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Does Chronically Administered Intermittent Restraint Stress (IRS) have Long-Lasting Effects on Fear Extinction and Depressive-Like Behavior?

Description

The current study investigated whether intermittent restraint stress (IRS) would impair fear extinction learning and lead to increased anxiety and depressive- like behaviors and then be attenuated when IRS ends and a post- stress rest period ensues for 6 weeks.

The current study investigated whether intermittent restraint stress (IRS) would impair fear extinction learning and lead to increased anxiety and depressive- like behaviors and then be attenuated when IRS ends and a post- stress rest period ensues for 6 weeks. Young adult, male Sprague Dawley rats underwent restraint stress using wire mesh (6hr/daily) for five days with two days off before restraint resumed for three weeks for a total of 23 restraint days. The groups consisted of control (CON) with no restraint other than food and water restriction yoked to the restrained groups, stress immediate (STR-IMM), which were restrained then fear conditioned soon after the end of the IRS paradigm, and stress given a rest for 6 weeks before fear conditioning commenced (STR-R6). Rats were fear conditioned by pairing a 20 second tone with a footshock, then given extinction training for two days (15 tone only on each day). On the first day of extinction, all groups discriminated well on the first trial, but then as trials progressed, STR-R6 discriminated between tone and context less than did CON. On the second day of extinction, STR- IMM froze more to context in the earlier trials than compared to STR-R6 and CON. As trials progressed STR-IMM and STR-R6 froze more to context than compared to CON. Together, CON discriminated between tone and context better than did STR-IMM and STR-R6. Sucrose preference, novelty suppressed feeding, and elevated plus maze was performed after fear extinction was completed. No statistical differences were observed among groups for sucrose preference or novelty suppressed feeding. For the elevated plus maze, STR-IMM entered the open arms and the sum of both open and closed arms fewer than did STR- R6 and CON. We interpret the findings to suggest that the stress groups displayed increased hypervigilance and anxiety with STR-R6 exhibiting a unique phenotype than that of STR-IMM and CON.

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2018-05

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Yoga as an Effective Intervention for Adolescent Depression: A Systematic Review

Description

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a yoga intervention for adolescents suffering from depression. Secondary results regarding the viability of yoga as an intervention for increasing self-esteem and decreasing anxiety were also explored.

Methods:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a yoga intervention for adolescents suffering from depression. Secondary results regarding the viability of yoga as an intervention for increasing self-esteem and decreasing anxiety were also explored.

Methods: Using PubMed, Medline, and CINAHL the search terms adolescents, depression, and yoga were searched for related articles. Articles were then excluded or included based on certain criteria. Focus was placed on articles written within the last 10 years as well as studies done on children within 10-19 years of age. Final articles underwent extraction for relevant information and comparisons were drawn between the studies.

Results: Final exclusion lead to a total of 5 suitable studies. Studies varied in styles of yoga performed and measurement scales used to assess depression. Populations of adolescents varied significantly as well. The majority of these studies showed significant improvement in depression symptoms when measuring from pre to post intervention. Similar improvements were also noted in anxiety symptoms and low self-esteem.

Conclusion: Data gathered indicated that yoga serves a suitable intervention for decreasing depression symptoms in adolescents. Additionally, there seems to be promising results regarding the viability of yoga as an intervention for decreasing symptoms of anxiety and increasing self-esteem. Despite, current promising results, there is need for more research to affirm the findings found in these articles to determine the long term effects of yoga interventions.

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2018-05

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Chronic Variable Stress Effects on Anxiety and Expression of Organic Cation Transporter 3

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Monoamine neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) are powerful modulators of mood and cognitive function in health and disease. We have been investigating the modulation of monoamine clearance in select brain regions via organic cation transporters (OCTs), a family of

Monoamine neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) are powerful modulators of mood and cognitive function in health and disease. We have been investigating the modulation of monoamine clearance in select brain regions via organic cation transporters (OCTs), a family of nonselective monoamine transporters. OCTs are thought to complement the actions of selective monoamine transporters in the brain by helping to clear monoamines from the extracellular space; thus, assisting to terminate the monoamine signal. Of particular interest, stress hormones (corticosterone; CORT) inhibit OCT3-mediated transport of monoamine, to putatively lead to prolonged monoamine signaling. It has been demonstrated that stress levels of CORT block OCT3 transport in the rat hypothalamus, an effect that likely underlies the rapid, stress-induced increase in local monoamines. We examined the effect of chronic variable stress (CVS) on the development of mood disorders and OCT3 expression in limbic and hypothalamic regions of the rat brain. Animals subjected to CVS (14-days with random stressor exposure two times/day) showed reduced body weight gain, indicating that CVS was perceived as stressful. However, behavioral tests of anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in rats showed no group differences. Although there were no behavioral effects of stress, molecular analysis revealed that there were stress-related changes in OCT3 protein expression. In situ hybridization data confirmed that OCT3 mRNA is expressed in the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. Analysis of Western blot data by two-way ANOVA revealed a significant treatment effect on OCT3 protein levels, with a significant decrease in OCT3 protein in the amygdala and hippocampus in CVS rats, compared to controls. These data suggest an important role for CORT sensitive OCT3 in the reduction of monoamine clearance during stress.

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2016-05

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Access to Healthcare Among Those Experiencing Homelessness: A Depression Screening Project

Description

Homeless individuals encounter barriers such as lack of health insurance, increased cost of care and unavailability of resources. They have increased risk of comorbid physical disease and poor mental health. Depression is a prevalent mental health disorder in the US

Homeless individuals encounter barriers such as lack of health insurance, increased cost of care and unavailability of resources. They have increased risk of comorbid physical disease and poor mental health. Depression is a prevalent mental health disorder in the US linked to increased risk of mortality. Literature suggests depression screening can identify high-risk individuals with using the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9).

The objective of this project is to determine if screening identifies depression in the homeless and how it impacts healthcare access. Setting is a local organization in Phoenix offering shelter to homeless individuals. An evidence-based project was implemented over two months in 2019 using convenience sampling. Intervention included depression screening using the PHQ-9, referring to primary care and tracking appointment times. IRB approval obtained from Arizona State University, privacy discussed, and consent obtained prior to data collection. Participants were assigned a random number to protect privacy.

A chart audit tool was used to obtain sociodemographics and insurance status. Descriptive statistics used and analyzed using Intellectus. Sample size was (n = 18), age (M = 35) most were White-non-Hispanic, 44% had a high school diploma and 78% were insured. Mean score was 7.72, three were previously diagnosed and not referred. Three were referred with a turnaround appointment time of one, two and seven days respectively. No significant correlation found between age and depression severity. A significant correlation found between previous diagnosis and depression severity. Attention to PHQ-9 varied among providers and not always addressed. Future projects should focus on improving collaboration between this facility and providers, increasing screening and ensuring adequate follow up and treatment.

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2020-05-04

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Modifications of the urinary metabolome in college students after 4-weeks of daily vinegar ingestion that resulted in reductions in depression scores

Description

Depression is a worldwide public health problem that affects millions of people every year. Due to recent reports that depressed individuals have an altered gut microbiome composition, there is speculation that treatments that influence microorganisms in the gut could potentially

Depression is a worldwide public health problem that affects millions of people every year. Due to recent reports that depressed individuals have an altered gut microbiome composition, there is speculation that treatments that influence microorganisms in the gut could potentially lead to alleviation of depressive symptoms. Apple cider vinegar has been studied extensively for its health-promoting properties and benefits. Apple cider vinegar’s main ingredient is the short chain fatty acid, acetic acid. Short chain fatty acids have been shown to improve mood state and depressive symptoms, as well as amplify the effect of prebiotics in restoring the gut microbiome. This experimental design study examined the effects of ingesting 2 tbsp. apple cider vinegar (1 g acetic acid) twice daily with a meal on the levels of urinary metabolites in 14 college students compared to a control group of 11 college students that took one vinegar supplement tablet (0.015 g of acetic acid) daily for 28 days. All participants were healthy, normal to underactive (< 300 minutes of moderate exercise a week), and free of chronic or acute illnesses. Urinary metabolite analysis revealed a significant production of enzymes involved in the hexosamine pathway in the liquid vinegar group compared to baseline levels. However, anticipation of an alteration in tryptophan metabolites, a possible consequence of altered metabolism of gut microflora, was not observed. These data suggest that apple cider vinegar might be a potential treatment for depression through the production of hexosamine pathway enzymes.

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2021-05

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Sophia's Stuffed Friends

Description

Sophia’s Stuffed Friends is a book written for children of divorce, aged five to eight years. The story deals with anxiety, depression, and misappropriated guilt in the form of character traits in Sophia’s stuffed animals. The story takes place in

Sophia’s Stuffed Friends is a book written for children of divorce, aged five to eight years. The story deals with anxiety, depression, and misappropriated guilt in the form of character traits in Sophia’s stuffed animals. The story takes place in a dream world after the stuffed animals are thrown into the washer of the new family house. The washer acts as a portal to the dream world. The lessons of the story are learned through flashbacks to Sophia’s life when she personally experienced anxiety, depression, and guilt. Each character learns coping mechanisms and strategies to overcome those feelings.
Squeakie is a positive influence on the way the other characters perceive themselves. The shadow turns each character’s self-doubt and negative feelings into fuel, which he stores in a paintbrush. When he takes the fuel from the character, it fades their body color. Phan has anxiety and uses the 4-7-8 breathing technique to overcome her panic attacks. Her range of color is blue to light blue. Ovid feels guilty and exercises to take his mind off his guilty thoughts. Ovid is either red or light pink. Amelia is depressed and reframes her way of thinking to overcome her inability to fly. Visually she is green or light green. The shadow is later revealed as a misguided character who was just looking to escape the dream world and find friends.
The story is resolved by the stuffed animals joining forces with the perceived antagonist, the shadow, to operate a plane. They each use their strength of color to fuel the plane, which takes them back to the real world. When Sophia’s mom pulls the stuffed animals out of the washer, the shadow comes with them. The shadow, now a cat with rainbow patches, is instantly loved by Sophia. The story ends with the stuffed animals drying on the porch bench while Sophia plays with the shadow in the new backyard.

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Date Created
2019-12

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Unpredictable, intermittent, chronic stress may increase dendritic complexity of short shaft hippocampal neurons

Description

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) affects over 300 million people worldwide, with the hippocampus showing decreased volume and activity in patients with MDD. The current study investigated whether a novel preclinical model of depression, unpredictable intermittent restraint (UIR), would decrease hippocampal

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) affects over 300 million people worldwide, with the hippocampus showing decreased volume and activity in patients with MDD. The current study investigated whether a novel preclinical model of depression, unpredictable intermittent restraint (UIR), would decrease hippocampal neuronal dendritic complexity. Adult Sprague Dawley rats (24 male, 24 female) were equally divided into 4 groups: control males (CON-M), UIR males (UIR-M), control females (CON-F) and UIR females (UIR-F). UIR groups received restraint and shaking on an orbital shaker on a randomized schedule for 30 or 60 minutes/day for two to six days in a row for 26 days (21 total UIR days) before behavioral testing commenced. UIR continued and was interspersed between behavioral test days. At the end of behavioral testing, brains were processed. The behavior is published and not part of my honor’s thesis; my contribution involved quantifying and analyzing neurons in the hippocampus. Several neuronal types are found in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus and I focused on short shaft (SS) neurons, which show different sensitivities to stress than the more common long shaft (LS) variety. Brains sections were mounted to slides and Golgi stained. SS neurons were drawn using a microscope with camera lucida attachment and quantified using the number of bifurcations and dendritic intersections as metrics for dendritic complexity in the apical and basal areas separately. The hypothesis that SS neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus would exhibit apical dendritic simplification in both sexes after UIR was not supported by our findings. In contrast, following UIR, SS apical dendrites were more complex in both sexes compared to controls. Although unexpected, we believe that the UIR paradigm was an effective stressor, robust enough to illicit neuronal adaptations. It appears that the time from the end of UIR to when the brain tissue was collected, or the post-stress recovery period, and/or repeated behavioral testing may have played a role in the observed increased neuronal complexity. Future studies are needed to parse out these potential effects.

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2020-12

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Parent Caregivers of a Child with a Chronic Illness: Effects on Psychological Outcomes

Description

Over 25% of children in the United States suffer from a chronic illness, and close to 70% of all childhood deaths are due to chronic illness. Prevalence of childhood chronic illness continues to increase, and as a result, the pervasiveness

Over 25% of children in the United States suffer from a chronic illness, and close to 70% of all childhood deaths are due to chronic illness. Prevalence of childhood chronic illness continues to increase, and as a result, the pervasiveness of parents faced with stress associated with caregiving for their child with a chronic illness is also rising. The Stress Process Model (SPM) conceptualizes the caregiving experience as a multidimensional process influenced by the caregiving context, primary and secondary stressors, resources, and caregiver outcomes. Utilizing the SPM, the goals of this study were to examine the relations between caregiving stress (role overload and role strain) and resources (instrumental support, social support, and positive attitudes) and psychological outcomes (depression and anxiety) to determine whether resources moderated the associations between caregiving stress and psychological outcomes.

Participants included 200 parent caregivers of a child with a chronic illness. Participants responded to an online survey that measured demographics, role overload (Role Overload scale), role strain (The Revised Caregiver Burden Measure), instrumental support and social support (Medical Outcomes Survey), positive attitudes about caregiving (Brief Assessment Scale for Caregivers), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7). Pearson correlations and six hierarchical regression models were tested to examine caregiving stress, resources, and psychological outcomes.

Consistent with the study hypotheses, positive correlations between caregiving stress (role overload and role strain) and depression and anxiety were found. Negative correlations were found between resources (instrumental support, social support, positive attitudes) and depression and anxiety. Both instrumental support and social support had negative moderating effects on the relations between role overload and psychological outcomes (depression and anxiety). Positive attitudes also negatively moderated the relations between role strain and psychological outcomes. Thus, when participants reported high instrumental and social support, they also reported low depression and anxiety, even when role overload was high. Participants also reported low anxiety and depression when they reported high positive attitudes, even when role strain was high. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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Date Created
2020

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Relations Between Depression, Acculturation, Enculturation and Alcohol Use Among Recently Immigrated Latina Young Adults

Description

Despite the growing numbers of foreign-born Latina young adult immigrants in the United States, this population is underrepresented in psychological science. Building upon previous literature, this study examines the moderating effect of acculturation and enculturation on the relationship between depression

Despite the growing numbers of foreign-born Latina young adult immigrants in the United States, this population is underrepresented in psychological science. Building upon previous literature, this study examines the moderating effect of acculturation and enculturation on the relationship between depression and alcohol use quantity and frequency among 530 young Latina women (ages 18-23 years) who recently immigrated to the United States (i.e., approximately 12 months prior to assessment). Acculturation (i.e., the process of immersion into

another culture) lessened the positive link between depression and alcohol use quantity and frequency. Those with higher levels of acculturation reported less symptoms of depression and alcohol use. Enculturation (i.e., the process of immersion to one’s own ethnic culture) increased the positive link between depression and alcohol quantity and frequency. Implications for culturally competent counseling for this underserved and understudied population are discussed.

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Date Created
2020

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Substance Use Among Mexican Adolescents Moderators of Intervention Efficacy and Risk Profile

Description

Adolescent substance use is a complex and significant public health concern that has received considerable attention among researchers and practitioners (Gray & Squeglia, 2018). The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with substance use intervention effects and

Adolescent substance use is a complex and significant public health concern that has received considerable attention among researchers and practitioners (Gray & Squeglia, 2018). The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with substance use intervention effects and to develop subgroups of risk factors for Mexican adolescents. This dissertation utilizes secondary data from a randomized controlled trial of the school-based substance use universal prevention program, keepin’ it REAL (kiR). The dissertation included two studies. Study 1: This study tested a model on the efficacy of the school-based substance use universal prevention program, keepin’ it REAL, among a sample of Mexican adolescents (N = 3,742, 11-17 years old). Study 1 analysis included Structural Equation Modeling and results demonstrated that participation in kiR positively predicted alcohol resistance strategies and those alcohol resistance strategies were negatively and significantly associated with alcohol use. Further, depressive symptomology was a moderator of intervention effects as the effects of kiR on resistance strategies increased as the level of depressive symptomology increased. Study 2: this study explored subgroups (classes) of Mexican adolescents (N = 5,520, 11-14 years old) based on their experiences with violence (witnessing, victimization, and perpetration), depressive symptomology, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana). Using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) four empirically, well-differentiated classes emerged representing adolescents various risk typologies (Moderate Risk-Violence at 55% of the sample, Low Risk at 35%, High Risk at ~8%; and Moderate Risk-Substance Use at ~2%) Implications for research and practice are discussed across both studies.

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Date Created
2021