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Parental Stress in Raising a Child with ADHD

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This paper investigates how stress in parents is affected by their child's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this paper is to identify common stressors for parents of children with ADHD, as well as to determine what parents need from

This paper investigates how stress in parents is affected by their child's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this paper is to identify common stressors for parents of children with ADHD, as well as to determine what parents need from healthcare providers to mediate this stress. A survey was developed to identify sources of stress, consequences of parental stress, parental coping methods, resources provided by their healthcare provider that have been helpful, along with what they feel that they need from their healthcare providers in order to better support themselves and their family. Participants were composed of members of Facebook support groups for parents of children with ADHD. Major findings of this study include: parents experience the most stress when dealing with their child's oppositional and aggressive behaviors; parents frequently experience disruption in their marital relationship; and parents perceive that they receive little health care resources that are helpful for themselves, their child, and their family overall.

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2018-05

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The Heritability of Different Indices of the Diurnal Cortisol Rhythm in Middle Childhood and Phenotypic Associations with the Home Environment

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Research has shown that environmental stressors that occur during childhood and early adolescence are associated with multiple deficits in physiological and psychological functioning later in life. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a potential biological mechanism through which

Research has shown that environmental stressors that occur during childhood and early adolescence are associated with multiple deficits in physiological and psychological functioning later in life. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a potential biological mechanism through which these phenotypic alterations occur as studies have shown a link between early life adversity and altered diurnal cortisol patterns (Goldman-Mellor, Hamer, & Steptoe, 2012; Gunnar & Quevedo, 2008). Given research has shown that diurnal cortisol levels are influenced by genetic factors (Veen et al., 2011), but that a majority of differences across subjects can be attributed to the environment (Schreiber et al., 2006), phenotypic associations were explored between the quality of the home environment and children's diurnal cortisol patterns. The first aim of this study was to determine the level of genetic and environmental contributions to different parameters of diurnal cortisol rhythm. The second aim of this study was to examine whether the quality of the home environment, particularly indicators involving parenting and the physical environment, was associated with these same diurnal cortisol measures. A diverse sample of 320 twin children were assessed at 8 years using gold standard home environment interviews and a measure of diurnal cortisol rhythm across three days with three samples taken from each twin every day. Twin intraclass correlations indicated high levels of heritability for the morning to afternoon diurnal cortisol slope as well as the afternoon to evening slope, while measures of cortisol in the afternoon, evening, and across the day showed low levels of heritability, which suggested that differences in the environment were a more influential factor. Multilevel regression analyses showed that the overall quality of the home environment was found to be significantly negatively associated with cortisol levels at bedtime and negatively associated across the morning to afternoon slope at a trend level. The physical environment and emotional climate of the home were not significantly associated with any indicators of the diurnal cortisol pattern. A unique seasonality effect was noted as cortisol measurements taken from participants during the summer were significantly increased when compared to participants throughout the rest of the year. Overall, these findings showed a unique association between the quality of the home environment and diurnal cortisol levels at bedtime and perhaps the change in cortisol levels across the morning to afternoon, as well as a possible seasonal covariate which may affect diurnal cortisol measurements and one which often goes overlooked in cortisol research.

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2018-05

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Mindfulness as an Intervention to Mitigate and Decrease Rates of Burnout in Registered Nurses: A Systematic Literature Review

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The aim of this review is to explore the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on Registered Nurse's rate of burnout and stress. Particularly focusing on the mitigation and decrease of burnout. Burnout is a multifaceted, complex issue that has become engrained

The aim of this review is to explore the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on Registered Nurse's rate of burnout and stress. Particularly focusing on the mitigation and decrease of burnout. Burnout is a multifaceted, complex issue that has become engrained in the culture of nursing and a widespread epidemic. Burnout has detrimental effects for the quality of life of the nurse, patient outcomes, interprofessional collaboration, and nursing practice. A systematic literature review incorporating qualitative data and analyzing the quantitative data was conducted. Studies on the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for nurses relating to burnout published between January 2008 and May 2018 were identified through a systematic search in electronic databases: CINHAL, Cochrane, Embase, Medline, PsycInfo, and PubMed. Gray literature was searched through Scopus and clinical trials were explored through clincialtrials.gov. Data analysis was based on 8 data points that were extracted from the research. A total of 17 articles were selected for inclusion in the systematic literature review. There were several different types of studies including single group intervention study, randomized control trial interventions studies, mixed model, quasi-experimental studies with controls, and a non-randomized controlled comparison. All relied on self-reporting scales and questionnaire for quantitative pre-post intervention changes. Overall, the 10 of the 17 studies found that there was a statistically significant decrease in burnout rates and an increase in mindfulness post intervention. Several other factors improved in a number of studies such as quality of life, decreased stress, increased sense of personal accomplishment, and decreased emotional exhaustion. There were also indications of an improvement in the individual's holistic well-being (e.g. inner state of calmness, awareness and enthusiasm) relating to improved mindfulness levels in 12 of the studies. Based on the results of this systematic review, mindfulness may be considered a potentially effective intervention for decreasing nurse burnout and mitigating future burnout. This intervention could be useful in a number of contexts including on-site and off-site programs with institutional support. Future research should explore longitudinal outcomes of mindfulness practice, symptom focused outcome measures, and multi-modal studies.

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2018-12

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Arizona Nurses Association Member Involvement in Public Policy

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The purpose of the study was to determine the level and type of public policy involvement among registered nurses (RN) who are members of the Arizona Nurses Association (AzNA). Furthermore, the aim of the study was to identify the knowledge

The purpose of the study was to determine the level and type of public policy involvement among registered nurses (RN) who are members of the Arizona Nurses Association (AzNA). Furthermore, the aim of the study was to identify the knowledge base and motivation of nurses and their involvement in public policy as well as the barriers and benefits. A 20- item survey was sent to all of the members of AzNA. There were 39 responses used in the analysis. The highest reported public policy activities in which the nurses had participated were: voted (90%), contacted a public official (51%), and gave money to a campaign or for a public policy concern (46%). Lack of time was the most frequently reported barrier to involvement and improving the health of the public was the most frequently reported benefit to involvement. The number of public policy education/information sources and the highest level of education positively correlate to the nurses' total number of public policy activities (r = .627 p <0.05; r = .504, p <0.05). Based on the results of stepwise linear regression analysis, the participants' age, number of education/information sources, and efficacy expectation predict 68.8% of involvement in public policy activities. The greater the number of education/information sources, the greater the number of public policy activities nurses report having participated in.

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2015-12

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One Does Not Simply De-Stress: A Blog of a Nursing Student's Stressors, Effects of Stress on Physical and Mental Health, and Effective Coping Methods

Description

This blog is to be used as a resource for communication
etworking and a tool for stress coping methods.
With this blog, it is my objective to aid my peers who might need help recognizing and coping with stress by

This blog is to be used as a resource for communication
etworking and a tool for stress coping methods.
With this blog, it is my objective to aid my peers who might need help recognizing and coping with stress by the following methods:
a) Actualize the burden of Stress—Chronic stress is a burden and can be overwhelming if not managed. By disclosing my own stressors, it is my hope that peers will identify with me, so that I can then change the way they view and handle the stress.
b) Discuss the psychological and physical effects of stress on the body—It is my intent to clarify how unmanaged chronic stress can affect the physical and mental health and how acute stress is normal and healthy.
c) Share my coping methods that I have found effective in five minute or less videos with blurbs about how and why they are effective. I believe showing them to you in these mostly raw and unedited videos help maintain the current theme I am going for—keep things as real and raw as possible. Hopefully, these raw videos will help peers visualize working coping methods!

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Date Created
2013-05