Matching Items (15)

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Fall Prevention in Dementia Care: The Integration of an Evidence-Based Fall Scale to Identify Fall Risk and Reduce Fall Events

Description

Falls are prevalent among those aged 65 years and older and may result in minor to debilitating injuries in this vulnerable population. Frailty, unsteady gait, and medication side effects all

Falls are prevalent among those aged 65 years and older and may result in minor to debilitating injuries in this vulnerable population. Frailty, unsteady gait, and medication side effects all contribute to fall risk as well as dementia, a type of cognitive impairment that disrupts memory and judgment leading to an underestimation of fall risk. Fall prevention evidence suggests that interventions aimed at decreasing fall rates begin with a fall risk assessment and tailored fall prevention measures that promote safety.

To examine the effectiveness of a fall prevention program in dementia care, an evidence-based pilot was conducted in a long-term care facility focused on dementia care. A convenience sample of 16 nurses received a fall prevention education intervention. A fall prevention knowledge instrument measured pre and post-fall prevention knowledge. There was a significant increase in fall risk knowledge from the pre-test (p < .001). The participants then conducted a fall risk assessment of 50 dementia patients using the Morse Fall Scale.

Of the 50 dementia patients, 28 were identified as high risk for falls. The nurses then instituted tailored fall risk prevention measures for those high risk for falls. As a result of the pilot, 40 fall events were noted within a three-month time period, reflecting a significant reduction in falls (p < .001) from the previous year. The institution of a fall prevention program in dementia care incorporating nursing education, a fall risk scale, and measures to promote safety can reduce fall risk in dementia patients.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05-06

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Discrepancies in the Morris water maze versus the IntelliCage in the APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease; a sex-based examination

Description

Dementia is a collective term used to describe symptoms of cognitive impairment in learning and memory. The most prevalent form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In order to understand

Dementia is a collective term used to describe symptoms of cognitive impairment in learning and memory. The most prevalent form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In order to understand the pathological mechanisms associated with AD, animal models have been created. These various mouse models replicate the pathology found in humans with AD. As a consequence of the fact that this disease impairs cognitive abilities in humans, testing apparatuses have been developed to measure impaired cognition in animal models. One of the most common behavioral apparatuses that has been in use for nearly 40 years is the Morris water maze (MWM). In the MWM, animals are tasked to find a hidden platform in a pool of water and thereby are subjected to stress that can unpredictably influence cognitive performance. In an attempt to circumvent such issues, the IntelliCage was designed to remove the external stress of the human experimenter and provide a social environment during task assessment which is fully automated and programable. Additionally, the motivation is water consumption, which is less stressful than escaping a pool. This study examined the difference in performance of male and female cohorts of APP/PS1 and non-transgenic (NonTg) mice in both the MWM and the IntelliCage. Initially, 12-month-old male and female APP/PS1 and NonTg mice were tested in the hippocampal-dependent MWM maze for five days. Next, animals were moved to the IntelliCage and underwent 39 days of testing to assess prefrontal cortical and hippocampal function. The results of this experiment showed significant sex differences in task performance, but inconsistency between the two testing paradigms. Notably, males performed significantly better in the MWM, which is consistent with prior research. Interestingly however, APP/PS1 females showed higher Amyloid-β plaque load and performed significantly better in the more complex tasks of the IntelliCage. This suggests that Aβ plaque load may not directly contribute to cognitive deficits, which is consistent with recent reports in humans with AD. Collectively, these results should inform scientists about the caveats of behavioral paradigms and will aid in determining translation to the human condition.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Rewriting the Narrative: A Discussion of Alzheimer's, the Arts, and Identity

Description

Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are a growing issue in the United States. While medical experts try to develop treatments or a cure, what are we as a society to

Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are a growing issue in the United States. While medical experts try to develop treatments or a cure, what are we as a society to do in the meantime to help those living with Alzheimer's? The arts seem to be an answer. In this thesis, I highlight numerous programs already in place across the United States that utilize the visual, musical, and dramatic arts to give people with Alzheimer's an avenue for expression, a connection to the world around them, as well as a better quality of life. I address the largely positive impact these arts engagement programs have on caregivers and their perceptions of their loved ones. I discuss what it means to have narrative identity and personhood in the midst of a disease that appears to strip those things away. Finally, I share my own experiences creatively engaging with residents at a local memory care facility and what those experiences demonstrated with regard to narrative, being, and Self. The examination of material and experiences demonstrates that art taps into innate parts of human beings that science is unable to touch or treat; however, the reverse is also true for science. When faced with an issue as complex as Alzheimer's disease, art and science are strongest together, and I believe the cure to Alzheimer's lies in this unity. In the meantime, we must utilize the arts to validate the Selves of and improve the quality of life for our growing Alzheimer's population.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Self-Care for the Caregivers of Alzheimer's and Dementia Patients

Description

For those living lives devoted to taking care of others, it can be difficult to remember to take care of themselves. This thesis project is a review of quantitative and

For those living lives devoted to taking care of others, it can be difficult to remember to take care of themselves. This thesis project is a review of quantitative and qualitative literature pertaining to self-care for the caregivers of Alzheimer's and dementia patients. Three nursing diagnoses and related nursing interventions were created using data from the evidence-based literature. With the proper knowledge and assistance, caregivers can better prepare for the future and participate in health-promoting self-care activities which may improve their quality of life.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Impact of Sumac on Lowering Oxidative stress as it pertains to Dementia

Description

Background: To determine the effect of sumac on vasodilation and oxidative stress in vascular tissue. This study hypothesized that sumac would increase vasodilation and reduce vascular damage in vascular tissue

Background: To determine the effect of sumac on vasodilation and oxidative stress in vascular tissue. This study hypothesized that sumac would increase vasodilation and reduce vascular damage in vascular tissue taken from rats to improve symptoms and risk of vascular dementia.
Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a chow diet or a high fat diet (HFD) for ten weeks. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was measured in isolated mesenteric arterioles that were treated with or without 80 µg/ml sumac in the superfusate throughout the experiment.
Results: Sumac did not improve vasodilation or in ex vivo arteries from rats fed a high fat diet. There were trends of improved vasodilation in sumac treated vessels from high fat diet rats, but sumac did not significantly improve vasodilation. In rats fed a chow diet, sumac prevented phenylephrine (PE) constriction in the vascular tissue. The most likely cause for this is the presence of Gallic acid in sumac. Another possible explanation is the presence of nitrates in sumac which may have prevented PE vasoconstriction.
Conclusions: Sumac did not significantly improve vasodilation in isolated arteries from rats fed a high fat diet. The results are inconclusive for the improvement of symptoms or risk of vascular dementia. In vivo treatment with sumac should be tested as results may differ.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Neurochemical Consequences of Music Therapy on Dementia Patients

Description

As the incidence of dementia continues to rise, the need for an effective and non-invasive method of intervention has become increasingly imperative. Music therapy has exhibited these qualities in addition

As the incidence of dementia continues to rise, the need for an effective and non-invasive method of intervention has become increasingly imperative. Music therapy has exhibited these qualities in addition to relatively low implementation costs, therefore establishing itself as a promising means of therapeutic intervention. In this review, current research was investigated in order to determine its effectiveness and uncover the neurochemical mechanisms that lead to positive manifestations such as improved memory recall, increased social affiliation, increased motivation, and decreased anxiety. Music therapy has been found to improve several aspects of memory recall. One proposed mechanism involves temporal entrainment, during which the melodic structures present in music provide a framework for chunking information. Although entrainment's role in the treatment of motor defects has been thoroughly studied, its role in treating cognitive disorders is still relatively new. Musicians have also been shown to demonstrate extensive plastic changes; therefore, it is hypothesized that non-musicians may also glean some benefits from engaging in music. Social affiliation has been found to increase due to increases in endogenous oxytocin. Oxytocin has also been shown to strengthen hippocampal spike transmission, a promising outcome for Alzheimer's patients. An increase in motivation has also been found to occur due to music's ability to tap into the reward center of the brain. Dopaminergic transmission between the VTA, NAc and higher functioning regions such as the OFC and hypothalamus has been revealed. Additionally, relaxing music decreases stress levels and modifies associated autonomic processes, i.e. heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate. On the contrary, stimulating music has been found to initiate sympathetic nervous system activity. This is thought to occur by either a reflexive brainstem response or stimulus interpretation by the amygdala.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Development of Brief Memory Tests for Use with Pet Dogs

Description

Brief memory tasks for use with pet dogs were developed using radial arm maze performance as a standard comparison measurement of memory capacity. Healthy pet dogs were first tested in

Brief memory tasks for use with pet dogs were developed using radial arm maze performance as a standard comparison measurement of memory capacity. Healthy pet dogs were first tested in a radial arm maze, where more errors made in completing the maze indicated poorer memory. These dogs were later tested with five novel memory tests, three of which utilized a treat placed behind a box with an identical distracter nearby. The treat placement was shown to each dog, and a 35 second delay, a 15 second delay with occluder, or a 15 second delay with room exit was observed before the dog could approach and find the treat. It was found that errors on the delayed match to sample (35 second delay) and occluder/object permanence (15 second delay with occluder) tasks were significantly positively correlated with the average number of errors made in the 8th trial of the radial arm maze (r =.58, p<.01** and r =.49, p<.05*, respectively) indicating that these new brief tests can reliably be used to assess memory in pet dogs.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Family Caregivers for those with Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias: Interventions and Support Strategies

Description

This paper will provide a review of the difficulties associated with caregiving for a family member with Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD) and the intervention strategies used to improve

This paper will provide a review of the difficulties associated with caregiving for a family member with Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD) and the intervention strategies used to improve psychosocial wellbeing of the caregiver. A review of various empirical studies compares different intervention strategies and their accessibility and effect on caregiver mental health. The literature suggests that the most effective treatments are those that are based in cognitive behavioral techniques , teaching caregivers how to recognize and regulate negative emotions that arise and to develop coping strategies for stressful situations involving their loved one with ADRD (Cheng et al., 2018). However, there is currently only a limited amount of research done on the topic of pain recognition and management by caregivers for those with ADRD; future research on this topic is needed to help to develop programs to teach caregivers strategies to help them recognize changes associated with pain in their loved one’s health and wellbeing (Kankkunen & Valimaki, 2014). Future research regarding caregivers for those with ADRD will continue to improve the development of family based support programs based in education for recognition of pain symptoms in patients and cognitive behavioral principles to improve caregiver and patient quality of life (Gitlin et al., 2015).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Changing Caregiver Attitudes Toward Dementia with a Brief Virtual Experience

Description

Changing Caregivers Attitudes toward dementia study was conducted to assess changes in attitudes of formal caregivers caring for persons with dementia in a palliative care setting. An eight-minute virtual experience

Changing Caregivers Attitudes toward dementia study was conducted to assess changes in attitudes of formal caregivers caring for persons with dementia in a palliative care setting. An eight-minute virtual experience activity was delivered to 40 para-professional caregivers of those diagnosed with mild, moderate or severe dementia. The virtual experience consisting of a set of instructions, headphones and different materials, is a quick, effective and efficient way to mimic having some of the stressors those living with Alzheimer's, or other types of dementia, may experience in their day-to-day lives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect on caregivers’ emotions and attitudes toward dementia, before and after the virtual experience using a qualitative approach. It is hypothesized that the intervention will educate and instill empathy in the caregivers, overall, improving the delivery of their care in the future. Participants were asked open ended questions before and after the intervention using the virtual experience and four themes emerged: (1) Being more patient, (2) Slowing down, (3) Empathy and (4) Being positive. The findings suggest further education about the disease process is needed to help caregivers understand the actions of dementia related behaviors. Also, education about different strategies to handle some negative behaviors associated with Alzheimer’s or other types of dementia can be done to improve the situation. Overall, the findings showed an increase in empathy and positive words or phrases from the participants, suggesting the simulation experience was an applicable and ethical intervention.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Changing Caregiver Attitudes Toward Dementia with a Brief Virtual Experience

Description

Changing Caregivers Attitudes toward dementia study was conducted to assess changes in attitudes of formal caregivers caring for persons with dementia in a palliative care setting. An eight-minute virtual experience

Changing Caregivers Attitudes toward dementia study was conducted to assess changes in attitudes of formal caregivers caring for persons with dementia in a palliative care setting. An eight-minute virtual experience activity was delivered to 40 para-professional caregivers of those diagnosed with mild, moderate or severe dementia. The virtual experience consisting of a set of instructions, headphones and different materials, is a quick, effective and efficient way to mimic having some of the stressors those living with Alzheimer's, or other types of dementia, may experience in their day-to-day lives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect on caregivers’ emotions and attitudes toward dementia, before and after the virtual experience using a qualitative approach. It is hypothesized that the intervention will educate and instill empathy in the caregivers, overall, improving the delivery of their care in the future. Participants were asked open ended questions before and after the intervention using the virtual experience and four themes emerged: (1) Being more patient, (2) Slowing down, (3) Empathy and (4) Being positive. The findings suggest further education about the disease process is needed to help caregivers understand the actions of dementia related behaviors. Also, education about different strategies to handle some negative behaviors associated with Alzheimer’s or other types of dementia can be done to improve the situation. Overall, the findings showed an increase in empathy and positive words or phrases from the participants, suggesting the simulation experience was an applicable and ethical intervention.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05