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Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS): A Comprehensive Sexism Scale

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Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.

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Date Created
2018

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Paucity of Female College Band Directors as Faculty and Conductors at National Conferences in the United States, 2017–2018

Description

Research indicates that women hold far fewer positions as collegiate band directors than do their male counterparts; however, since the 1993–1994 academic year, there have been no updated statistics describing the sex ratio of women who are college band directors.

Research indicates that women hold far fewer positions as collegiate band directors than do their male counterparts; however, since the 1993–1994 academic year, there have been no updated statistics describing the sex ratio of women who are college band directors. As the wind band profession is putting more effort into diversity initiatives and women are becoming more accepted as conductors, an examination of current sex (female and male) representation of band directors seemed timely and necessary. The purpose of this study was to provide updated data. Using the College Music Society Directory of Music Faculties in Colleges and Universities, U.S. and Canada 2017–2018, the author of the present study looked at the sex of college band directors listed and discovered that only 11.3 percent of all college band director positions in the United States were held by women. Furthermore, only 13.4 percent of bands selected to perform at the Midwest Clinic were led by women in the ten occurrences of the conference between 2009 and 2018, and only 5.3 percent of bands selected to perform at the Collegiate Band Directors National Association at the fourteen national conferences held between 1993 and 2019 had women as their head conductors. Clearly, sex parity does not yet exist among university band directors. With the publication of more current percentages of the representation of women as band directors that this study provides, research investigating why this phenomenon continues and advocacy to change the status quo is highly recommended.

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Date Created
2020

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A Survey on a Set of Emigreé Female Conductors in the U.S.: Challenges and Perceptions

Description

This study summarizes survey responses on perceived challenges by conductors who a) identify as female, b) are not citizens of the United States, c) are currently living in the United States, and d) are working in professional positions in the

This study summarizes survey responses on perceived challenges by conductors who a) identify as female, b) are not citizens of the United States, c) are currently living in the United States, and d) are working in professional positions in the field of orchestral conducting. The goal of the survey was to query the concept of “double minority” (female and non-native to the United States) and to gain insight into the conductors’ self-perceptions and perceived challenges they encounter during their employment and career advancement in the United States.

The survey covered four main areas: educational background, immigration status, the employing orchestra or organization’s budget, and conductors’ challenges and perceptions. Considering the sensitivity of the topic and following best practices of human subjects’ research, participant identities were coded with letters.

Participants expressed more certainty about the issues and challenges concerning how they were perceived as females than as immigrants. There was insufficient data to correlate the budget of the orchestra with the willingness of the institution to be a visa sponsor.

This study’s findings suggest that there are areas that should be further explored such as: the effect a conductor’s nationality has on their career and reception in the United States; how potential motherhood affects the conductors’ careers; organizations’ willingness and ability to hire immigrants, offer sponsorship, and assist the artist in the transition out of the student visa status; and the perceptions and experiences of being an immigrant conductor in the United States.

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Date Created
2020

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Forget You're Female: An Engineer's Story

Description

Forget You’re Female focuses on stories of women pursuing engineering degrees and women in the field of engineering. The main character, Samantha (Sam), comes from a family of engineers and is unsure whether she wants to study engineering in college.

Forget You’re Female focuses on stories of women pursuing engineering degrees and women in the field of engineering. The main character, Samantha (Sam), comes from a family of engineers and is unsure whether she wants to study engineering in college. In Opening-Decision, a university admissions counselor insists that Sam enters the engineering program. Sam expresses excitement for the degree in Engineer. However, she faces discrimination and microaggressions in First Class and Peers. These experiences lead her to seek a professor’s advice in Forget You’re Female. Jack’s Song explores the moment when a male student discovers overt sexism in a public part of the engineering building. Finally, in Graduation, Sam completes the degree and reflects on her experiences and potential longevity in the engineering field.
There are some staging instructions written into the score, however, lighting instructions are the only required element. Extras and props are optional but help convey the scene of each song. Projecting relevant footage or written descriptors is recommended in place of extras and props. If no extras are available, then spoken lines (male) need to be recorded and played back as indicated in the score.

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Date Created
2021