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Emotional Arousal of Children with Autism to Pixar Videos

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Internal and external emotion recognition is universal knowledge individuals begin to understand in early childhood. Children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have physiological impairments that affect their social functioning, behavior, and emotion regulation. They often have difficulty revealing true

Internal and external emotion recognition is universal knowledge individuals begin to understand in early childhood. Children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have physiological impairments that affect their social functioning, behavior, and emotion regulation. They often have difficulty revealing true emotions as opposed to mimicked emotions, which can make social connections challenging. In this pilot study, children with high-functioning and low-functioning ASD were observed in their therapy clinic, KidzSPOT Therapy, while watching a four-minute Pixar™ video as pre and post measures. The children were their own control from pre to post-evaluation. The animated characters and situations shown in the Pixar™ videos throughout the study exhibited two specific emotions: happy and sad. For six-weeks at home, children and their caregivers were asked to watch two, four-minute PixarTM videos a week on non-consecutive days and were recorded with cellular devices. Noldus FaceReader™ was used to analyze and determine increased emotional arousal of the children from recordings sent by their caregivers as they watched the videos at home. The Circumplex Model of Affect from the Noldus FaceReader™ analysis exposed the children’s active and inactive responses. The children sought support from their caregivers and therapists as a form of validation and situational understanding. The data did not display evidence of significant correlation between variables and emotional change over the course of the study. There were many limitations to this pilot study resulting in inadequate conclusions for a whole subpopulation. These findings were limited to sample size, participant interest and age-range availability within the clinic.

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2019-05

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Serious running: factors that lead to awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty to long distance running

Description

Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process a person goes through to become committed to a leisure

Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process a person goes through to become committed to a leisure activity. Awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty make of the four stages of PCM. Both perspectives have been used to describe committed leisure activity participants and commitment to organized recreational events. Research on leisure activity has yet to determine how the individual becomes loyal. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the process in which recreation activity participates becomes loyal and to identify who can be labels as serious within the PCM Framework. Data was obtained from an online electronic survey distributed to participants of four U.S. marathon and half marathon events. A total of 579 responses were used in the final analysis. Path analysis determined the process in which a runner becomes committed. MANOVA is used to determine difference between leisure groups in the four stages of PCM. Results indicate that activity participants need to go through all four stages of PCM before becoming loyal. As knowledge increases, individuals are more motivated to participate. When the activity satisfies motives and becomes a reflection of their identity, feelings become stronger which results in loyalty. Socialization is instrumental to the progression through the PCM Framework. Additionally, attachment is the "bottleneck" in which all loyal activity participants my pass through. Differences exist between serious leisure groups in the attachment and loyalty stages. Those that are `less serious' are not as committed to the activity as their counterparts.

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2014

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The use of an internal locus of control scale as a predictor of exercise adherence in children ages 6-12

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The U.S. Surgeon General has recommended that all Americans engage in regular physical activity throughout the lifespan as a way to maintain and improve health and reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, or other chronic conditions. The

The U.S. Surgeon General has recommended that all Americans engage in regular physical activity throughout the lifespan as a way to maintain and improve health and reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, or other chronic conditions. The recommendation for children is a minimum of 60 minutes of moderate and intense physical activity everyday. As children enter adolescence their level of physical activity often decreases; and active adults were typically active adolescents. More than 50% of adults that begin a physical activity program discontinue the behavior within 9 months. Interventions to increase physical activity have looked at self-esteem and self-efficacy. Locus of control (LOC) is a concept that people either view their own behavior as influencing the events around them (internal) or other events controlling their fate or destiny (external). This study looked at locus of control as a predictor of exercise adherence and future exercise patterns in children ages 6-12 in Mesa, AZ. Locus of control as measured by the Child Nowicki-Strickland Internal External (CNSIE) scale differed by gender and by physical activity group at school at post-intervention. Self-reported physical activity as measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) showed differences in physical activity (PA) levels by gender for baseline school PA, by age group for baseline non-school PA, by gender and age group for post-intervention school PA, and by gender only for post-intervention non-school PA. A secondary objective was to assess if the Think Healthy About Nutrition and eXercise (THANX) after school program influenced participants' LOC or PA patterns. This study found that the THANX program had no effect on LOC or PA level at any time point.

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2012