Matching Items (110)

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Latina Women in STEM: How Race and Class Shape the Experiences of Undergraduate Women in STEM Majors at Arizona State University

Description

Women and people of color are some of the most underrepresented groups in the STEM field (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). The purpose of this study was to uncover the barriers that undergraduate Hispanic women, as well as other women

Women and people of color are some of the most underrepresented groups in the STEM field (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). The purpose of this study was to uncover the barriers that undergraduate Hispanic women, as well as other women of color, face while pursuing an education in a STEM-related major at Arizona State University (ASU). In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 adult participants to dig deeper into the experiences of each woman and analyze how race and class overlap in each of the women's experiences. The concept of intersectionality was used to highlight various barriers such as perceptions of working versus middle-class students, the experience of being a first-generation college student, diversity campus-wide and in the classroom, effects of stereotyping, and impacts of mentorships. All women, no matter their gender, race, or socioeconomic status, faced struggles with stereotyping, marginalization, and isolation. Women in STEM majors at ASU performed better when provided with positive mentorships and grew aspirations to become a professional in the STEM field when encouraged and guided by someone who helped them build their scientific identities. Working-class women suffered from severe stress related to finances, family support, employment, and stereotyping. Reforming the culture of STEM fields in higher education will allow women to achieve success, further build their scientific identities, and increase the rate of women graduating with STEM degrees.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Parental Stress in Raising a Child with ADHD

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This paper investigates how stress in parents is affected by their child's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this paper is to identify common stressors for parents of children with ADHD, as well as to determine what parents need from

This paper investigates how stress in parents is affected by their child's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this paper is to identify common stressors for parents of children with ADHD, as well as to determine what parents need from healthcare providers to mediate this stress. A survey was developed to identify sources of stress, consequences of parental stress, parental coping methods, resources provided by their healthcare provider that have been helpful, along with what they feel that they need from their healthcare providers in order to better support themselves and their family. Participants were composed of members of Facebook support groups for parents of children with ADHD. Major findings of this study include: parents experience the most stress when dealing with their child's oppositional and aggressive behaviors; parents frequently experience disruption in their marital relationship; and parents perceive that they receive little health care resources that are helpful for themselves, their child, and their family overall.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Bharatanatyam and its effect on Stress, Mood, and Anxiety

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Abstract
This study investigates the effects of Bharatanatyam dance on stress, mood, and anxiety. I have danced Bharatanatyam since I was 8 years old, it has offered me a way to release stress

Abstract
This study investigates the effects of Bharatanatyam dance on stress, mood, and anxiety. I have danced Bharatanatyam since I was 8 years old, it has offered me a way to release stress and anxiety. This study provides empirical data to support the claim that Bharatanatyam has therapeutic effects that release stress and reduce anxiety. This investigation was conducted through self-reports and interviews. A Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scale was used to determine positive and negative effects. The average positive affect during the “dance weeks” (DW) was 46.6 and the average negative affect was 12.2. During the “no dance weeks” (NDW), the average positive effect was 23.7 and the average negative affect was 31. The participant’s interview PANAS results had an average positive effect of 39.8 and an average negative effect of 12.8. Analyzing the self-report journaling highlighted a more prevalent use of positive words during the DW and a more significant use of negative words during the NDW. The Bharatanatyam dancers who were probed to enter post-performance environment for an interview also used positive words to describe Bharatanatyam dancing. In conclusion, practicing Bharatanatyam had an overall positive effect on mood, and can reduce stress and anxiety.

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2019-05

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The Use of Biophilic Design to Enhance the Student Experience Implemented in the Prayer and Meditation Room of the Arizona State University Hayden Library

Description

This project examines biophilic design principles to demonstrate the impact it can have on the well-being of college students at Arizona State University. This paper details our collaboration with Hayden Library, and design elements proposed using biophilic design for the

This project examines biophilic design principles to demonstrate the impact it can have on the well-being of college students at Arizona State University. This paper details our collaboration with Hayden Library, and design elements proposed using biophilic design for the new Prayer and Meditation room as part of the 2019 renovations of the library. We will explore and explain what biophilia/biophilic design is and the specific impacts it can have on humans by including a literature review of previous studies and some in-person research experiences. The literature examined includes how biophilic design has specific positive effects on humans and how we can apply this to students visiting the newly renovated Hayden Library. This project also contains data and information from a workshop (November 1, 2018) organized to gather input from professionals at Shepley Bulfinch for the design of the Prayer and Meditation room. The input from the designers is combined with the body of research on biophilic design to present
to the Hayden Library 2020 renovations team.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Effects of Hatha and Vinyasa Yoga on Stress Levels in a Female College-Aged Population

Description

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of yoga intensity on stress in a population of college-aged females. Stress has been shown to negatively impact health both physically and mentally, therefore it is imperative that there is

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of yoga intensity on stress in a population of college-aged females. Stress has been shown to negatively impact health both physically and mentally, therefore it is imperative that there is a way to combat these negative health effects. Participants included females between the ages of 18-25 who had been participating in physical activity 3-5 days per week (n=11). Stress was measured by a Stress Indicators Questionnaire, which was modified to fit the aim of the study. The yoga classes were displayed through a program called YogaGlo. The data was scored and analyzed with a modified scoring guideline based off of the questionnaire guidelines and with the use of Excel. The results showed that there was a statistically significant effect of both low (p value= 0.02) and high (p value= 0.01) intensity yoga on stress. There was not a statistically significant effect between yoga intensity on stress (p value= 0.3). The results from this study should be used for further research on yoga and various aspects of mental health, such as anxiety and depression, with a female population of all ages.
Psychological stress is thought to arise from appraisal processes that ascribe threat-related meaning to experiences that tax or exceed our coping ability (Gianaros & Wager, 2015). Gianaros & Wager (2015) found that there is a positive correlation between brain-body pathways which link psychological stress and physical health. The stress response includes sympathetic nervous system activation, which is equitable to the fight-or-flight response and increases heart rate and blood pressure (Al’Absi et al., 2016). Stress affects multiple physiological systems including the immune and reproductive systems. Cardiovascular disease is one of the main risks of prolonged stress, with research indicated an association between stress and a significant increased risk of cardiovascular disease (Backe et al., 2012; Rosengren et al., 2004). With cardiovascular disease being a main contributor to illness and death in the United States, it is crucial that the disease is prevented or treated.

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Date Created
2019-05

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An Examination into the Effects of Age and Pressure on Ethical Behavior

Description

Age plays a major role in human behavior, yet little research examines how age shapes ethical behavior. We examine the effects of age on ethical behavior when people face three different ethical pressures: time pressure, financial pressure, and social pressure.

Age plays a major role in human behavior, yet little research examines how age shapes ethical behavior. We examine the effects of age on ethical behavior when people face three different ethical pressures: time pressure, financial pressure, and social pressure. We predict that younger people are more likely than older people to engage in unethical behavior. We also predict that younger people are more influenced by ethical pressures than older people. Results from an experiment provide evidence that younger people are more likely than older people to engage in unethical behavior. In addition, both older and younger people are influenced by the ethical pressures we examine in this study. However, the results do not provide evidence that younger people are more influenced by those ethical pressures than older people. Our study contributes to research examining ethical behavior and age differences in the workplace while providing managers and auditors with a larger perception of unethical drivers.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Effects of Hatha and Vinaysa Yoga on Stress Levels in a Female College-Aged Population

Description

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of yoga intensity on stress in a population of college-aged females. Stress has been shown to negatively impact health both physically and mentally, therefore it is imperative that there is

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of yoga intensity on stress in a population of college-aged females. Stress has been shown to negatively impact health both physically and mentally, therefore it is imperative that there is a way to combat these negative health effects. Participants included females between the ages of 18-25 who had been participating in physical activity 3-5 days per week (n=11). The subjects participated in two sessions of yoga, one of lower intensity, Hatha, and one of higher intensity, Vinyasa. Stress was measured by a Stress Indicators Questionnaire, which was modified to fit the aim of the study. It was filled out by the subjects pre and post each session, resulting in four questionnaires per subject. The yoga classes were displayed through a program called YogaGlo. The data was scored and analyzed with a modified scoring guideline based off of the questionnaire guidelines and with the use of Excel. The results showed that there was a statistically significant effect of both low (p value= 0.02) and high (p value= 0.01) intensity yoga on stress. There was not a statistically significant effect between the different yoga intensities on stress (p value= 0.3). Limitations of our study include a self-selective population, no control group, and demand characteristics. The results from this study should be used for further research on yoga and various aspects of mental health, such as anxiety and depression, with a female population of all ages, longer yoga sessions, and a longitudinal study format.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Characterization of Stress in Electroplated Copper

Description

Current solar cells use a silver-printed front grid for electron conduction. Unfortunately, silver is expensive, leading to research into alternative materials. Copper is the most viable but poses grain growth problems and stress problems silver does not. This paper has

Current solar cells use a silver-printed front grid for electron conduction. Unfortunately, silver is expensive, leading to research into alternative materials. Copper is the most viable but poses grain growth problems and stress problems silver does not. This paper has characterised the effects of proprietary additives, thickness of the copper film layer, current density, and grain growth on stress. Per Stoney's equation, increased thickness leads to decreased thickness. However, if the current density is too high, the plated copper will become porous. Grain growth, quantified by the ratio of the intensity of the (1 1 1) plane and the (2 0 0) plane, increases over time, thus increasing the ratio which further equations to increased stress. Future work would be gathering more data to further investigate the relationship between additives and stress, current densities and stress, and grain growth over time and stress.

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Date Created
2018-05

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The Heritability of Different Indices of the Diurnal Cortisol Rhythm in Middle Childhood and Phenotypic Associations with the Home Environment

Description

Research has shown that environmental stressors that occur during childhood and early adolescence are associated with multiple deficits in physiological and psychological functioning later in life. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a potential biological mechanism through which

Research has shown that environmental stressors that occur during childhood and early adolescence are associated with multiple deficits in physiological and psychological functioning later in life. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a potential biological mechanism through which these phenotypic alterations occur as studies have shown a link between early life adversity and altered diurnal cortisol patterns (Goldman-Mellor, Hamer, & Steptoe, 2012; Gunnar & Quevedo, 2008). Given research has shown that diurnal cortisol levels are influenced by genetic factors (Veen et al., 2011), but that a majority of differences across subjects can be attributed to the environment (Schreiber et al., 2006), phenotypic associations were explored between the quality of the home environment and children's diurnal cortisol patterns. The first aim of this study was to determine the level of genetic and environmental contributions to different parameters of diurnal cortisol rhythm. The second aim of this study was to examine whether the quality of the home environment, particularly indicators involving parenting and the physical environment, was associated with these same diurnal cortisol measures. A diverse sample of 320 twin children were assessed at 8 years using gold standard home environment interviews and a measure of diurnal cortisol rhythm across three days with three samples taken from each twin every day. Twin intraclass correlations indicated high levels of heritability for the morning to afternoon diurnal cortisol slope as well as the afternoon to evening slope, while measures of cortisol in the afternoon, evening, and across the day showed low levels of heritability, which suggested that differences in the environment were a more influential factor. Multilevel regression analyses showed that the overall quality of the home environment was found to be significantly negatively associated with cortisol levels at bedtime and negatively associated across the morning to afternoon slope at a trend level. The physical environment and emotional climate of the home were not significantly associated with any indicators of the diurnal cortisol pattern. A unique seasonality effect was noted as cortisol measurements taken from participants during the summer were significantly increased when compared to participants throughout the rest of the year. Overall, these findings showed a unique association between the quality of the home environment and diurnal cortisol levels at bedtime and perhaps the change in cortisol levels across the morning to afternoon, as well as a possible seasonal covariate which may affect diurnal cortisol measurements and one which often goes overlooked in cortisol research.

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2018-05

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Animal Assisted Activities: An Experimental Comparison Study of Therapy Dogs versus Massages to Alleviate Short-Term Stress

Description

Animal assisted activities and therapy have demonstrated efficacy but the question remains of whether the animals themselves are the mechanism of change or if other factors mediate this relationship. We investigated novelty and touch as mediators between therapy dogs and

Animal assisted activities and therapy have demonstrated efficacy but the question remains of whether the animals themselves are the mechanism of change or if other factors mediate this relationship. We investigated novelty and touch as mediators between therapy dogs and stress reduction as no other study has done both. Additionally, we were interested in whether the belief that a treatment is relaxing or simply providing a break acted as mediators. We explored these relationships using three conditions: therapy dog interaction, massage, and no-treatment control. Interacting with a therapy dog is similar to receiving a massage in each of the mediators of interest. Thus, should the therapy dogs outperform the massage in relieving stress, it suggests something there is something unique about the dogs themselves, beyond the mediators held constant for both the therapy dog and massage condition. We included the no-treatment control to determine whether treatment at all was effective in reducing stress. We tested 40 participants aged 18 to 43 years old over the course of three days. Participants were measured pre-treatment using two self-report surveys of stress, the Stress Overload Scale- Short (SOS-S) and the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM) as well as a physiological indicator of stress, heart rate variability (HRV) measured by the Scosche Rhythm24 Waterproof Armband Heart Rate Monitor. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition for seven minutes. Afterwards, all measures were readministered. We found no significant interaction of time on condition nor any main effect of condition on any of the measures. However, we found significant main effects of time on both subscales of the SOS-S and the threat, centrality, controllable-by-others, and stressfulness subscales of the SAM. We are unable to determine whether there is a unique benefit of therapy dogs themselves but overall, the event was effective in reducing stress as reported by the participants. We recommend continued investigation of mediators in animal assisted activities and therapy.

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Date Created
2019-12