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On Empathy Development in Young Children

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During the formative years, habits, outlooks, and attitudes develop which influence social interaction throughout life. Because empathy is crucial in social interaction, empathy development should be supported. Evidence of empathy is first observed around the age of two (Radke-Yarrow et

During the formative years, habits, outlooks, and attitudes develop which influence social interaction throughout life. Because empathy is crucial in social interaction, empathy development should be supported. Evidence of empathy is first observed around the age of two (Radke-Yarrow et al., 1983, 1984; Spinrad & Fabes, 2009). The purpose of this thesis is to examine empathy in children from multiple perspectives. The scientific literature reviews the discovery of the mirror neuron system (MNS). A study on nine- and ten-year-old children showed a correlation between MNS activity and empathic concern (Pfeifer et al. 2008). Another study with a mean age of 11 demonstrated that high emotional intelligence (EI) resulted in more nominations for "cooperation" and less for "aggression" (Petrides, Sangareau, Furnham & Frederickson, 2006). The three most common EI tests (MSCEIT, TEIQue, Bar-On) are modeled to measure empathy (Bar-On, 2006; Goleman 1998, 1995; Mayer & Caruso 1997; Petrides & Furnham 2001). Psychologists agree that low measures are linked to narcissistic and aggressive behavior. The Observational Study analyzed both evidence of empathy and a lack of empathy in interactions with three- and four-year-old children. Personal experiences were also shared on how empathy was understood and practiced. Lastly, the children's short story was written to support empathy development through fiction-reading.

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2018-12

A Comprehensive Review of the Effects of Immigration on Development in Early and Middle Childhood

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Immigration becomes relevant in policies and U.S. culture as globalization spreads. The physical relocation affects children’s development because they are growing up during uncertain times and they could potentially miss important milestones during childhood if the effects of immigration are

Immigration becomes relevant in policies and U.S. culture as globalization spreads. The physical relocation affects children’s development because they are growing up during uncertain times and they could potentially miss important milestones during childhood if the effects of immigration are not understood and explored. This paper aims to assess children’s physical, psychosocial, and academic trends and how they compare to native citizens of the United States. Law, research, medicine, and education are all relevant realms that could work on understanding the immigrant children’s problems, as well as help bolster any advantages and skills they might have.

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2020-05

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Do Emotions Make A Difference? Determining if Positive Emotions Moderate the Effectiveness of an Embodied Language Comprehension Intervention

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Previous research demonstrated the overall efficacy of an embodied language intervention (EMBRACE) that taught pre-school children how to simulate (imagine) language in a heard narrative. However, EMBRACE was not effective for every child. To try to explain this variable

Previous research demonstrated the overall efficacy of an embodied language intervention (EMBRACE) that taught pre-school children how to simulate (imagine) language in a heard narrative. However, EMBRACE was not effective for every child. To try to explain this variable response to the intervention, the video recordings made during the four-day intervention sessions were assessed and emotion was coded. Each session was emotion-coded for child emotions and for child-researcher emotions. The child specific emotions were 1) engagement in the task, this included level of participation in the activity, 2) motivation/attention to persist and complete the task, as well as stay focused, and 3) positive affect throughout the session. The child-researcher specific emotions were 1) engagement with each other, this involved how the child interacted with the researcher and under what context, and 2) researcher’s positive affect, this incorporated how enthusiastic and encouraging the researcher was throughout the session. It was hypothesized that effectiveness of the intervention would be directly correlated with the degree that the child displayed positive emotions during the intervention. Thus, the analysis of these emotions should highlight differences between the control and EMBRACE group and help to explain variability in effectiveness of the intervention. The results did indicate that children in the EMBRACE group generally had a significantly higher positive affect compared to the control group, but these results did not influence the ability for the child to effectively recall or moderate the EEG variables in the post-test. The results also showed that children who interacted with the researcher more tended to be in the EMBRACE group, whereas children who did not interact with the researcher more frequently were in the control group, showing that the EMBRACE intervention ended up being a more collaborative task.

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2020-05

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A Child's Ability to Learn Emotion Understanding and Coping Strategies

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Self-regulation in the form of coping with emotions is something that most people have effectively adapted to by adulthood. This is an organically learned process that begins in early childhood through play, parenting, education, and peer interactions. This study examines

Self-regulation in the form of coping with emotions is something that most people have effectively adapted to by adulthood. This is an organically learned process that begins in early childhood through play, parenting, education, and peer interactions. This study examines whether six children aged 4-5 (M age= 4.72, SD= 0.372, 50% female, 100% Caucasian) are able to understand basic emotions and how to cope with them through one of two protocols. The conditions were either directive instruction or embodied cognition, and children were evaluated with a pre and post-test measure. Findings did not indicate any significant effect of the conditions on memorizing coping mechanisms, nor did it indicate that there was a significant improvement in emotion understanding following the sessions. These findings were limited by the sample size and participant interest.

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2017-12

The Primer Project: Creating an Interactive Children's Storybook

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As part of a group project, myself and four teammates created an interactive children's storybook based off of the "Young Lady's Illustrated Primer" in Neal Stephenson's novel The Diamond Age. This electronic book is meant to be read aloud by

As part of a group project, myself and four teammates created an interactive children's storybook based off of the "Young Lady's Illustrated Primer" in Neal Stephenson's novel The Diamond Age. This electronic book is meant to be read aloud by a caregiver with their child, and is designed for reading over long distances through the use of real-time voice and video calling. While one part of the team focused on building the electronic book itself and writing the program, myself and two others wrote the story and I provided illustrations. Our Primer tells the story of a young princess named Charname (short for character name) who escapes from a tower and goes on a mission to save four companions to help her on her quest. The book is meant for reader-insertion, and teaches children problem-solving, teamwork, and critical thinking skills by presenting challenges for Princess Charname to solve. The Primer borrows techniques from modern video game design, focusing heavily on interactivity and feelings of agency through offering the child choices of how to proceed, similar to choose-your-own-adventure books. If brought to market, the medium lends itself well to expanded quests and storylines for the child to explore as they learn and grow. Additionally, resources are provided for the narrator to help create an engaging experience for the child, based off of research on parent-child cooperative reading and cooperative gameplay. The final version of the Primer included a website to run the program, a book-like computer to access the program online, and three complete story segments for the child and narrator to read together.

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2016-05

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The Role of Fruits and Vegetables in Hydration of 3-13 y Old Children

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Background: Inadequate hydration can have several adverse effects on health. In children, it can negatively affect their health and cognitive performance. The effects of fruits and vegetables on the hydration of children have not been adequately studied. This study included

Background: Inadequate hydration can have several adverse effects on health. In children, it can negatively affect their health and cognitive performance. The effects of fruits and vegetables on the hydration of children have not been adequately studied. This study included 177 children in this age group and examined the contribution of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on total water intake (TWI).

Methods: Two-day dietary and fluid intake records as well as 24-h urine samples were collected from 177 children over different weekends. The dietary records were analyzed with Nutrition Data System for Research to obtain TWI from food (TWI-F) as well as TWI from fruits and vegetables (TWI-FV). The fluid intake data was used to determine TWI from liquids (TWI-L). The urine samples were analyzed for volume (UVol), urine osmolality (UOsm), urine specific gravity (USG), and urine color (UCol) to examine hydration. Age was categorized into 3, 4-8, and 9-13 y based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM).

Results: About 52% of the children did not meet water intake recommendations by IOM and 39.8% of the children were underhydrated based on elevated urine osmolality. The average TWI was found to be 1,911± 70 mL. TWI-F was observed to be 492±257 mL, while TWI-L was 1,419±702 mL. TWI-FV only contributed 200±144 mL. As expected TWI was significantly higher in the older children (9-13 y) than children in other age group (3 and 4-8 y). The average UVol was 709±445 mL, USG was 1.019±0.006, UOsm was 701±233 mOsm·kg-1, and UCol was a 3±1 (based on the urine color chart). Only urine volume seemed to be influenced by the age of the children as it was significantly higher for the children in the 9-13 y age group.

Conclusion: Nearly half of the children did not meet water recommendations by IOM and were underhydrated. Fruits and vegetables did not have a significant contribution to TWI. Dietary interventions to increase F&V consumption, lower consumption of SSB, as well as maintain proper hydration may benefit the health of children.

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2020-05

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Accessibility to Information in the City of Phoenix Regarding Childhood Vaccinations: A Comparative Case Study

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The rate of vaccinations has been consistently decreasing in the past years in children of ages 0-18. Multiple factors and barriers contribute to these low rates. This comparative case study investigated the accessibility of information regarding childhood vaccinations to parents

The rate of vaccinations has been consistently decreasing in the past years in children of ages 0-18. Multiple factors and barriers contribute to these low rates. This comparative case study investigated the accessibility of information regarding childhood vaccinations to parents in areas with differing poverty levels in the greater Phoenix region, specifically in the West Valley, Downtown Phoenix, and the East Valley. Pediatric clinics, public elementary schools, and public libraries were visited in each area to assess how much information was available where. The analysis produced unexpected results: the West Valley, which had the highest poverty level, contained the most amount of accessible information for parents in many languages, while the East Valley, with a low poverty level, had almost no information accessible to parents of these children. Implications for future research, policy, and practice are discussed. Based on these unexpected results, one recommendation is to develop a pamphlet that could be distributed to these public places to raise awareness of the importance of vaccinations in children to parents.

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2020-05

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Emotion and learning in children attending summer science camp

Description

With the overall health of the environment rapidly declining \u2014 mostly due to human behaviors, solving the problem of nature deficit disorder and getting more children interested and aware of nature could be paramount to improving the environmental health of

With the overall health of the environment rapidly declining \u2014 mostly due to human behaviors, solving the problem of nature deficit disorder and getting more children interested and aware of nature could be paramount to improving the environmental health of our planet. In this study, the relationship between children's learning and emotion is explored. Pre- and post-tests were given to children attending a week-long summer freshwater ecology camp; their knowledge of and emotional connection to different ecological concepts were measured. Two separate ecosystems were tested \u2014 a freshwater ecosystem that was taught over the course of the week, and a marine ecosystem for comparison. Increases in knowledge and emotion were seen in every freshwater ecosystem concept. Additionally, the knowledge and emotion scores were correlated, suggesting a positive relationship between them. The marine ecosystem did not show improvements in concrete knowledge, but showed increases in abstract learning, indicating that the abstract concepts learned about the freshwater ecosystem were able to transfer to the marine. Overall results show the ability of a hands-on learning experience to foster an emotional connection between a child and the subject matter. However, long-term studies are needed to track the relationship between children and their knowledge of and emotional connection to the subject matter.

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2013-05

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Understanding children's engineering-related achievement beliefs: An examination of gender and age differences

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The goal of this study was to understand elementary school children’s perceptions of engineering. A total of 949 elementary school students were surveyed, individually or as a whole group, to examine gender and age differences in achievement-related beliefs (i.e., competency,

The goal of this study was to understand elementary school children’s perceptions of engineering. A total of 949 elementary school students were surveyed, individually or as a whole group, to examine gender and age differences in achievement-related beliefs (i.e., competency, interest, and importance) pertaining to engineering-related skills and activities. The results of this study found that specific skills and activities showed significant gender and age differences for each of the three measures. Significant findings showed that younger students (kindergarten through second grade) found many of the engineering-related skills and activities more interesting than the older students (third through fifth grade); however, the older students rated more of the skills and activities as being important. Gender differences showed that girls typically rated themselves as being more competent, more interested in, and valuing the skills and activities that pertained more to mindset ideas, such as learning from your mistakes and failures or not giving up, whereas boys rated themselves higher in more of the hands-on activities, such as building with things like legos, blocks, and k’nex.

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2019-05

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Family-Centered Perspectives to Improving Care Coordination for Children with Special Health Care Needs

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It is well known that the lack of care coordination in the healthcare system causes numerous problems including cost inefficiency and inconsistent care, specifically for complex pediatric and adult patients. Many pediatric patients have complex medical and social service needs

It is well known that the lack of care coordination in the healthcare system causes numerous problems including cost inefficiency and inconsistent care, specifically for complex pediatric and adult patients. Many pediatric patients have complex medical and social service needs which can be expensive for both the patient’s parents and the general healthcare system. Therefore, it is difficult for the healthcare system to deliver the highest quality care possible, due to the number of appointments that have to be scheduled (with some being out of state), the large volume of physical health records, and overall lack of time parents have to coordinate this care while also caring for themselves and other family members. It is integral to find a more efficient way to coordinate care for these patients, in order to improve overall care, cost efficiency, and outcomes. <br/>A number of stakeholders in Arizona came together to work on this problem over several years. They were funded through a PCORI Eugene Washington Engagement grant to investigators at ASU. This project, Take Action for Arizona's Children through Care Coordination: A Bridge to Action was developed in order to further develop a research agenda and build the network (PCOR). Regional conferences were conducted in Flagstaff, Yuma, Phoenix, and Tucson, as well as a final capstone conference held in Phoenix. At these conferences, frustrations, suggestions, and opinions regarding Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) and navigating the healthcare system were shared and testimonials were transcribed.<br/>This study focused on the capstone conference. The study design was a strategic design workshop; results of the design analysis were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive content analysis. Themes described parent’s common experiences navigating the system, impacts resulting from such experiences, and desires for the care coordination system. Quotes were then grouped into major themes and subthemes for the capstone conference. After these themes were determined, the overarching goals of stakeholders could be assessed, and implementation projects could be described.

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2021-05