Matching Items (19)

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The association between screen time, physical activity levels, and metabolic markers in elementary school-aged children

Description

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause to this issue, specifically common sedentary behaviors in children that limit physical activity and it’s purpose in expending energy. Amongst these behaviors, amount of time spent on electronic devices has proven to have increased drastically in recent years. The relationship between screen time and electronic device use, specifically with television, video games, and computer usage, and physical activity levels, and how those affect cardiometabolic disease risk factors, were explored in this study. Participants of this study were elementary school-aged children from Maricopa County, AZ. Electronic device usage, physical activity amounts, and presence of the specific devices in the child’s were collected from the participants’ parents through self-reported survey questions. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic disease risk were directly measured. The average time spent engaged in physical activity per day by these participants was 20.02 ± 21.1 minutes and the average total screen time per day was 655 ± 605 minutes. Findings showed strong significance between total screen time and computer and video game use (r=0.482; p=0.01 and r=0.784; p=0.01, respectively). Video game time in the group of children with a video game in their room (350.66 ± 445.96 min/day) was significantly higher than the sample of kids without one in their room (107.19 ± 210.0 min/day ; p=0.000). Total screen time was also significantly greater with children who had a video game system in their room (927.56 ± 928.7 min/day) versus children who did not (543.14 ± 355.11 min/day; p=0.006). Additionally, significance was found showing children with a computer in the bedroom spent more time using the computer per day (450.95 ± 377.95 min/day), compared to those children who did not have a computer in their room (333.5 ± 395.6 min/day; p=0.048). No significant association was found between metabolic markers and screen time. However, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin proved to be dependent on BMI percentile (r=-0.582; p=0.01, r=0.476; p=0.01, r=0.704; p=0.01 respectively). Our data suggest further research needs to be done investigating other potential sources that limit physical activity so that strategies can focus on reducing obesity incidence and the associated health risks. Future studies should use larger sample sizes to be more representative of this population, and develop more direct observations instead of self-reported values to limit bias.

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Date Created
2018-05

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The Association of Parent Feeding Styles with Childhood Obesity Across Ethnicity

Description

Childhood obesity is a societal cost that affects children across the world. Although childhood obesity affects children of various ethnic backgrounds, childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in lower income, minority households. Current interventions for childhood obesity center around a

Childhood obesity is a societal cost that affects children across the world. Although childhood obesity affects children of various ethnic backgrounds, childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in lower income, minority households. Current interventions for childhood obesity center around a “one size fits all” model that is poor in efficacy amongst minority populations. However, through the examination of parent feeding strategies, the efficacy of interventions may increase. This literature review wishes to examine the role of parent feeding strategies as an indicator of childhood obesity and to examine whether there is an association between parent feeding strategies, child unhealthy eating, weight status, and ethnicity. An examination of the literature on childhood obesity, suggests that childhood obesity can be attributed to genetic, social, and environmental influences. Research has indicated that having parents who exhibit the indulgent feeding style are more strongly associated with child unhealthy eating when compared to other feeding styles. Given this literature review, I predict that the association between indulgent feeding style and child unhealthy eating is stronger among overweight/obese children than normal weight children. Lastly, I conclude that the association of indulgent feeding styles, child unhealthy eating, and child weight status will be more strongly associated amongst Latinx households when compared to African American and White households.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Effects of a Community-Based Nutrition Program on the Intake of Fruits, Vegetables, and Sugar in Children

Description

Childhood obesity is a worsening epidemic in the U.S. with substantial racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. Community-based approaches are necessary to target populations that are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. The current randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of Athletes for

Childhood obesity is a worsening epidemic in the U.S. with substantial racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. Community-based approaches are necessary to target populations that are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. The current randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of Athletes for Life (AFL), a 12-week community-based nutrition education and physical activity program that aims to improve cardiovascular fitness and promote healthy eating among families in the South Phoenix region, relative to a control condition. One of the goals of the intervention was to increase participating children's intake of fruits/vegetables and reduce their sugar intake, measured by a parent-reported food-frequency questionnaire. Data were collected on 110 child participants aged 6-11 years old. Relative to baseline values, participants in the intervention reportedly increased their fruit intake frequency by 0.12 + 2.0 times per day, whereas the control group decreased their intake by 0.32 + 1.28 times per day (p=0.026). Participants in the intervention group also increased their vegetable intake by 0.21 + 0.65 times per day, whereas control participants decreased their intake by 0.05 + 0.72 times per day (p=0.019). Participants in the intervention group decreased their intake of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake by 0.22 + 0.62 times per day, whereas control participants decreased their intake of SSBs by 0.04 + 0.40 times per day, however, the change observed in SSB intake was not significant between groups. Lastly, frequency of sugar-laden food intake decreased by 0.86 + 1.10 times per day among the intervention group, whereas control participants increased their intake by 0.02 + 1.10 times per day (p=0.033). The AFL study may serve as a framework for future community-based interventions to promote health in underserved areas.

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Created

Date Created
2018-05

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Increasing Health and Fitness Literacy in Underserved Communities to Prevent Childhood Obesity in Children Ages 8-14

Description

One of the great difficulties in leading America to become a healthier nation involves overcoming the socioeconomic disparity that exists between income and health literacy. Impoverished communities consistently lack the proper health education to make quality food purchases and healthy

One of the great difficulties in leading America to become a healthier nation involves overcoming the socioeconomic disparity that exists between income and health literacy. Impoverished communities consistently lack the proper health education to make quality food purchases and healthy lifestyle choices, leading to higher rates of obesity. Through FitPHX Energy Zones, an after-school program designed to encourage Phoenix youths to lead healthier lifestyles through an innovative use of library spaces, I provided health education and opportunities for physical activity for 8 to 14-year-olds in underserved Phoenix communities. However, although this intervention made significant progress with the kids' health literacy development over the course of the program, it is difficult for community-based intervention programs to continue in the long run due to budget or other extraneous circumstances. Once the program ends, there needed to be a way to continue to reach the kids beyond the scope of the program such that they can continue to experience the lessons taught during the program. Following the conclusion of FitPHX, I created an interactive book for the kids I worked with to help them retain the health and nutrition knowledge taught during the program.

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Created

Date Created
2018-05

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My Health Story: Teaching Children Healthful Habits

Description

The purpose of this paper is to examine the current health status of children and adults in the United States as it relates to the current obesity epidemic. There will also be an examination of how nutrition education is commonly

The purpose of this paper is to examine the current health status of children and adults in the United States as it relates to the current obesity epidemic. There will also be an examination of how nutrition education is commonly presented to children currently and how it was presented in a community-based health intervention, Athletes for Life, during a six-week pilot program of the intervention. Using the data compiled on the current health status of the population of the United States, the methods of intervention examined and the seemingly most effective means to relay nutrition information to school-age children, a coordinated nutrition curriculum will be proposed and implemented into the efficacy portion of Athletes for Life, a ten-week intervention.

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Date Created
2014-05

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A Case Study of the Transferability of the EPODE Model for Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs

Description

The purpose of this research was to analyze the EPODE Model for the development community-based interventions against childhood obesity and its transferability on a global scale. The Ensemble, Prevenons L'Obesite des Enfant (EPODE: Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) Model was

The purpose of this research was to analyze the EPODE Model for the development community-based interventions against childhood obesity and its transferability on a global scale. The Ensemble, Prevenons L'Obesite des Enfant (EPODE: Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) Model was developed in France following the successful results of a community-based intervention there. The Model is illustrated by four pillars that are essential to program implementation and positive results. These pillars are: political support, research & evaluation, social marketing principles and public/private partnerships. Using these four pillars, the model has been transferred to diverse countries around the globe and has shown results in these diverse locations. In order to understand what makes this model so transferrable to so many diverse locations, this researcher traveled to the Netherlands, Belgium and France visiting program locations and interviewing professionals who have been involved in the development of the model, its modification and implementation. These interviews addressed specific modifications to the model that were made for implementation in the Netherlands and Belgium. This paper outlines the key transferrable components of this model and outlines a proposed model to be used in the United States.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Implementing a Multicomponent Pediatric Health Promotion Program

Description

Health statistics for physical activity, nutrition, and psychological wellbeing demonstrate the tenuous status of youth in the United States (US). These factors significantly affect growth and development during this critical period and indelibly influence adult health. Consequently, the successful utilization

Health statistics for physical activity, nutrition, and psychological wellbeing demonstrate the tenuous status of youth in the United States (US). These factors significantly affect growth and development during this critical period and indelibly influence adult health. Consequently, the successful utilization of multicomponent pediatric health promotion programs could improve current and future health, saving billions in health-care costs. The analysis of a literature review on this topic led to the development and completion of an evidence-based project. The project was guided by two conceptual frameworks, Pender’s Health Promotion Model and the Stetler Model for Evidence-based Practice. The project was completed in partnership with a local after-school youth program.

Methodology included a project intervention comprised of a single specialized training session. Data was collected using a pretest-posttest format with repeated measures from a survey adapted from the Organization Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) tool. Survey questions focused on participant’s knowledge, skills, attitudes, and use of the selected health promotion program. Descriptive Statistics, the Wilcoxon-Signed Rank Test, and the Friedman Test were completed for data analysis using IBM SPSS v25. Using a critical value p < .1, results from the data indicated improvement in median scores for participant’s knowledge and skills (p-value’s range = .05 - .082). Other changes were not statistically significant (p-value’s range = .135 - .317). The results indicate the project intervention’s efficacy. Future research may focus on optimal training formats, a comparison of repeat sessions versus supplemental web-accessible resources, and program sustainability via refresher sessions and/or designated management.

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2020-04-25

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Engaging Parents to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Hispanic Preschool Children: Parent Perception of Newsletters in the Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE) Intervention

Description

Hispanic youth have the highest risk for obesity, making this population a key priority for early childhood interventions to prevent the development of adult obesity and its consequences. Involving parents in these interventions is essential to support positive long-term physical

Hispanic youth have the highest risk for obesity, making this population a key priority for early childhood interventions to prevent the development of adult obesity and its consequences. Involving parents in these interventions is essential to support positive long-term physical activity and nutrition habits. Interventions in the past have engaged parents by providing information about nutrition and fruit and vegetable intake through written materials or text such as newsletters and text messages. The Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE) intervention used gardening and interactive activities to teach preschool children ages 3-5 about healthy eating and physical activity. It aimed to increase physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children as well as improve related parenting practices. The intervention utilized newsletters to engage parents by promoting opportunities to increase physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake for their children at home. The newsletters also encouraged parents to discuss what was learned during the SAGE lessons with their children. The purpose of this paper is to describe the content of the newsletters and determine the parent perception of the newsletters through parent survey responses. This can help inform future childhood obesity interventions and parent engagement.

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Date Created
2021-05

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Harnessing the impacts of schools: new insights for sustainable community development

Description

This dissertation explores the unique role schools play in contributing toward a sustainable future for their communities. This was undertaken by first conducting a thorough review and analysis of the literature on the current utilization of schools as agents of

This dissertation explores the unique role schools play in contributing toward a sustainable future for their communities. This was undertaken by first conducting a thorough review and analysis of the literature on the current utilization of schools as agents of sustainable development, along with an evaluation of schools engaging in this model around the United States. Following this, a framework was developed to aid in the assessment of school-community engagements from the perspective of social change. Sustainability problem solving tools were synthesized for use by schools and community stakeholders, and were tested in the case study of this dissertation. This case study combined methods from the fields of sustainable development, transition management, and social change to guide two schools in their attempts to increase community sustainability through addressing a shared sustainability problem: childhood obesity. The case study facilitated the creation of a sustainable vision for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area without childhood obesity, as well as strategic actions plans for each school to utilize as they move forward on addressing this challenge.

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Date Created
2013

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Factors associated with the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body weight status: the New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study

Description

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related health issues. Recent research shows that a child's age and gender are associated with parental misperception of their child's weight status, but little is known about the interaction of these factors across various age groups. This study examined the association between a wide range of parent, child, and household factors and the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body weight status compared to parent-measured body weight status. Methods: Data were collected from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1708 households located in five low-income New Jersey cities with large minority populations. A subset of 548 children whose parents completed the survey and returned a worksheet of parent-measured heights and weights were the focus of the analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the factors significantly associated with parental perception of their child's body weight status. Results: Based on parent-measure heights and weights, 36% of the children were overweight or obese (OWOB). Only 21% of OWOB children were perceived by their parents as OWOB. Child gender, child body mass index (BMI) and parent BMI were significant independent predictors of parents' accuracy at perceiving their child's body weight status. Conclusion: Boys, OWOB children, and children of OWOB parents had significantly greater odds of parental underestimation of their body weight status. Parents had better recognition of OWOB in their daughters, especially older daughters, than in their sons, suggesting parental gender bias in identifying OWOB in children. Further research is needed regarding parental gender bias and its implications in OWOB identification in children.

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Date Created
2013