Matching Items (24)

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Twelve-Step Programs and Buddhism in Treating Addiction to Alcohol and Drugs

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Common treatments for substance addiction in the United States (U.S) are the twelve-step programs of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA). However, there is a lack of evidence indicating

Common treatments for substance addiction in the United States (U.S) are the twelve-step programs of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA). However, there is a lack of evidence indicating the effectiveness of AA and NA as substance addiction treatment methods. The U.S. is currently grappling with one of its worst-ever alcohol and drug crises, illustrating that now more than ever it is necessary to examine alternative treatment methods for substance addiction to successfully treat this type of addiction. Thus, Buddhism can be seen as both a complement to and alternative for AA and NA treatment programs for treating substance addiction. The Buddhist teachings and practices of the Four Noble Truths, The Eightfold Path, mindfulness, and meditation can be used to treat substance addiction. Although only recently utilized in the U.S. to treat substance addiction, Buddhist teachings and practices offer a nontheistic approach to recovery which research has shown to be successful in treating substance addiction in countries with established Buddhist cultures. By determining what treatment method is most successful in treating this type of addiction, the U.S. will be able to effectively reduce substance addiction rates -- which is crucial to protect the health, safety, and quality of life for all.

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  • 2019-05

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Health Education Programming for Pregnant and Parenting Women in an Addiction Treatment Facility

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This paper details the development of a six-week health education class for pregnant and parenting women recovering from substance abuse. The class was developed in collaboration with Student Health Outreach

This paper details the development of a six-week health education class for pregnant and parenting women recovering from substance abuse. The class was developed in collaboration with Student Health Outreach for Wellness (SHOW) Community Initiative, a student-run organization providing free healthcare to underserved populations, and with Crossroads, Inc., a licensed treatment provider serving men, women, and veterans recovering from addiction and substance use disorders. A needs assessment via personal interview was conducted to identify the demographics of the female residents at the Crossroads for Women treatment facility, the existing medical health promotional services, and the needed medical and health promotional services. The needs assessment identified the need for health education for pregnant and parenting women recovering from addiction. The SHOW Program Development Guide was utilized to develop the content for the classes based on the Health Belief Model theory. The Health Belief Model focuses on the beliefs and attitudes of individuals and altering them to make achieving good health more feasible (Hochbaum, Rosenstock, and Kegels, 1952). The program curriculum identifies potential perceived barriers to health and utilizes strategies to decrease the perceived barriers and increase perceived benefits. The six-week course was divided to address six different topics: 1. Introduction, 2. Physical Health, 3. Stress Management, 4. Nutrition, 5. Exercise, and 6. Conclusion and Discharge Planning. The class will be taught by a variety of health professional disciplines in accordance with the interprofessional practice theory, which utilizes two or more health professions to improve health outcomes. This project outlines all presentation materials, handouts, activities, and implementation recommendations required to produce a program that helps pregnant and parenting women on their road to recovery.

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  • 2016-12

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The Combined Effects of Methamphetamine and Alcohol on Brain Reward Function as Assessed Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation

Description

Polysubstance abuse is far more common than single substance abuse. One of the most widely abused, yet greatly understudied combination of drugs is the simultaneous use of methamphetamine (meth) and

Polysubstance abuse is far more common than single substance abuse. One of the most widely abused, yet greatly understudied combination of drugs is the simultaneous use of methamphetamine (meth) and alcohol. Because little research has been conducted on the co-abuse of meth and alcohol, it is important to study the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying the use of both to combat addiction and come closer to finding an effective treatment of this form of drug abuse. This study uses a rodent model to attempt to identify the mechanisms underlying this co-abuse through the stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and thus the activation of the mesocorticolimbic pathway, the brain's pleasure circuit. First, self-stimulation thresholds (the lowest electrical current the rats are willing to respond for) were determined using a process called Discrete Trials Training. This threshold was later used as a baseline measure to reference when the rats were administered the drugs of abuse: meth and alcohol, both alone and in combination. Our overall results did not show any significant effects of combining alcohol and meth relative to the effects of either drug alone, although subject attrition may have resulted in sample sizes that were statistically underpowered. The results of this and future studies will help provide a clearer understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the polyabuse of meth and alcohol and can potentially lead to more successfully combating and treating this addiction.

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  • 2016-12

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Drug Courts: A Method to Reduce Recidivism

Description

The author examines drug court as a means to reduce recidivism rates for individuals who are addicted to illegal substances. The thesis analyzes the best practices for drug courts in

The author examines drug court as a means to reduce recidivism rates for individuals who are addicted to illegal substances. The thesis analyzes the best practices for drug courts in treating addiction and lowering recidivism. In conducting this analysis, the author focuses on the Yuma County Drug Court Program (YCDC). After discussing the major components of the YCDC program, the author reaches several conclusions about the program. The author's conclusions are based in part on a study analyzing the recidivism rates for individuals who participated in YCDC from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2010. The author concludes that an effective drug court program requires proper screening and assessment using validated assessment tools that ensure delivery of treatment to individuals with high substance abuse treatment needs. In addition, drug courts must include counseling in both sober individual and group settings, cognitive restructuring, life skills training, and frequent interaction with the drug court judge. The author also concludes that drug courts are more successful when they stress accountability and independence by requiring participants to maintain a stable residence and employment. In YCDC these practices lead to 48.4% of individuals participating in the 18-month program having no criminal justice involvement for a period of three years after their exit from the program. Other important outcomes showed that well over 90% of the participants' drug tests were negative and 87% of the participants were employed. The author concludes that the YCDC program provides a good model for drug courts seeking to lower recidivism.

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  • 2018-05

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Overexpression of MicroRNA-495 and its Effects on Cocaine Addiction

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Drug addiction is a pervasive problem in society, as it produces major increases in health care costs, crime, and loss of productivity. With over 3 million long-term users in America

Drug addiction is a pervasive problem in society, as it produces major increases in health care costs, crime, and loss of productivity. With over 3 million long-term users in America alone, cocaine is one of the most identifiable and addictive drugs. Cocaine produces major neurological changes in the central nervous system, including widespread changes in gene expression. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding transcripts that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by preventing translation into function protein. Given that one miRNA can target several genes simultaneously, they have the potential to attenuate drug-induced changes in gene expression. We previously found that the microRNA miR-495 regulates several addiction-related genes (ARGs) and is highly expressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), an important brain region involved in reward and motivation. Furthermore, acute cocaine decreases miR-495 expression and increases ARG expression in the NAc. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to determine the effect of miR-495 overexpression in the NAc on cocaine self-administration behavior. Male Sprague Dawley rats were trained to lever press for cocaine and were then infused with a lentivirus into the NAc that either overexpressed green fluorescent protein (GFP, control) or miR-495+GFP. We then tested the rats on several doses of cocaine on both a fixed ratio (5) and progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. We performed a follow-up experiment that included the same viral manipulation and testing, but the reinforcer was switched to food pellets. We found that NAc miR-495 overexpression reduces cocaine self-administration on a PR, but not an FR5, schedule of reinforcement. We found no effects of miR-495 overexpression on food reinforcement. These data suggest that NAc miR-495 regulates genes involved in motivation for cocaine, but not general motivation based on the data with food reinforcement. Future studies will seek to determine the specific target genes responsible for our behavioral effects.

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  • 2016-05

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The Effects of a Novel Serotonin-7 Receptor (5-HT7R) Antagonist, MC-RG19, on Cocaine-Related Behaviors

Description

The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system is implicated in the study of drug addiction. Of the 14 known serotonin receptor subtypes, the 5-HT7R is the most recently discovered and, therefore, one

The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system is implicated in the study of drug addiction. Of the 14 known serotonin receptor subtypes, the 5-HT7R is the most recently discovered and, therefore, one of the least rigorously studied. However, the 5-HT7R has been shown to play a role in multiple psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety, and alcoholism. This is not surprising, as the 5-HT7R is expressed in brain regions associated with emotion and reward, such as the amygdala, dorsal raphe nucleus, and striatum. MC-RG19 is a novel 5-HT7R antagonist which has >114-fold selectivity for the 5-HT7 over other serotonin receptors. This compound was developed by our collaborators at the Temple University School of Pharmacy. Due to this specificity, and the implications of the 5-HT7 in behavior, we hypothesized that MC-RG19 would have an effect on addiction-related behaviors. We investigated the effects of MC-RG19 on spontaneous locomotion, cue-induced reinstatement, and cocaine/sucrose multiple schedule self-administration. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity with significance at a MC-RG19 dose of 10 mg/kg. A dose of 5.6 mg/kg, which did not significantly decrease locomotion, significantly reduces cocaine-seeking behavior (active lever pressing) in response to the reintroduction of drug-paired cues after a period of extinction. No dose (3, 5.6, or 10 mg/kg) produced a significant effect on a multiple schedule of self-administration with alternating availability of sucrose and cocaine as the reinforcer. These results indicate that MC-RG19 has an effect on the incentive \u2014 motivational properties of reward-paired cues.

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  • 2018-05

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Effects of SWR-5 on cocaine self-administration and D3-mediated behavior

Description

The epidemic of drug addiction continues to grow at an alarming rate and cocaine-related overdoses have increased by more than 33% over the last decade. Cocaine targets the mesolimbic reward

The epidemic of drug addiction continues to grow at an alarming rate and cocaine-related overdoses have increased by more than 33% over the last decade. Cocaine targets the mesolimbic reward system in the brain to produce the “high” felt when taking cocaine. There is currently no single cure for psychostimulant abuse, but researchers continue to find viable therapeutic options. Dopamine receptors have been a recent target for researchers. We tested a novel D3R-antagonist, SWR-5, with 905-fold D3/D2 selectivity, on addiction using a rat self- administration model and hypothesized that it would reduce motivation for cocaine. SWR-5 significantly reduced cocaine intake on a high-effort PR schedule at a dose of 10 mg/kg but did not affect sucrose intake. Also, SWR-5 did not affect either spontaneous or cocaine-induced locomotion. From our results, we concluded that SWR-5 affects motivation for cocaine, not sucrose, and does not produce adverse locomotor effects. Further research would include taking a behavioral economics approach to determine the cost/benefit ratio of taking the drug, as well as performing cue reinstatement tests to solidify whether SWR-5 plays a role in cocaine-seeking behavior.

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  • 2020-05

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A Determination of the Hedonic Properties of Synthetic Cathinones 4-MEC and MDPV Through the Use of Intracranial Self-Stimulation

Description

The use of synthetic cathinones or "bath salts" has risen dramatically in recent years with one of the most popular being Methylendioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Following the temporary legislative ban on the

The use of synthetic cathinones or "bath salts" has risen dramatically in recent years with one of the most popular being Methylendioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Following the temporary legislative ban on the sale and distribution of this compound , a multitude of other cathinone derivatives have been synthesized. The current study seeks to compare the abuse potential of MDPV with one of the emergent synthetic cathinones 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), based on their respective ability to lower current thresholds in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigm. Following acute administration (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p.) MDPV was found to significantly lower ICSS thresholds at all doses tested (F4,35=11.549, p<0.001). However, following acute administration (0.3,1,3,10,30 mg/kg i.p) 4-MEC produced no significant ICSS threshold depression (F5,135= 0.622, p = 0.684). Together these findings suggest that while MDPV may possess significant abuse potential, other synthetic cathinones such as 4-MEC may have a drastically reduced potential for abuse.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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D3 receptor related drugs MC-250041 and LS-3-134 and their effects on locomotor activity and motivation for cocaine

Description

Abstract Cocaine is highly addictive because it exacerbates the action responsible for creating the feeling of "reward," which is controlled by the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine receptors can be divided into

Abstract Cocaine is highly addictive because it exacerbates the action responsible for creating the feeling of "reward," which is controlled by the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine receptors can be divided into five subtypes: D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5. The localization of D3 receptors is restricted to the mesolimbic pathway, which is often called the "reward pathway." This pathway is associated with emotions, motivation, and behavior. There is evidence that these receptors are upregulated in response to the repeated use of psychostimulants, such as cocaine, making these receptors a potential target for pharmaceutical therapeutics for drug addiction. In the present study, two compounds selective for D3 receptors, MC-250041 and LS-3-134, were examined for their effects on spontaneous and cocaine-primed locomotor activity. The present study also aimed to examine the effects of MC-250041 and LS-3-134 on the number of lever presses and infusions under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule when subjects are trained to self-administer cocaine within an operant conditioning chamber. Based on the present research on D3 receptor compounds and D3Rs, I hypothesized that pretreatment with MC-250041 or LS-3-134 decreases cocaine self-administration under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of cocaine reinforcement at doses that would have no effect on locomotor activity. The results showed no significant effects on spontaneous or cocaine-primed locomotor activity following an injection of MC-250041 (1, 3, 5.6 mg/kg IP). Similarly, there was no change in the amount of lever presses or drug infusions within an operant conditioning chamber at any of the examined doses of MC-250041 (3, 5.6, 10 mg/kg IP) during self-administration. LS-3-134 decreased cocaine-primed locomotor activity, as well as lever presses and infusions during self-administration at the 5.6 mg/kg dose; however, there was no effect on spontaneous locomotor activity at any of the examined doses (1, 3.2, 5.6 mg/kg IP). In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that LS-3-134 effectively reduced motivation for cocaine at the 5.6 mg/kg dose; whereas, MC-250041 was unsuccessful at warranting any significant effect on motivation for cocaine at any of the examined doses.

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  • 2017-05