Matching Items (4)

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Transitional Care of Adults with Chronic Diseases Post-Discharge from Acute Settings

Description

Ineffective transitional care programs for ensuring the continuation of care from acute settings to the home settings post discharge can result in rehospitalization of elderly patients with chronic diseases. Usually,

Ineffective transitional care programs for ensuring the continuation of care from acute settings to the home settings post discharge can result in rehospitalization of elderly patients with chronic diseases. Usually, transitional care should be time-sensitive, patient-centered services intended to ensure continuity of care and an efficient transition between health care settings or home. A patient centered transitional care program was implemented at an outpatient primary care facility to reduce readmission rates. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.

Twenty adult patients with chronic diseases discharged from an acute setting were identified. A follow up phone call and/or a home visit within 24-72 hours post discharge was employed. The Care Transitions Measure (CTM®) and Medication Discrepancy Tool (MDT®) were utilized to identify quality of care of transition and medication discrepancies. A chart audit collected data on the age of participant, diagnosis for initial hospitalization, CTM score, home visit, and ED visits or re-hospitalizations after 30 days of discharge. The outcome indicated that transitional care within primary care utilizing evidence-based practices is beneficial in reducing readmission rates. A logistic regression showed model significance, p = .002, suggesting that the CTM score was effective for both telephone support (TS) and home visit (HV).

A correlation analysis showed that as age of participants increased, the CTM score decreased, indicating that older adults required more support. A significance p <.001, of a proportional test indicated that readmission rates after the intervention was lower. It is evident that providing a timely and effective transitional care intervention in a primary care setting can reduce hospital readmissions, improve symptom management and quality of life of adult patients with chronic diseases.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05-05

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Family-Centered Perspectives to Improving Care Coordination for Children with Special Health Care Needs

Description

It is well known that the lack of care coordination in the healthcare system causes numerous problems including cost inefficiency and inconsistent care, specifically for complex pediatric and adult patients.

It is well known that the lack of care coordination in the healthcare system causes numerous problems including cost inefficiency and inconsistent care, specifically for complex pediatric and adult patients. Many pediatric patients have complex medical and social service needs which can be expensive for both the patient’s parents and the general healthcare system. Therefore, it is difficult for the healthcare system to deliver the highest quality care possible, due to the number of appointments that have to be scheduled (with some being out of state), the large volume of physical health records, and overall lack of time parents have to coordinate this care while also caring for themselves and other family members. It is integral to find a more efficient way to coordinate care for these patients, in order to improve overall care, cost efficiency, and outcomes. <br/>A number of stakeholders in Arizona came together to work on this problem over several years. They were funded through a PCORI Eugene Washington Engagement grant to investigators at ASU. This project, Take Action for Arizona's Children through Care Coordination: A Bridge to Action was developed in order to further develop a research agenda and build the network (PCOR). Regional conferences were conducted in Flagstaff, Yuma, Phoenix, and Tucson, as well as a final capstone conference held in Phoenix. At these conferences, frustrations, suggestions, and opinions regarding Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) and navigating the healthcare system were shared and testimonials were transcribed.<br/>This study focused on the capstone conference. The study design was a strategic design workshop; results of the design analysis were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive content analysis. Themes described parent’s common experiences navigating the system, impacts resulting from such experiences, and desires for the care coordination system. Quotes were then grouped into major themes and subthemes for the capstone conference. After these themes were determined, the overarching goals of stakeholders could be assessed, and implementation projects could be described.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Transitional Care Workflow Redesign

Description

Background and Purpose: Readmission rates for those with chronic conditions are exceeding benchmarks and driving up healthcare spending; there is a need to improve care coordination and outcomes. This project

Background and Purpose: Readmission rates for those with chronic conditions are exceeding benchmarks and driving up healthcare spending; there is a need to improve care coordination and outcomes. This project was done to evaluate and offer evidence-based suggestions for improvement to a multidisciplinary care coordination team in an Accountable Care Organization (ACO). Internal data suggests the team is underutilized within the ACO and that the ACO is underperforming. Conscious workflow design has been shown to improve the efficiency of existing work processes.

Methods: The care coordination team (N=6), licensed practical nurses and social workers, were the project participants. Following Institutional Review Board approval, a presentation was given on current ACO performance data and project goals. Team members were invited to participate by filling out a survey. The 31-item Team Development Measure (Cronbach’s α) assessed team functioning to identify where gaps exist in the team’s processes. Further knowledge about workflow was gained via quality improvement methods of direct observation and informal conversational interviews with team members, the ACO team manager, and various providers within the ACO and their staff. Field notes were analyzed and confirmed with the ACO team manager. Rasch analysis was performed on survey data to convert ordinal numeric results from the Likert scale into an interval score from 0 to 100, which correlates with elements of team development.

Results: Rasch analysis revealed a mean score of 54.17 (SD=8.06). Based on this score, the team has cohesiveness and communication in place but has not yet established role and goal clarity. Analysis of notes and impressions revealed a lack of adherence to date deadlines, inconsistent processes among team members, and use of non-evidence based patient care interventions such as minimal to no home visits and a lack of standardized patient education. Team analysis results, workflow observations, and current evidence on transitional care were integrated into an executive report containing realistic prioritized changes that maximize team member’s skill sets and clarify roles and goals of the team which was provided to the ACO administration along with recommendations for evidence-based process improvements.

Conclusion: This project can serve as a model for analyzing team functioning and workflow to inform agencies where gaps in their processes are affecting performance. The analysis can then be used to recommend evidence based practice changes. Implementation of the suggested workflow should improve existing efforts in trying to meet benchmark quality measures for the ACO as well as improve team functioning.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-04-27

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Modeling clinicians' cognitive and collaborative work in post-operative hospital care

Description

Clinicians confront formidable challenges with information management and coordination activities. When not properly integrated into clinical workflow, technologies can further burden clinicians’ cognitive resources, which is associated with medical errors

Clinicians confront formidable challenges with information management and coordination activities. When not properly integrated into clinical workflow, technologies can further burden clinicians’ cognitive resources, which is associated with medical errors and risks to patient safety. An understanding of workflow is necessary to redesign information technologies (IT) that better support clinical processes. This is particularly important in surgical care, which is among the most clinical and resource intensive settings in healthcare, and is associated with a high rate of adverse events. There are a growing number of tools to study workflow; however, few produce the kinds of in-depth analyses needed to understand health IT-mediated workflow. The goals of this research are to: (1) investigate and model workflow and communication processes across technologies and care team members in post-operative hospital care; (2) introduce a mixed-method framework, and (3) demonstrate the framework by examining two health IT-mediated tasks. This research draws on distributed cognition and cognitive engineering theories to develop a micro-analytic strategy in which workflow is broken down into constituent people, artifacts, information, and the interactions between them. It models the interactions that enable information flow across people and artifacts, and identifies dependencies between them. This research found that clinicians manage information in particular ways to facilitate planned and emergent decision-making and coordination processes. Barriers to information flow include frequent information transfers, clinical reasoning absent in documents, conflicting and redundant data across documents and applications, and that clinicians are burdened as information managers. This research also shows there is enormous variation in how clinicians interact with electronic health records (EHRs) to complete routine tasks. Variation is best evidenced by patterns that occur for only one patient case and patterns that contain repeated events. Variation is associated with the users’ experience (EHR and clinical), patient case complexity, and a lack of cognitive support provided by the system to help the user find and synthesize information. The methodology is used to assess how health IT can be improved to better support clinicians’ information management and coordination processes (e.g., context-sensitive design), and to inform how resources can best be allocated for clinician observation and training.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017