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Prescription Information Extraction from Electronic Health Records using BiLSTM-CRF and Word Embeddings

Description

Medical records are increasingly being recorded in the form of electronic health records (EHRs), with a significant amount of patient data recorded as unstructured natural language text. Consequently, being able to extract and utilize clinical data present within these records

Medical records are increasingly being recorded in the form of electronic health records (EHRs), with a significant amount of patient data recorded as unstructured natural language text. Consequently, being able to extract and utilize clinical data present within these records is an important step in furthering clinical care. One important aspect within these records is the presence of prescription information. Existing techniques for extracting prescription information — which includes medication names, dosages, frequencies, reasons for taking, and mode of administration — from unstructured text have focused on the application of rule- and classifier-based methods. While state-of-the-art systems can be effective in extracting many types of information, they require significant effort to develop hand-crafted rules and conduct effective feature engineering. This paper presents the use of a bidirectional LSTM with CRF tagging model initialized with precomputed word embeddings for extracting prescription information from sentences without requiring significant feature engineering. The experimental results, run on the i2b2 2009 dataset, achieve an F1 macro measure of 0.8562, and scores above 0.9449 on four of the six categories, indicating significant potential for this model.

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2018-05

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Advance Care Planning in Community-Dwelling Adults

Description

Advance care planning is a process that allows for patient autonomy at the end of life. Yet, less than 30% of Americans over the age of 65 have an advance care plan. Advance care planning has positive effects on patients,

Advance care planning is a process that allows for patient autonomy at the end of life. Yet, less than 30% of Americans over the age of 65 have an advance care plan. Advance care planning has positive effects on patients, families and healthcare systems. However, both patients and healthcare providers report barriers to completing and discussing advance care planning. Many different interventions have been studied to increase advance care planning rates. Engaging patients and providers electronically before or during appointments in outpatient clinics and community settings has shown marked improvement in advance care plan discussions and documentation rates. To address this complex issue, two community-based seminars with electronic pre-engagement for adults has been proposed to improve advance care planning completion rates.

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2020-04-24

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Implementation of Adolescent Depression Care Guidelines into the Electronic Health Record at a Rural Pediatric Primary Care Clinic

Description

Background: Healthcare providers are encouraged to prepare their practice to effectively manage the care of mild to moderate adolescent depression. Cost-effective screening, diagnostic, and newly developed pediatric primary care depression management guidelines have been established. To integrate guidelines into practice,

Background: Healthcare providers are encouraged to prepare their practice to effectively manage the care of mild to moderate adolescent depression. Cost-effective screening, diagnostic, and newly developed pediatric primary care depression management guidelines have been established. To integrate guidelines into practice, primary care providers (PCPs) must document effectively to ensure a complete treatment plan is in place in the patient’s electronic health record (EHR).

Intervention: Elements from a flowsheet were implemented into the EHR to promote thorough assessment and documentation of care delivered to adolescents with depression.

Methods: An initial chart review was completed on patients diagnosed with depression. An updated depression template was implemented within the EHR for six weeks. A follow-up chart review was completed post-intervention to determine if documentation of elements from the adolescent depression guidelines improved after the EHR update. Pre-intervention and post- intervention surveys were delivered to PCP’s to understand their perspective on adolescent depression management.

Outcomes: The chart review revealed that baseline PHQ-9 screenings were documented in 91% (n=43) of the charts reviewed in the pre-intervention timeframe. Only 78% (n=7) of the charts reviewed during post-intervention included PHQ-9 screenings. Early intervention treatment options documented in the pre-intervention timeframe included education 100% (n=47), medication prescriptions 53% (n=25), and psychotherapy referrals 18% (n=18). During post- intervention, education 100% (n=9), medication prescriptions 78% (7), and psychotherapy referrals 22% (n=7) were documented by the PCPs.

Recommendation: The quality improvement project focused heavily on documentation completed over a one year pre-intervention timeframe compared to a six-week post-intervention timeframe. Further evaluation and chart review over the next year will provide a more adequate comparison of documentation within primary care practice.

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2020-05-01

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Enhanced Primary Care Electronic Medical Record Education to Improve the Use of Patient Portals

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Background: Health information technology (HIT) refers to the electronic health care systems organizations used to store, share and analyze healthcare information. A central component of the HIT infrastructure is an electronic health record (EMR) and although HIT has been shown

Background: Health information technology (HIT) refers to the electronic health care systems organizations used to store, share and analyze healthcare information. A central component of the HIT infrastructure is an electronic health record (EMR) and although HIT has been shown to increase enthusiasm for patient care, decrease healthcare costs and improve patient outcomes overall utilization in the United States (US) remains low.

Methods: At an urban primary care pediatric office located in the southwestern US, an educational quality improvement project for healthcare practice providers and front office staff was conducted to increase the utilization of the existing EMR-linked patient portal. The healthcare providers were asked to complete a pre- and post- survey evaluation of their knowledge and usage of the patient portal. Provider and patient portal data usage was collected over a five-month period, September 2019 to January 2020.

Results: Data was analyzed using the Intellectus Statistics softwareTM. Significant results were found at the conclusion of the project in the number of active patient portal users, web-enabled, portal logins, labs published/viewed, messages sent, appointment reminders and Santovia utilization. At the end of the project no significance was found with messages received by the healthcare providers or staff through the patient portal. Survey results found significant differences between pre- and post- portal usage. No significance was found on providers’ knowledge on how to web-enable patients. Providers’ also demonstrated no significant change in their perceptions of the benefit in utilizing the portal in patient care after the educational intervention. Survey results allowed for additional analysis of commonly utilized portal functionalities, disease or health topics utilized in Santovia, and suggestions on how to make the use of the patient portal easier for providers.

Implications for Health Care Providers: This quality improvement project found that implementation an EMR-linked patient portal requires a comprehensive practice approach with structured education sessions. Including all employees can improve patient portal utilization. This educational project resulted in significant increases in most portal functionalities within 5 months. Further practice change evaluations are needed to evaluate how to improve patient portal utilization with a larger group of participants in a variety of outpatient settings.

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2020-05-01

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Being Proactive in Geriatric Advance Care Planning

Description

Disease burden is higher in the United States than in comparable countries. The Patient Self Determination Act of 1990 requires healthcare facilities to provide Advance Care Planning (ACP) information to all Medicare patients. The healthcare staffs’ (n=7) commitment to 3-days

Disease burden is higher in the United States than in comparable countries. The Patient Self Determination Act of 1990 requires healthcare facilities to provide Advance Care Planning (ACP) information to all Medicare patients. The healthcare staffs’ (n=7) commitment to 3-days of ACP training increase ACP rates in the primary care setting. The Medicare Incentive Program is the platform for this initiative. This quantitative project used a valid and reliable pre and posttest design that consisted of 27 items on a Likert-scale. A 3.5-month chart audit (n=91) was conducted to assess the completion rate. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the demographic data.

The results of the two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test were significant based on an alpha value of 0.05, V = 0.00, z = -2.37, p = .018. There was a significant increase in the post-readiness to change average scores. A Mann Whitney test was used to analyze the statistically significant difference between the averages in two ACP types and electronic health record documentation (EHR). Staff did not always code (Mdn = 0.00) but they documented in the EHR (Mdn =1.00; 512.00, p = 0.003). ACP discussion was performed 63% of the time during Annual Wellness Visits (AWV), and there was a 49% increase in the EHR documentation. Trained staff are key stakeholders in guiding ACP conversations. They understand the barriers, impact, and consequences related to the lack of advance directives.

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2020-04-30

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Electronic Health Records: Federal Policy or Street Level Implementation.

Description

This thesis concerns the adoption of health information technology in the medical sector, specifically electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs have been seen as a great benefit to the healthcare system and will improve the quality of patient care. The federal

This thesis concerns the adoption of health information technology in the medical sector, specifically electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs have been seen as a great benefit to the healthcare system and will improve the quality of patient care. The federal government, has seen the benefit EHRs can offer, has been advocating the use and adoption of EHR for nearly a decade now. They have created policies that guide medical providers on how to implement EHRs. However, this thesis concerns the attitudes medical providers in Phoenix have towards government implementation. By interviewing these individuals and cross-referencing their answers with the literature this thesis wants to discover the pitfalls of federal government policy toward EHR implementation and EHR implementation in general. What this thesis found was that there are pitfalls that the federal government has failed to address including loss of provider productivity, lack of interoperability, and workflow improvement. However, the providers do say there is still a place for government to be involved in the implementation of EHR.

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2013-05

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Electronic Health Records: Suggestions for Future Use

Description

Electronic Health Records: Suggestions for Future Use explores how EHRs are currently being used in the clinical setting and in the research setting. This paper provides suggestions for how EHRs should be used in the future, so that patient centered

Electronic Health Records: Suggestions for Future Use explores how EHRs are currently being used in the clinical setting and in the research setting. This paper provides suggestions for how EHRs should be used in the future, so that patient centered health care is optimized while maintaining efficiency. Additionally, the thesis discusses why privacy is viewed as an innate human right in society as well as why it is specifically valued in the healthcare setting. The value of privacy significantly impacts how EHRs are currently used, and the more automated EHR systems become, the more likely it is that the privacy of patients is threatened. It was concluded that the healthcare industry can improve EHR use in future clinical and research settings, while upholding privacy laws.

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2019-05

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Enhancing Readiness to Support EHR Transition in an Outpatient Clinic

Description

Solo private physician-owned clinics report lower rates of electronic health record (EHR) use. Lack of use of an EHR results in billing penalties, revenue losses, and may affect quality of care. An EHR provides a concise recollection of a patient’s

Solo private physician-owned clinics report lower rates of electronic health record (EHR) use. Lack of use of an EHR results in billing penalties, revenue losses, and may affect quality of care. An EHR provides a concise recollection of a patient’s complete medical history, and any pertinent exam information clearly and succinctly. The aim of this pilot project was to support a small solo private physician-owned clinic transition from paper-based charting to an EHR. The pilot assessed through a validated survey EHR readiness and confidence of the employees at the beginning of the change process (pre-intervention) and at 16 weeks (post-intervention). During the 16-weeks, interventions in the form of transition assistance included vetting an EHR modality for the practice, virtual training via EHR modules, weekly check-ins with stakeholders, and organizational planning and scheduling with staff. EMR-based goal setting with EHR rollout deadlines was also provided. Results noted confidence decreased pertaining to EHR transitioning over the 16 weeks. Unforeseen barriers and challenges likely led to reduced confidence and provided information on future transition supports needed for the practice. The findings of this pilot are beneficial in gaining insight on how to enhance readiness in an outpatient clinic for EHR readiness. This information is utilized as a guide for small privately-owned outpatient clinics in their organizational transition from paper-charting to EHR. The results of this pilot project provide evidence-based data on the demands of system-wide organizational change.

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2021-04-22

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Modeling clinicians' cognitive and collaborative work in post-operative hospital care

Description

Clinicians confront formidable challenges with information management and coordination activities. When not properly integrated into clinical workflow, technologies can further burden clinicians’ cognitive resources, which is associated with medical errors and risks to patient safety. An understanding of workflow is

Clinicians confront formidable challenges with information management and coordination activities. When not properly integrated into clinical workflow, technologies can further burden clinicians’ cognitive resources, which is associated with medical errors and risks to patient safety. An understanding of workflow is necessary to redesign information technologies (IT) that better support clinical processes. This is particularly important in surgical care, which is among the most clinical and resource intensive settings in healthcare, and is associated with a high rate of adverse events. There are a growing number of tools to study workflow; however, few produce the kinds of in-depth analyses needed to understand health IT-mediated workflow. The goals of this research are to: (1) investigate and model workflow and communication processes across technologies and care team members in post-operative hospital care; (2) introduce a mixed-method framework, and (3) demonstrate the framework by examining two health IT-mediated tasks. This research draws on distributed cognition and cognitive engineering theories to develop a micro-analytic strategy in which workflow is broken down into constituent people, artifacts, information, and the interactions between them. It models the interactions that enable information flow across people and artifacts, and identifies dependencies between them. This research found that clinicians manage information in particular ways to facilitate planned and emergent decision-making and coordination processes. Barriers to information flow include frequent information transfers, clinical reasoning absent in documents, conflicting and redundant data across documents and applications, and that clinicians are burdened as information managers. This research also shows there is enormous variation in how clinicians interact with electronic health records (EHRs) to complete routine tasks. Variation is best evidenced by patterns that occur for only one patient case and patterns that contain repeated events. Variation is associated with the users’ experience (EHR and clinical), patient case complexity, and a lack of cognitive support provided by the system to help the user find and synthesize information. The methodology is used to assess how health IT can be improved to better support clinicians’ information management and coordination processes (e.g., context-sensitive design), and to inform how resources can best be allocated for clinician observation and training.

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2017

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Patient Portals: An Educational Project to Improve Provider Readiness

Description

Background: With the adoption of the Health Information Technology for Economical and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, came the implementation of the electronic health record (EHR) and incentivized provider programs called Meaningful Use (MU). A goal of MU is

Background: With the adoption of the Health Information Technology for Economical and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, came the implementation of the electronic health record (EHR) and incentivized provider programs called Meaningful Use (MU). A goal of MU is to utilize patient portals to improve access to care. Current evidence supports patient portal use however providers are concerned about increased work load and lost revenue because of the time spent managing the portals rather than providing direct, billable patient care.

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to assess provider readiness for patient portals and provide an educational intervention to address perceived barriers.

Method: Ten providers at a large family practice clinic in the southwest United States were surveyed using The Provider Readiness Questionnaire prior to and after an educational intervention addressing common concerns.

Results: Improved response to patient portal use after the provider viewed the learning module. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare pre-and post-intervention responses. There was a statistically significant difference in the scores for the question “increase my workload” Pretest (M= 3.78, SD=1.201) and; Posttest (M=2.67, SD=1.225) ;(t (8) =5.547, p = .001). There was also a statistically significant difference for the question “increased provider professional satisfaction” Pretest (M=3.89, SD= .333) and Posttest (M= 4.44, SD=.527); t (8) = -2.294, p=.051).

Implications: Providing education addressing perceived barriers to portal use can assist the provider in understanding the value of the portals to improve patient outcomes and address common concerns about the impact of portal use on provider productivity.

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2017-05-02