behavioral change processes to increase motivation for physical activity and improve cardiovascular health.

Specific Aims were to: (a) examine intervention acceptability, demand, and fidelity, and (b) evaluate intervention efficacy in promoting physical activity and improving cardiovascular health through increased social contextual resources and behavioral change processes. Participants in the Intervention group realized a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) from baseline to 12 weeks when compared to participants in the Control group. Intervention group participants demonstrated improvement in theoretical mechanisms (i.e., self-knowledge, motivation appraisal, self-regulation, environmental resources) and intended outcomes (i.e., body composition) when compared to Control group participants. Findings from this study support the feasibility of the Yoga for HEART Intervention in older adults.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Collateral effects of a family-focused behavioral intervention on physical activity

Description

There are significant and wide-ranging health benefits of physical activity, yet the majority of adolescents in the United States do not engage in the recommended amount. This poses a significant

There are significant and wide-ranging health benefits of physical activity, yet the majority of adolescents in the United States do not engage in the recommended amount. This poses a significant public health challenge. Parents have a substantial influence on adolescents' levels of activity, indicating that parenting may be an especially salient target of interventions designed to promote physical activity. The current study tested the hypothesis that a family intervention to promote effective parenting would have a positive collateral effect on adolescent physical activity. This study also tested whether the increase in activity was mediated by changes in parental monitoring and family relationship quality. Furthermore, the current study assessed whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between parental monitoring and physical activity, such that increased parental monitoring predicted increases in physical activity for girls, but not for boys. Participants were 232 adolescents at risk for behavior problems drawn from a larger randomized controlled trial of the Family Check-Up. Adolescents completed questionnaires and participated in a family assessment with their caregivers in the 6th through 9th grades. Youth randomized to the intervention reported significantly more physical activity at follow-up relative to controls. Results failed to confirm the role of family factors as mediators of the effect of the intervention on physical activity. When gender was considered as a moderator, it appeared that parental monitoring was strongly and positively correlated with physical activity for girls, but not for boys. While the mechanism by which the Family Check-Up leads to increased physical activity remains unclear, its robust effects suggest that family intervention can be used to promote physical activity and might therefore have further-reaching health benefits.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Parental intentions to immunize children against influenza: a randomized trial of EPPM-based immunization messaging

Description

Background: This study examines how pro-vaccine flu messages, guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), affect parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children.

Methods: Parents of children six months to five

Background: This study examines how pro-vaccine flu messages, guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), affect parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children.

Methods: Parents of children six months to five years old (N = 975) were randomly exposed to one of four high-threat/high-efficacy messages (narrative, statistical, combined, control) and completed a follow-up survey. Differences between message conditions were assessed with one-way ANOVAs, and binary logistic regressions were used to show how constructs predicted intentions.

Results: There were no significant differences in the ANOVA results at p = .05 for EPPM variables or risk EPPM variables. There was a significant difference between message conditions for perceived manipulation (p = 0.026), authority, (p = 0.024), character (p = 0.037), attention (p < .000), and emotion (p < .000). The EPPM model and perceptions of message model (positively), and the risk EPPM model and fear control model (negatively), predicted intentions to vaccinate. Significant predictor variables in each model at p < .05 were severity (aOR = 1.83), response efficacy (aOR = 4.33), risk susceptibility (aOR = 0.53), risk fear (aOR = 0.74), issue derogation (aOR = 0.63), perceived manipulation (aOR = 0.64), character (aOR = 2.00), and personal relevance (aOR = 1.88). In a multivariate model of the significant predictors, only response efficacy significantly predicted intentions to vaccinate (aOR = 3.43). Compared to the control, none of the experimental messages significantly predicted intentions to vaccinate. The narrative and combined conditions significantly predicted intentions to search online (aOR = 2.37), and the combined condition significantly predicted intentions to talk to family/friends (aOR = 2.66).

Conclusions: The EPPM may not be effective in context of a two-way threat. Additional constructs that may be useful in the EPPM model are perceptions of the message and fear control variables. One-shot flu vaccine messages will be unlikely to directly influence vaccination rates; however they may increase information-seeking behavior. The impact of seeking more information on vaccination uptake requires further research. Flu vaccine messages should be presented in combined form. Future studies should focus on strategies to increase perceptions of the effectiveness of the flu vaccine.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Barriers & motivators to physical activity in older Mexican American men

Description

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the cultural, social, environmental, and gender factors that may influence physical activity (PA) in older Mexican American (MA) men living in

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the cultural, social, environmental, and gender factors that may influence physical activity (PA) in older Mexican American (MA) men living in Tucson, Arizona. The Mexican origin population is the fastest growing Hispanic subgroup in our nation, increasing from 20.6 million in the year 2000 to 31.8 million in 2010. Arizona has the sixth largest Hispanic population in the United States and the Mexican origin population accounts for 91% of Arizona's Hispanics. Despite the fast growing Mexican population, there are a limited number of studies that examine MAs and PA. There are even fewer interventions created to foster PA among older (≥65 years old) MA men. Fourteen individual interviews were conducted with older MA men living in Tucson, Arizona. Data was collected, organized, and analyzed according to the methodologies of Clark Moustakas and the Social Ecology Model for Health Promotion framework. Six themes emerged which reflected the older MA male's perception of health, masculinity, and physical activity: a) Retirement promotes self-care behaviors, b) Women, health care providers, and the Internet are important in promoting health, c) Aging changes physical activity, d) I take care of myself, e) Physical activity is a personal choice and lifestyle, and f) I learn and make adjustments as needed. Themes were used to create textural and structural descriptions of their experiences. Descriptions were formed into the essence of the phenomenon. The results of this study increase our understanding of health, masculinity, and physical activity in older MA men. This research will inform the development of an evidence-based PA intervention to promote cardiovascular (CV) health in older MA men that may be implemented in a variety of community-based settings.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Investigating the Link between Active Transportation Use and Cardiometabolic Health

Description

This dissertation was guided by the Ecological Model of Physical Activity and Ecological Model of Obesity and sought to determine the relationship between active transportation (AT), physical activity, and cardiometabolic

This dissertation was guided by the Ecological Model of Physical Activity and Ecological Model of Obesity and sought to determine the relationship between active transportation (AT), physical activity, and cardiometabolic health among adults and ethnic minority women. Chapter 2 presents an investigation into the relationship between walking for AT and cardiometabolic health among adults through systematic review. Chapter 3 presents an exploration of the cross-sectional relationships of AT and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic health among African American (AA) and Hispanic/Latina (HL) women from Texas. Chapter 4 presents an investigation into the cross-sectional relationship of AT on cardiometabolic health and physical activity among primarily HL women.

In Chapter 2, walking for AT was found to be related to smaller waist circumference, lower blood pressure, and lower prevalence of abdominal obesity and hypertension, and that differences may exist based on sex. Walking for AT was not clearly defined, and criteria used to determine the presence of cardiometabolic outcomes were inconsistent. No significant relationships between AT and cardiometabolic health were found in Chapter 3 or 4; however, AT users had slightly better cardiometabolic health. AT users had significantly higher levels of self-reported total physical activity compared to those who did not use AT in Chapter 3. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between MVPA and diastolic blood pressure. Associations differed by ethnicity, with MVPA being inversely related to body fat in both AA and HL women, but to body mass index only in AA women. AT users were found to be seven times more likely to meet 2018 national MVPA recommendations than non-AT users in Chapter 4. Across all studies, measures of AT were subjective and of low quality, potentially limiting the ability to detect significant findings.

High quality randomized controlled studies should be conducted using clearly defined, objective measures of AT, and analyzed based on sex and race/ethnicity. Clinicians should recommend AT use to promote meeting MVPA recommendations where appropriate, potentially resulting in improved cardiometabolic health. Policymakers should advocate for changes to the built environment to encourage AT use and MVPA to improve public health.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Effects of a lifestyle intervention on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in obese Latino youth with pre-diabetes

Description

Latino youth have substantially higher rates of obesity and T2D than their white peers. The higher prevalence of obesity and T2D among Latino youth places them at greater risk for

Latino youth have substantially higher rates of obesity and T2D than their white peers. The higher prevalence of obesity and T2D among Latino youth places them at greater risk for cognitive dysfunction, an urgent and serious health threat to the United States. Exercise has been the cornerstone to combat the negative effects of obesity, diabetes and recent research also supports this effects for preventing cognitive dysfunction. A wealth of evidence suggests that a mediating mechanism linking exercise with brain health is BDNF, a cognitive biomarker that increases in the brain with exercise. BDNF is the most abundant neurotrophic factor that supports growth, survival and synaptic plasticity of neurons, all vital for cognitive function and brain health. The present study sought to investigate the effects of a 12-week lifestyle intervention of physical activity and lifestyle education on serum BDNF, in obese pre diabetic Latino youth.

A total of twelve obese pre diabetic Latino youth were selected from a larger RCT sample to be the focus for this analysis. After an overnight fast, a serum concentration was collected from all youth to be used for the BDNF analysis. In addition, the following cardio metabolic measures were also at taken at baseline and post intervention: Submaximal VO2max, medical and family history questionnaire, anthropometric, fasting glucose and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A 12-weeks Lifestyle Intervention that involved a progressive moderate to high intensity exercise component and lifestyle education program did not significantly change serum BDNF levels in obese pre diabetic Latino youth. In conclusion, the variation of our serum BDNF results are highly speculative at this time, therefore the need for future investigations is crucial.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The community food environment's influence on dietary behaviors

Description

Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Dietary behaviors influence the risk of developing multiple chronic diseases. The U.S. population consumes too few fruits and

Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Dietary behaviors influence the risk of developing multiple chronic diseases. The U.S. population consumes too few fruits and vegetables and too much sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast food. The Social Ecological Model (SEM) was created as a framework for health promotion interventions. The SEM organizes factors that can influence health into five layers: intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes, institutional/organizational factors, community factors, and public policy. Each layer can influence dietary behaviors and other layers.

This work aims to understand how the community layer, represented by the food environment, moderates the association of two other layers and dietary behaviors: the interpersonal layer, represented by receiving health care provider’s (HCP) advice to lose weight, and the policy layer, represented by participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and a policy change within the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).

Participant data were obtained from a household telephone survey of 2,211 adults in four cities in New Jersey from two cross-sectional panels in 2009-10 and 2014. Community food data were purchased and classified according to previously established protocol. Interaction and stratified analyses determined the differences in the association between HCP advice, SNAP participation, and time (for WIC participants) and eating behaviors by the food environment.

Interaction and stratified analyses revealed that HCP advice was associated with a decrease in SSB consumption when participants lived near a small grocery store, or far from a supermarket, limited service restaurant (LSR), or convenience store. SNAP participation was associated with a higher SSB consumption when respondents lived close to a small grocery store, supermarket, and LSR. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between two time points among WIC participants, or by food outlet.

The food environment, part of the community layer of SEM, moderated the relationship between the interpersonal layer and dietary behaviors and the policy layer and dietary behaviors. The association between HCP advice and dietary behaviors and SNAP participation and dietary behaviors were both influenced by the food environment in which participants lived.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017