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Access to Healthcare Among Those Experiencing Homelessness: A Depression Screening Project

Description

Homeless individuals encounter barriers such as lack of health insurance, increased cost of care and unavailability of resources. They have increased risk of comorbid physical disease and poor mental health.

Homeless individuals encounter barriers such as lack of health insurance, increased cost of care and unavailability of resources. They have increased risk of comorbid physical disease and poor mental health. Depression is a prevalent mental health disorder in the US linked to increased risk of mortality. Literature suggests depression screening can identify high-risk individuals with using the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9).

The objective of this project is to determine if screening identifies depression in the homeless and how it impacts healthcare access. Setting is a local organization in Phoenix offering shelter to homeless individuals. An evidence-based project was implemented over two months in 2019 using convenience sampling. Intervention included depression screening using the PHQ-9, referring to primary care and tracking appointment times. IRB approval obtained from Arizona State University, privacy discussed, and consent obtained prior to data collection. Participants were assigned a random number to protect privacy.

A chart audit tool was used to obtain sociodemographics and insurance status. Descriptive statistics used and analyzed using Intellectus. Sample size was (n = 18), age (M = 35) most were White-non-Hispanic, 44% had a high school diploma and 78% were insured. Mean score was 7.72, three were previously diagnosed and not referred. Three were referred with a turnaround appointment time of one, two and seven days respectively. No significant correlation found between age and depression severity. A significant correlation found between previous diagnosis and depression severity. Attention to PHQ-9 varied among providers and not always addressed. Future projects should focus on improving collaboration between this facility and providers, increasing screening and ensuring adequate follow up and treatment.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05-04

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Community Services: Access to Health Care

Description

Primary health care clinics are essential first defenders determined to confront the upsurge in health-related leading causes of death in the United States. Unfortunately, the underserved or uninsured community continues

Primary health care clinics are essential first defenders determined to confront the upsurge in health-related leading causes of death in the United States. Unfortunately, the underserved or uninsured community continues to struggle to access these vital health care services. Consequently, this vulnerable population seeks venues such as community services events to obtain these unmet primary care services. Community services events effectively disseminate health-related material and provide access to vital medical services. Currently, community services strive to bridge the gap between underserved individuals and primary care clinics by providing participants referrals for low-fee or free clinics to establish ongoing care. A lack of data exists on whether these events sufficiently impact the participants to motivate them to follow-up with a health care clinic. A critical appraisal of evidence showed that follow-up adherence rates are remarkably improved by directly referring participants to a primary clinic during a community services event. This paper explores the effect on health outcomes and health disparities when establishing connections between community services participants and ongoing healthcare services.

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Date Created
  • 2021-04-22