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A comparative study of adult transgender and female prostitution

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This study examines the differences in demographic and life characteristics between transgender and female prostitutes in a prostitution diversion program and identifies specialized treatment and exiting strategies for transgender prostitutes. The purpose of this study was to develop a

This study examines the differences in demographic and life characteristics between transgender and female prostitutes in a prostitution diversion program and identifies specialized treatment and exiting strategies for transgender prostitutes. The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of the transgender experience in prostitution and to contribute to the descriptive literature. Participants were 465 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion program. Differences found to be significant between transgender and female prostitutes included demographic characteristics, history of childhood sexual abuse, and experience of violence in prostitution. Implications for treatment, exiting strategies and future research are discussed.

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2011

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Womens autonomy and utilization of prenatal services in Armenia and Azerbaijan: analysis of demographic and health surveys 2005-2006

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Social determinants of health present significant barriers to utilization of maternal health services in transitional countries. This dissertation study examined associations between household autonomy and utilization of prenatal services among women of reproductive age in Armenia and Azerbaijan. Using nationally

Social determinants of health present significant barriers to utilization of maternal health services in transitional countries. This dissertation study examined associations between household autonomy and utilization of prenatal services among women of reproductive age in Armenia and Azerbaijan. Using nationally representative survey data, this study explored if household autonomy of women positively influenced the timing of the first prenatal visit, the number of prenatal care visits, and the content of care during visits. Results showed that household autonomy was positively associated with the timing of the first visit for prenatal care and the number of prenatal care visits. The content of care was negatively associated with the autonomy of women. Findings also pointed to an endogenous influence of a woman's position in the household structure. Additionally, this study analyzed associations between women's reproductive history and utilization, and economic disparities in utilization of prenatal care. The findings demonstrated that a history of complications during pregnancy and stillbirths were positively associated with utilization of prenatal care. Economic disparities in utilization of care were identified. Future interventions to increase utilization of maternal health services should account for traditional household structures in transitional countries. Women from poor families should receive support from social assistance and the health sector in accessing services pertaining to their health and well-being.

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2015

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Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS): A Comprehensive Sexism Scale

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Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.

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2018