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Bharatanatyam and its effect on Stress, Mood, and Anxiety

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Abstract
This study investigates the effects of Bharatanatyam dance on stress, mood, and anxiety. I have danced Bharatanatyam since I was 8 years old, it has offered me a way to release stress

Abstract
This study investigates the effects of Bharatanatyam dance on stress, mood, and anxiety. I have danced Bharatanatyam since I was 8 years old, it has offered me a way to release stress and anxiety. This study provides empirical data to support the claim that Bharatanatyam has therapeutic effects that release stress and reduce anxiety. This investigation was conducted through self-reports and interviews. A Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scale was used to determine positive and negative effects. The average positive affect during the “dance weeks” (DW) was 46.6 and the average negative affect was 12.2. During the “no dance weeks” (NDW), the average positive effect was 23.7 and the average negative affect was 31. The participant’s interview PANAS results had an average positive effect of 39.8 and an average negative effect of 12.8. Analyzing the self-report journaling highlighted a more prevalent use of positive words during the DW and a more significant use of negative words during the NDW. The Bharatanatyam dancers who were probed to enter post-performance environment for an interview also used positive words to describe Bharatanatyam dancing. In conclusion, practicing Bharatanatyam had an overall positive effect on mood, and can reduce stress and anxiety.

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2019-05

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The Use of Biophilic Design to Enhance the Student Experience Implemented in the Prayer and Meditation Room of the Arizona State University Hayden Library

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This project examines biophilic design principles to demonstrate the impact it can have on the well-being of college students at Arizona State University. This paper details our collaboration with Hayden Library, and design elements proposed using biophilic design for the

This project examines biophilic design principles to demonstrate the impact it can have on the well-being of college students at Arizona State University. This paper details our collaboration with Hayden Library, and design elements proposed using biophilic design for the new Prayer and Meditation room as part of the 2019 renovations of the library. We will explore and explain what biophilia/biophilic design is and the specific impacts it can have on humans by including a literature review of previous studies and some in-person research experiences. The literature examined includes how biophilic design has specific positive effects on humans and how we can apply this to students visiting the newly renovated Hayden Library. This project also contains data and information from a workshop (November 1, 2018) organized to gather input from professionals at Shepley Bulfinch for the design of the Prayer and Meditation room. The input from the designers is combined with the body of research on biophilic design to present
to the Hayden Library 2020 renovations team.

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2019-05

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Effects of Hatha and Vinyasa Yoga on Stress Levels in a Female College-Aged Population

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The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of yoga intensity on stress in a population of college-aged females. Stress has been shown to negatively impact health both physically and mentally, therefore it is imperative that there is

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of yoga intensity on stress in a population of college-aged females. Stress has been shown to negatively impact health both physically and mentally, therefore it is imperative that there is a way to combat these negative health effects. Participants included females between the ages of 18-25 who had been participating in physical activity 3-5 days per week (n=11). Stress was measured by a Stress Indicators Questionnaire, which was modified to fit the aim of the study. The yoga classes were displayed through a program called YogaGlo. The data was scored and analyzed with a modified scoring guideline based off of the questionnaire guidelines and with the use of Excel. The results showed that there was a statistically significant effect of both low (p value= 0.02) and high (p value= 0.01) intensity yoga on stress. There was not a statistically significant effect between yoga intensity on stress (p value= 0.3). The results from this study should be used for further research on yoga and various aspects of mental health, such as anxiety and depression, with a female population of all ages.
Psychological stress is thought to arise from appraisal processes that ascribe threat-related meaning to experiences that tax or exceed our coping ability (Gianaros & Wager, 2015). Gianaros & Wager (2015) found that there is a positive correlation between brain-body pathways which link psychological stress and physical health. The stress response includes sympathetic nervous system activation, which is equitable to the fight-or-flight response and increases heart rate and blood pressure (Al’Absi et al., 2016). Stress affects multiple physiological systems including the immune and reproductive systems. Cardiovascular disease is one of the main risks of prolonged stress, with research indicated an association between stress and a significant increased risk of cardiovascular disease (Backe et al., 2012; Rosengren et al., 2004). With cardiovascular disease being a main contributor to illness and death in the United States, it is crucial that the disease is prevented or treated.

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2019-05

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Animal Assisted Activities: An Experimental Comparison Study of Therapy Dogs versus Massages to Alleviate Short-Term Stress

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Animal assisted activities and therapy have demonstrated efficacy but the question remains of whether the animals themselves are the mechanism of change or if other factors mediate this relationship. We investigated novelty and touch as mediators between therapy dogs and

Animal assisted activities and therapy have demonstrated efficacy but the question remains of whether the animals themselves are the mechanism of change or if other factors mediate this relationship. We investigated novelty and touch as mediators between therapy dogs and stress reduction as no other study has done both. Additionally, we were interested in whether the belief that a treatment is relaxing or simply providing a break acted as mediators. We explored these relationships using three conditions: therapy dog interaction, massage, and no-treatment control. Interacting with a therapy dog is similar to receiving a massage in each of the mediators of interest. Thus, should the therapy dogs outperform the massage in relieving stress, it suggests something there is something unique about the dogs themselves, beyond the mediators held constant for both the therapy dog and massage condition. We included the no-treatment control to determine whether treatment at all was effective in reducing stress. We tested 40 participants aged 18 to 43 years old over the course of three days. Participants were measured pre-treatment using two self-report surveys of stress, the Stress Overload Scale- Short (SOS-S) and the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM) as well as a physiological indicator of stress, heart rate variability (HRV) measured by the Scosche Rhythm24 Waterproof Armband Heart Rate Monitor. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition for seven minutes. Afterwards, all measures were readministered. We found no significant interaction of time on condition nor any main effect of condition on any of the measures. However, we found significant main effects of time on both subscales of the SOS-S and the threat, centrality, controllable-by-others, and stressfulness subscales of the SAM. We are unable to determine whether there is a unique benefit of therapy dogs themselves but overall, the event was effective in reducing stress as reported by the participants. We recommend continued investigation of mediators in animal assisted activities and therapy.

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2019-12

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Early Life Stress: An Increased Risk of Schizophrenia through Activation of the Complement Component Pathway

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Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with poorly understood genetic and environmental factors. An allelic variant of complement component 4 (C4), a protein first identified in innate immune response is strongly associated with schizophrenia. In the brain, activity

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with poorly understood genetic and environmental factors. An allelic variant of complement component 4 (C4), a protein first identified in innate immune response is strongly associated with schizophrenia. In the brain, activity of C4 leads to dendritic pruning, a process that may be causal in disease progression. Environmental factors, such as early life exposure to significant stressors also associate with increased risk of schizophrenia in later life. My hypothesis is that these factors do not act independently, but rather in tandem to influence disease etiology.
This hypothesis is supported by previous studies demonstrating that stress-induced elevation of glucocorticoids increases the transcription of C4. I propose that activated glucocorticoid receptors directly increase C4 protein expression as a transcription factor activator. Additionally, I propose that activated glucocorticoid receptors inhibit the expression of the transcription factor nuclear factor-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), thereby leading to decreased expression of the C4 inhibitor CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1).
Glucocorticoid receptors and C4 are richly expressed in the hippocampus, a region critical in memory consolidation, spatial, and declarative memory. I propose that stress-induced upregulation of C4 activity in the hippocampus promotes excessive synaptic pruning, contributing to specific deficits and hippocampal shrinkage seen in schizophrenia. Stress exposure during fetal development and adolescence likely acts through the proposed mechanisms to increase hippocampal C4 activity and subsequent schizophrenia risk. These mechanisms may reveal novel interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors in the etiology of schizophrenia through complement activation.

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2017-05

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Benefits of high intelligence: Potential moderating effects of emotion regulation and friendship quality

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Depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts or actions are on the rise in adolescents (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015; Bridge, Asti, & Horowitz, 2015). Parents, school administrators, and therapists are searching for resiliency factors with in at-risk groups to aid

Depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts or actions are on the rise in adolescents (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015; Bridge, Asti, & Horowitz, 2015). Parents, school administrators, and therapists are searching for resiliency factors with in at-risk groups to aid students in need. In previous work, Luthar and Zigler (1992) reported that intelligent youth are more resilient than less intelligent youth under low stress conditions but they lose their advantage under high stress conditions. This study examined whether intelligence (reflected in grade point average; GPA) and maladaptive (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) behaviors are negatively related in adolescents, and tested whether level of stress, reflected in emotion regulation and friendship quality, moderated that association. It also probed whether the relationships differ by gender. Sixth-graders (N=506) were recruited with active parental consent from three middle schools. Adolescents completed self-report questionnaires Regarding demo graphics, maladaptive behaviors, emotion regulation, and friendship quality, and GPA data were collected from the school. Regression analyses found that GPA was negatively related to externalizing symptoms. Girls with poor friendship communication report significantly higher maladaptive behaviors. This relation was more pronounced for girls with high GPAs, as predicted. Results support the theory that intelligent female adolescents are more reactive under adverse circumstances. Future efforts should follow students through middle school into high school to evaluate whether friendships remain important to adjustment, hold for boys as well as girls, and have implications for relationship interventions.

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2017-12

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Momentary Associations Among Negative Affect and Cortisol: Is Alone Status a Moderator? Is Social Support a Moderator?

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The transition from high school to college is associated with considerable life strain for adolescents, including higher reported levels of daily stress and negative affect (NA), and alterations in stress physiology have been linked to poor health. The purpose of

The transition from high school to college is associated with considerable life strain for adolescents, including higher reported levels of daily stress and negative affect (NA), and alterations in stress physiology have been linked to poor health. The purpose of this thesis was to use an ecological momentary assessment design to study associations between momentary experiences of negative affect and cortisol levels in a sample of adolescents transitioning to college. I also examined the potential moderating effects of two potential vulnerability or protective factors, alone status and perceived social support from friends. Adolescents provided salivary samples and completed paper-and-pencil diary reports of socioemotional experiences and alone status five times per day for three consecutive weekdays, as well as completed self-report questionnaires on perceived social support from friends. Within-person increases in momentary negative affect were associated with momentary cortisol reactivity. Alone status significantly moderated this association such that the association between momentary negative affect and momentary cortisol levels was only significant when individuals were with others and not when they were alone. Perceived social support from friends did not significantly moderate the within-person associations between negative affect and momentary cortisol levels. The findings add to our understanding of physiological correlates of socioemotional experiences, as well as contexts in which these associations may be exaggerated or attenuated. The findings inform our understanding of potential pathways by which physiological reactivity to socioemotional experiences may affect the health of adolescents as well as how prevention efforts could reduce potential poor health outcomes associated with heightened stress reactivity.

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2014-12

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Exploring the Design of Vibrotactile Cues for Visio-Haptic Sensory Substitution

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This paper presents the design and evaluation of a haptic interface for augmenting human-human interpersonal interactions by delivering facial expressions of an interaction partner to an individual who is blind using a visual-to-tactile mapping of facial action units and emotions.

This paper presents the design and evaluation of a haptic interface for augmenting human-human interpersonal interactions by delivering facial expressions of an interaction partner to an individual who is blind using a visual-to-tactile mapping of facial action units and emotions. Pancake shaftless vibration motors are mounted on the back of a chair to provide vibrotactile stimulation in the context of a dyadic (one-on-one) interaction across a table. This work explores the design of spatiotemporal vibration patterns that can be used to convey the basic building blocks of facial movements according to the Facial Action Unit Coding System. A behavioral study was conducted to explore the factors that influence the naturalness of conveying affect using vibrotactile cues.

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2014-05

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Weighing the Risks of Achievement: A Profile of the Modern, High Achieving, Secondary Student and the Implications of Striving for Excellence

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This thesis aimed to discover the risks of being a high achieving student, in secondary school contexts. With the growing concern for college admission, the high achieving student has become more prevalent within society. This paper sought to gain deeper

This thesis aimed to discover the risks of being a high achieving student, in secondary school contexts. With the growing concern for college admission, the high achieving student has become more prevalent within society. This paper sought to gain deeper understanding into the risks and implications of attempting to achieve excellence for high achievers. Interviews with three frontline personnel at two college preparatory schools and one International Baccalaureate degree program were conducted. It was found that in the studied geographic location, peer pressure and relations, parental pressure, perfectionism, extra-curricular activities, college admission, mental health implications, and coping mechanisms are themes that are highlighted through interviews with primary staff of high achieving students. Although personnel at each of these secondary schools were clearly aware of the stress experienced by their students, a disparity remained between how certain programs managed the stress and how it negatively impacted students. College preparatory faculties appear to be more involved and current on their students' stress. This study was limited and further research should be conducted in the future that expands on this concept in various sociogeographic locations.

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2013-05

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Effects of Adolescent Social Isolation on Behavioral Inhibition and Ethanol Preference in Mice

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Exploration of a mouse model (C57BL/6J) capable of demonstrating behavioral changes after adolescent social isolation that are consistent with prior findings may prove beneficial in later research. This study examined 2 proposed long-term effects of isolated housing (one mouse/cage), when

Exploration of a mouse model (C57BL/6J) capable of demonstrating behavioral changes after adolescent social isolation that are consistent with prior findings may prove beneficial in later research. This study examined 2 proposed long-term effects of isolated housing (one mouse/cage), when compared to group housing (two mice/cage) during adolescence. Mice were placed in their respective housing conditions after weaning (PND 21) and remained in those conditions until PND 60. The same cohorts were used in both phases of the experiment. Phase 1 sought to confirm previous findings that showed increases in ethanol intake after adolescent social isolation using a 2-bottle preference Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) design over a 4-day period (PND 64-PND 67.). Phase 2 sought to elucidate the effects present after adolescent social isolation, as measured using response inhibition capabilities demonstrated during fixed-minimum interval (FMI) trials (PND 81-PND 111). Findings in phase 1 of the experiment were non-significant, save a strong tendency for female mice in both housing conditions to drink more as a proportion of their bodyweight (g/kg). However, a trend of lower bodyweight in single housed mice did exist, which does suggest that detrimental stress was applied via the used of adolescent isolation in that housing condition. Findings in phase 2 showed little effect of adolescent social isolation on mean inter-response time (IRT) at any criterion used (FMI-0, FMI-4, FMI-6). Evaluation of mean interquartile range (IQR) of IRTs showed a significantly greater amount of variation in IRT responses within single housed mice at the highest criterion (FMI-6), and a trend in the same direction when FMI-4 and FMI-6 were tested concurrently. Taken as a whole, the findings of this experiment suggest that the effect of adolescent social isolation on ethanol intake is far less robust than the effect of sex and may be difficult to replicate in a low-power study. Additionally, adolescent social isolation may interfere with the ability of mice to show consistent accuracy during FMI tasks or a delay in recognition of FMI criterion change.

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2021-05