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A Regression Analysis: The Impact of Socioeconomic Factors on Depression and Mental Health

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The goal of our study is to identify socio-economic risk factors for depressive disorder and poor mental health by statistically analyzing survey data from the CDC. The identification of risk groups in a particular demographic could aid in the development

The goal of our study is to identify socio-economic risk factors for depressive disorder and poor mental health by statistically analyzing survey data from the CDC. The identification of risk groups in a particular demographic could aid in the development of targeted interventions to improve overall quality of mental health in the United States. In our analysis, we studied the influences and correlations of socioeconomic factors that regulate the risk of developing Depressive Disorders and overall poor mental health. Using the statistical software STATA, we ran a regression model of selected independent socio-economic variables with the dependent mental health variables. The independent variables of the statistical model include Income, Race, State, Age, Marital Status, Sex, Education, BMI, Smoker Status, and Alcohol Consumption. Once the regression coefficients were found, we illustrated the data in graphs and heat maps to qualitatively provide visuals of the prevalence of depression in the U.S. demography. Our study indicates that the low-income and under-educated populations who are everyday smokers, obese, and/or are in divorced or separated relationships should be of main concern. A suggestion for mental health organizations would be to support counseling and therapeutic efforts as secondary care for those in smoking cessation programs, weight management programs, marriage counseling, or divorce assistance group. General improvement in alleviating poverty and increasing education could additionally show progress in counter-acting the prevalence of depressive disorder and also improve overall mental health. The identification of these target groups and socio-economic risk factors are critical in developing future preventative measures.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Health Disparities Among LGB Women From Experiences With Their Healthcare Providers

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This study investigates how the patient-provider relationship between lesbian, gay, and bisexual women and their healthcare providers influences their access to, utilization of, and experiences within healthcare environments. Nineteen participants, ages 18 to 34, were recruited using convenience and snowball

This study investigates how the patient-provider relationship between lesbian, gay, and bisexual women and their healthcare providers influences their access to, utilization of, and experiences within healthcare environments. Nineteen participants, ages 18 to 34, were recruited using convenience and snowball sampling. Interviews were conducted inquiring about their health history and their experiences within the healthcare system in the context of their sexual orientation. The data collected from these interviews was used to create an analysis of the healthcare experiences of those who identify as queer. Although the original intention of the project was to chronicle the experiences of LGB women specifically, there were four non-binary gender respondents who contributed interviews. In an effort to not privilege any orientation over another, the respondents were collectively referred to as queer, given the inclusive and an encompassing nature of the term. The general conclusion of this study is that respondents most often experienced heterosexism rather than outright homophobia when accessing healthcare. If heterosexism was present within the healthcare setting, it made respondents feel uncomfortable with their providers and less likely to inform them of their sexuality even if it was medically relevant to their health outcomes. Gender, race, and,socioeconomic differences also had an effect on the patient-provider relationship. Non-binary respondents acknowledged the need for inclusion of more gender options outside of male or female on the reporting forms often seen in medical offices. By doing so, medical professionals are acknowledging their awareness and knowledge of people outside of the binary gender system, thus improving the experience of these patients. While race and socioeconomic status were less relevant to the context of this study, it was found that these factors have an affect on the patient-provider relationship. There are many suggestions for providers to improve the experiences of queer patients within the healthcare setting. This includes nonverbal indications of acknowledgement and acceptance, such as signs in the office that indicate it to be a queer friendly space. This will help in eliminating the fear and miscommunication that can often happen when a queer patient sees a practitioner for the first time. In addition, better education on medically relevant topics to queer patients, is necessary in order to eliminate disparities in health outcomes. This is particularly evident in trans health, where specialized education is necessary in order to decrease poor health outcomes in trans patients. Future directions of this study necessitate a closer look on how race and socioeconomic status have an effect on a queer patient's relationship with their provider.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Factors Associated with Second Generation Cambodian American Young Adults' Mental and Behavioral Health

Description

The purpose of the study was to examine the associations of protective (ethic identity, parent-child closeness) and risk (perceived discrimination, parent-child role reversal) factors with mental and behavioral health in 2nd generation Cambodian American (CA) young adults. A total of

The purpose of the study was to examine the associations of protective (ethic identity, parent-child closeness) and risk (perceived discrimination, parent-child role reversal) factors with mental and behavioral health in 2nd generation Cambodian American (CA) young adults. A total of 66 participants who identified as being 2nd generation CA young adults aged 18-25 years old were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional. Reliable and valid measures were used to assess protective and risk factors and mental (depressive, anxiety, somatic symptoms) and behavioral health outcomes (alcohol and drug use). We used descriptive statistics to describe sample characteristics and study variables and conducted multiple regression analysis to examine the associations of factors with each of the 5 health outcomes. The findings suggested that peer discrimination was positively and significantly associated with depressive (β = 0.42, p = 0.023; R2 = 0.397) and somatic symptoms (β = 0.63, p = 0.000, R2 = 0.554). Father role-reversal was also found to be negatively and significantly associated with predicting CA young adults’ anxiety symptoms (β = -0.32, p = 0.005, R2 = 0.456).

Majority of the CA young adults have perceived racial/ethnic discrimination in the community. Furthermore, perceived discrimination has been positively associated with their depressive and somatic symptoms, suggesting a need to address racial/ethnic discrimination issues to promote positive mental health in this population. It is important for school/work personnel and healthcare providers to assess CA young adults’ discrimination experiences, and have the sufficient resources (e.g., education, support groups) to prevent negative consequences associated with discrimination.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015-12

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Mental Health Training: Pathway to Early Mental Health Intervention

Description

There is an increase in the prevalence of mental health problems in the United States. Healthy People 2020’s leading mental health indicator is to increase the delivery of care to those with mental health issues and lower the number of

There is an increase in the prevalence of mental health problems in the United States. Healthy People 2020’s leading mental health indicator is to increase the delivery of care to those with mental health issues and lower the number of youth who experience a major depressive disorder. Teachers and non-teaching staff are well placed in the community to identify youth undergoing emotional distress and facilitate early interventions, yet do not receive adequate training in mental health.

A project was undertaken to determine if a mental health training intervention affected the community youth mentors knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy towards helping youth with mental health issues. Three instruments with good validity and reliability namely Mental Health Literacy Scale (MHLS), Attitudes to Severe Mental Illness (ASMI) scale, and Gatekeeper Behavior Scale were used in pre intervention, immediately post intervention and two weeks post intervention questionnaires. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test indicated changes in the pre and post intervention scores as significant in knowledge, and attitude between pre intervention and immediately post intervention time periods. Cohen’s effect size value suggested large, medium, small, and minimum clinical significance in the variables over period of time.

Mental health literacy narrows the gap between symptom onset and intervention. Numerous mental health trainings are currently available worldwide. Schools and after school clubs in collaboration with hospital mental health and other community agencies are better equipped to bridge the gap. School staff report better confidence in addressing mental health and behavioral health issues among youth when equipped with additional resources within the school in the form of psychologists, social workers, and counselors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2020-05-03

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Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Behavioral Health

Description

Background: Non-Veteran Affair (VA) mental health care facilities are admitting increased numbers of military affiliated members due to recent changes, allowing veterans to outsource healthcare at civilian treatment centers. The VA reports less than 9 million veterans enrolled in VA

Background: Non-Veteran Affair (VA) mental health care facilities are admitting increased numbers of military affiliated members due to recent changes, allowing veterans to outsource healthcare at civilian treatment centers. The VA reports less than 9 million veterans enrolled in VA services, leaving over 50% seeking treatment from civilian providers. Given the high prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the military population, it is imperative to implement a valid and reliable screening tool at primary care facilities to ensure timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Method: This project aimed to provide an evidence-based education for intake nurses to understand prevalence of PTSD and to use a screening tool Primary Care PTSD for DSM-5 (PC-PTSD-5) in a non-VA behavioral health facility.

Setting: The project site was a civilian behavioral health facility located in West Phoenix Metropolitan area. The behavioral health facility serves mental health and substance abuse needs. Project implementation focused on the intake department.

Measures: Sociodemographic data, PTSD diagnosis criteria, prevalence and PC-PTDSD-5 screening tool knowledge collected from pre and posttest evaluation. Patients’ charts for those admitted 6-week before and 6-week after the education to calculate numbers of screening tools completed by nurses at intake assessment.

Data analysis: Descriptive statistics was used to describe the sample and key measures; the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to examine differences between pre-test and post-test scores. Cohen’s effect size was used to estimate clinical significance.

Results: A total of 23 intake nurses (87.0% female, 65.2% 20-39 years old, 52.2% Caucasian, 95.6% reported having 0-10 years of experience, 56.5% completed Associate’s degree) received the education. For PTSD-related knowledge, the pre-test score (Mdn = 6.00) was significantly lower than the post-test score (Mdn = 10.00; Z= -4.23, p < .001), suggesting an increase of PTSD knowledge among nurses after the education. Regarding the diagnosis, the percentage of patients who were diagnosed with PTSD increased from (0.02% to 20% after the education).

Discussion: An evidence-based education aimed at enhancing intake nurses’ knowledge, confidence and skills implementing a brief and no-cost PTSD screening tool showed positive results, including an increase of PTSD diagnosis. The implementation of this screening tool in a civilian primary mental health care facility was feasible and helped patients connect to PTSD treatment in a timely fashion. Continued use of paper version of screening tool will be maintained at facility as an intermediary solution until final approval through parent company is received to implement into electronic medical records.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2020-05-06

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Mental Health Application in Anxiety

Description

Background: The shortage of providers, therapists, and long waiting times for appointments in the United States is growing. Mental health technology applications (apps) expand the strategies available to people with mental health conditions to achieve their goals for well being

Background: The shortage of providers, therapists, and long waiting times for appointments in the United States is growing. Mental health technology applications (apps) expand the strategies available to people with mental health conditions to achieve their goals for well being through self-management of symptoms.

Methods: A project was undertaken at an outpatient behavioral setting in urban Arizona to determine the use and effectiveness of a mental health app called insight timer to reduce anxiety symptoms. Adult clients with anxiety symptoms were provided with the insight timer app to use over a period of eight weeks. Anxiety was evaluated with the GAD-7 scale initially and after the eight weeks of app use. Usability and the quality of the app were assessed with an app rating scale at the end of the eight weeks.

Results: Findings of the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test indicated changes in pre and posttest assessment scores as significant (p = .028), which is a significant reduction in anxiety among seven clients who completed the 8-week intervention. the mean TI score was 15.57 (SD = 4.9), and the mean T2 score was 7.71 (SD = 5.7). Besides, Cohen's effect size value (d = 1.465) suggested large clinical significance for GAD7 in pre and posttest.

Discussion: Evidence suggests that the use of an evidence-based app can effectively reduce anxiety symptoms and improve the quality of life. The use of mental health apps like insight timer could reduce health care costs associated with unnecessary hospital admissions as well as re-hospitalizations. The routine use of apps such as the insight timer may also be beneficial to all the clients who have anxiety symptoms in outpatient as well as inpatient settings.

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Date Created
2020-05-06

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Health & Wealthness Podcast

Description

Health and Wealthness is a podcast where your hosts, Emily Weigel and Hanaa Khan discuss pressing and trending topics about health and wealth that everyone should know about. Our first four episodes focus on the opioid crisis. Both the science

Health and Wealthness is a podcast where your hosts, Emily Weigel and Hanaa Khan discuss pressing and trending topics about health and wealth that everyone should know about. Our first four episodes focus on the opioid crisis. Both the science and healthcare sides. We then go on to talk about burnout and mental health in a conversational episode.

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Date Created
2021-05

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Meditation and Sleep Applications: Testing Piano Music Modality to Reduce Anxiety and Stress in College Students

Description

My research aims to determine the effectiveness of meditation and sleep applications (apps) on the reduction of anxiety and stress in college students, with a focus on sedative piano music. Results showed a significant reduction of stress and anxiety levels

My research aims to determine the effectiveness of meditation and sleep applications (apps) on the reduction of anxiety and stress in college students, with a focus on sedative piano music. Results showed a significant reduction of stress and anxiety levels in college students when listening to sedative piano music versus non-sedative piano music. Music along with other therapy modalities in meditation and sleep apps show promise in reducing students’ anxiety and stress and promoting their successes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05

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Home Base Initiative: Building Foundations for Happier, Healthier, High School Communities

Description

Home Base Initiative is a student-led venture project co-founded by Madison Sutton and Sonia Sabrowsky in January 2018. As an organization, Home Base Initiative addresses the problem of teen suicide by educating parents, teachers, and students about the research-backed mental

Home Base Initiative is a student-led venture project co-founded by Madison Sutton and Sonia Sabrowsky in January 2018. As an organization, Home Base Initiative addresses the problem of teen suicide by educating parents, teachers, and students about the research-backed mental health resources currently available to them and by implementing peer-based support programs in local high schools. With the belief that positive mental health habits are for everyone, not just individuals with a clinical diagnosis, Home Base Initiative aims to encourage positive conversations about mental health and to increase social and emotional resilience among adolescents to help them navigate the challenges in their lives. In addition to identifying the community problem our organization aims to solve, this document outlines the initial conception, development, and future outlook Home Base Initiative by describing the methods by which the organization has researched other like-minded programs, formed strategic partnerships with community members, piloted its peer-based program at a local high school, and established a foundation for future success as a student organization at Arizona State University. Currently, the Home Base Initiative team consists of 10 undergraduate students at ASU with diverse backgrounds and academic interests as well as credible mentors who are involved in the ASU Tillman Scholars Program, ASU Counseling Services, and The Courage Lab at ASU. We are united by our passion for supporting others’ mental health, and we are dedicated to playing an active role in the healthy development of our fellow community members through mental health advocacy and the facilitation of positive peer-to-peer interactions.

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Agent

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Date Created
2019-05

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Mental Health Literacy of Parents: A Pathway to Treatment for Youth with Mental Health Disorders

Description

Introduction: Poor knowledge and negative perceptions regarding mental health disorders are barriers to parents seeking mental health care for their child. Mental health literacy comprises both the knowledge and ability to recognize mental health disorders, combat stigma, and obtain treatment.

Introduction: Poor knowledge and negative perceptions regarding mental health disorders are barriers to parents seeking mental health care for their child. Mental health literacy comprises both the knowledge and ability to recognize mental health disorders, combat stigma, and obtain treatment. Research demonstrates increased mental health literacy increases parental help-seeking behaviors. Aim: To increase mental health literacy of parents in Maricopa County through increased access to evidence-based education and support. Methods: A local mental health organization utilized the Model for Improvement (MFI) Plan Do Study Act (PDSA) quality improvement framework to increase the number of parents attending an evidence-based, six-session educational class and bi-monthly support group. Interventions included 1) outreach and recruitment via social media and community partners, and 2) convening one six-week educational class and four support group sessions. Results: Parental awareness and attitudes toward mental health disorders were measured at Class One (N=11, M = 30.9, SD 5.15) and Class Six (N=5, M = 40.2, SD 1.64) and analyzed utilizing the Mann-Whitney U Test; results demonstrate improved awareness and attitudes (U =50, p = .001). Eleven parents attended a support group session; 91% (10) reported they learned new information about how to support their child; 82% (9) reported they improved their ability to access and advocate for mental health services. Conclusions: Findings suggest that participating in this organization’s educational classes and support groups increases mental health literacy. Barriers that prevent more parents from participating should be explored.

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Date Created
2021-04-27