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An Examination into the Effects of Age and Pressure on Ethical Behavior

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Age plays a major role in human behavior, yet little research examines how age shapes ethical behavior. We examine the effects of age on ethical behavior when people face three different ethical pressures: time pressure, financial pressure, and social pressure.

Age plays a major role in human behavior, yet little research examines how age shapes ethical behavior. We examine the effects of age on ethical behavior when people face three different ethical pressures: time pressure, financial pressure, and social pressure. We predict that younger people are more likely than older people to engage in unethical behavior. We also predict that younger people are more influenced by ethical pressures than older people. Results from an experiment provide evidence that younger people are more likely than older people to engage in unethical behavior. In addition, both older and younger people are influenced by the ethical pressures we examine in this study. However, the results do not provide evidence that younger people are more influenced by those ethical pressures than older people. Our study contributes to research examining ethical behavior and age differences in the workplace while providing managers and auditors with a larger perception of unethical drivers.

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2019-05

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An Analysis of SEC Clawback Provisions in terms of Loss-Aversion and Narcissism

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Executive compensation is broken into two parts: one fixed and one variable. The fixed component of executive compensation is the annual salary and the variable components are performance-based incentives. Clawback provisions of executive compensation are designed to require executives to

Executive compensation is broken into two parts: one fixed and one variable. The fixed component of executive compensation is the annual salary and the variable components are performance-based incentives. Clawback provisions of executive compensation are designed to require executives to return performance-based, variable compensation that was erroneously awarded in the year of a misstatement. This research shows the need for the use of a new clawback provision that combines aspects of the two currently in regulation. In our current federal regulation, there are two clawback provisions in play: Section 304 of Sarbanes-Oxley and section 954 of The Dodd\u2014Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. This paper argues for the use of an optimal clawback provision that combines aspects of both the current SOX provision and the Dodd-Frank provision, by integrating the principles of loss aversion and narcissism. These two factors are important to consider when designing a clawback provision, as it is generally accepted that average individuals are loss averse and executives are becoming increasingly narcissistic. Therefore, when attempting to mitigate the risk of a leader keeping erroneously awarded executive compensation, the decision making factors of narcissism and loss aversion must be taken into account. Additionally, this paper predicts how compensation structures will shift post-implementation. Through a survey analyzing the level of both loss- aversion and narcissism in respondents, the research question justifies the principle that people are loss averse and that a subset of the population show narcissistic tendencies. Both loss aversion and narcissism drove the results to suggest there are benefits to both clawback provisions and that a new provision that combines elements of both is most beneficial in mitigating the risk of executives receiving erroneously awarded compensation. I concluded the most optimal clawback provision is mandatory for all public companies (Dodd-Frank), targets all executives (Dodd-Frank), and requires the recuperation of the entire bonus, not just that which was in excess of what should have been received (SOX).

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2018-12

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International students at ASU and how they handle stress

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This paper will highlight the ways that Chinese students handle stress due to different reasons and how they solve their stress. The main reasons include different education styles, cultural differences between the US and China, food, language, entertainment ways and

This paper will highlight the ways that Chinese students handle stress due to different reasons and how they solve their stress. The main reasons include different education styles, cultural differences between the US and China, food, language, entertainment ways and religious. Chinese students have many methods to solve stress that include both positive and negative ways. I will provide more details about the ways in the third part in which I report the findings of my survey. My study is relevant because of the large numbers of Chinese students who are studying internationally.

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2018-12

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The Unintended Consequences of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

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Given its impact on the accounting profession and public corporations, Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002(SOX) is a widely researched regulation among accounting scholars. Research typically focuses on the impact it has had on corporations, executives and auditors, however, there is limited

Given its impact on the accounting profession and public corporations, Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002(SOX) is a widely researched regulation among accounting scholars. Research typically focuses on the impact it has had on corporations, executives and auditors, however, there is limited research that illustrates the impact SOX may have on average Americans. There were several US criminal code sections that resulted from the passing of SOX. Statute 1519, which is often referred to as the "anti-shredding provision", penalizes anyone who "knowingly alters, destroys, mutilates, conceals, covers up, falsifies, or makes a false entry in any record, document, or tangible object with the intent to" obstruct a current or foreseeable federal investigation. This statute, although intended to punish behavior similar to that which occurred in the early 2000s by corporations and auditors, has been used to charge people beyond its original intent. Several issues with the crafting of the statute cause its broad application and some litigation even reached the Supreme Court due to its vague wording. Not only is the statute being applied beyond the intent, there are other issues that legal scholars have critiqued it for. This statute is far from being the only law facing these issues as the same issues and critiques are found in the 14th amendment. Rewriting the statute seems to be the most effective way to address the concerns of judges, lawyers and defendants regarding the statute. In addition, Congress could have passed this statute outside of SOX to avoid being seen as overreaching if obstruction of justice related to documents was actually an issue outside of corporate fraud.

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Date Created
2016-12

Academic Motivation: Investigating the Differences between Traditional and Non-Traditional students

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The present study investigates the differences in the academic motivation of traditional and non-traditional students according to Self Determination Theory. Additionally, the study explores the relationships between academic motivation and academic, career, and family stress in traditional and non-traditional students

The present study investigates the differences in the academic motivation of traditional and non-traditional students according to Self Determination Theory. Additionally, the study explores the relationships between academic motivation and academic, career, and family stress in traditional and non-traditional students according to the Challenge and Hindrance Stress Framework. A survey was administered to 744 undergraduate students at Arizona State University. An independent samples t-test indicated significant differences between several student groups. According to the results, non-traditional students are more intrinsically motivated "to know" and traditional students are more extrinsically motivated by "identified regulation" and "external regulation". Additionally, a correlation matrix indicated that academic stress is positively related to extrinsic motivation, family stress is related to both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in all students, and career stress is related to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in working students.

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Date Created
2014-12

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Best Value Accounting: Applying Information Measurement Theory to Public Accounting

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The author is an accounting major headed into the public accounting industry. As a tax intern his senior year, he was able to work in the thick of "busy season", when tax returns are due for submission and work is

The author is an accounting major headed into the public accounting industry. As a tax intern his senior year, he was able to work in the thick of "busy season", when tax returns are due for submission and work is very busy. The author tired of working long hours and continuous talking with his accounting friends how working on Saturdays and long weeknights was generally accepted. Best value principles from Dr. Dean Kashiwagi's Information Measurement Theory were applied to examine how to maximize efficiency in public accounting and reduce the workload. After reviewing how Information Measurement Theory applies to public accounting, the author deemed three possible solutions to improve the working conditions of public accountants. First, to decrease the work load during busy season, tax organizers need to be sent earlier and staff should be assigned to oversee this information gathering. Second, in order to better prepare new hires to become partners, the career path needs to be outlined on day one with a career guide. Finally, in order to more successfully on board new hires due to the steep learning in public accounting, firms should utilize buddy systems and encourage organic mentoring.

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Date Created
2015-05