Matching Items (4)
- All Subjects: Adolescent
- All Subjects: Screening
- Creators: College of Nursing and Health Innovation
- Member of: Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Final Projects
- Resource Type: Text
Objective: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder among children. Research has shown that young girls are underserved in diagnosing and treating ADHD or never diagnosed compared males. Utilizing the Health Promotion Model, this project aims to determine if primary care providers are aware of sex differences in ADHD and if a brief education on sex differences in ADHD affects the primary care setting's screening rate.
Design/Methods: With the Arizona institutional review Boards' approval, primary care providers (PCP) in a Southwest family practice in Arizona (n=35) are provided with virtual education on sex differences in ADHD. Pre- post-intervention surveys were electronically administered to five PCPS. Data were deidentified. A two-tailed paired t-test was conducted to examine the mean difference of responses.
Results: Analysis of responses demonstrate that primary care providers are well aware of sex differences in ADHD but screened less for ADHD before the education intervention. Major themes emerged from provider comments on ADHD symptom recognition, time constraints, and increased screening to identify girls in the primary setting. A significant increase in ADHD screening is seen four weeks post-intervention t(4) = -6.32, p = .003.
Conclusion: Future research is needed to identify other factors that could strengthen ADHD screening during well-child visits overall. Also, the use of a pediatric screener which can highlight inattentive symptoms would assist in the process of identifying girls with ADHD.
The physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy can increase risk of maternal periodontal disease. This is more often observed in women seeking prenatal care in community health centers. Poor oral health in pregnancy can negatively impact birth outcomes and the oral health of children born to mothers with a history of perinatal periodontal disease. Despite the evidence of importance and safety, oral health continues to be overlooked during prenatal care visits. There is a lack of interprofessional collaboration between prenatal and dental providers leading to missed opportunities and preventable adverse maternal and fetal health outcomes. Several professional organizations have affirmed that dental care and treatment during pregnancy is safe and recommended to prevent complications during and after pregnancy. In previous studies, barriers preventing pregnant women from receiving oral health exams, oral health education, and referrals include lack of provider awareness regarding the importance of oral health, lack of dental coverage for pregnant women, and reluctance among dental providers to treat women during pregnancy. The Maternal Oral Health Screening (MOS) tool has been used successfully to increase oral health screening in early pregnancy. The MOS was installed in a prenatal care intake form in an electronic health record at a federally qualified health center (FQHC). An education program about oral health care recommendations and safety of oral health care in pregnancy was presented to prenatal care staff. The intervention resulted in increased oral health screening and referral for dental care for pregnant people enrolled at the FQHC.
Preventing deaths from uncontrolled bleeding remains a national priority, as mass causality events in communities and schools continue to rise. National initiatives have been set in motion by the Department of Homeland Security, to teach laypersons hemorrhage control techniques while waiting for emergency personnel to arrive. A full and growing body of evidence supports the use of hemorrhage control training classes among adult laypeople and is growing steadily in the adolescent population. With the majority of shooting events occurring at high schools, the implementation of a hemorrhage control training curriculum can increase survival rates among high school students in the event of an active shooter. The purpose of this paper is to investigate current knowledge and hemorrhage control practices among high school students and the implication of implementing a hemorrhage control educational intervention by evaluating current knowledge of hemorrhage control as well as their willingness, confidence, and perceived value in hemorrhage control education. This evidenced-based assessment is proposed utilizing the Social Learning Theory and Rosswurm and Larrabee’s implementation framework.
Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): Implementation in the Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Setting
Background: The cost of substance use (SU) in the United States (U.S.) is estimated at $1.25 trillion annually. SU is a worldwide health concern, impacting physical and psychological health of those who use substances, their friends, family members, communities and nations. Screening, Brief Intervention (BI) and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) provides an evidence-based (EB) framework to detect and treat SU. Evidence shows that mental health (MH) providers are not providing EB SU management. Federally grant-funded SBIRT demonstrated evidence of decreased SU and prevention of full disorders. Implementation outcomes in smaller-scale projects have included increased clinician knowledge, documentation and interdisciplinary teamwork.
Objective: To improve quality of care (QOC) for adolescents who use substances in the inpatient psychiatric setting by implementing EB SBIRT practices.
Methods: Research questions focused on whether the number of SBIRT notes documented (N=170 charts) increased and whether training of the interdisciplinary team (N=26 clinicians) increased SBIRT knowledge. Individualized interventions used existing processes, training and a new SBIRT Note template. An SBIRT knowledge survey was adapted from a similar study. A pre-and post-chart audit was conducted to show increase in SBIRT documentation. The rationale for the latter was not only for compliance, but also so that all team members can know the status of SBIRT services. Thus, increased interdisciplinary teamwork was an intentional, though indirect, outcome.
Results: A paired-samples t-test indicated clinician SBIRT knowledge significantly increased, with a large effect size. The results suggest that a short, 45-60-minute tailored education module can significantly increase clinician SBIRT knowledge. Auditing screening & BI notes both before and after the study period yielded important patient SU information and which types of SBIRT documentation increased post-implementation. The CRAFFT scores of the patients were quite high from a SU perspective, averaging over 3/6 both pre- and post-implementation, revealing over an 80% chance that the adolescent patient had a SU disorder. Most patients were positive for at least one substance (pre- = 47.1%; post- = 65.2%), with cannabis and alcohol being the most commonly used substances. Completed CRAFFT screenings increased from 62.5% to 72.7% of audited patients. Post-implementation, there were two types of BI notes: the preexisting Progress Note BI (PN BI) and the new Auto-Text BI (AT BI), part of the new SBIRT Note template introduced during implementation. The PN BIs not completed despite a positive screen increased from 79.6% to 83.7%. PN BIs increased 1%. The option for AT BI notes ameliorated this effect. Total BI notes completed for a patient positive for a substance increased from 20.4% to 32.6%, with 67.4% not receiving a documented BI. Total BIs completed for all patients was 21.2% post-implementation.
Conclusion: This project is scalable throughout the U.S. in MH settings and will provide crucial knowledge about positive and negative drivers in small-scale SBIRT implementations. The role of registered nurses (RNs), social workers and psychiatrists in providing SBIRT services as an interdisciplinary team will be enhanced. Likely conclusions are that short trainings can significantly increase clinician knowledge about SBIRT and compliance with standards. Consistent with prior evidence, significant management involvement, SBIRT champions, thought leaders and other consistent emphasis is necessary to continue improving SBIRT practice in the target setting.
Keywords: adolescents, teenagers, youth, alcohol, behavioral health, cannabis, crisis, documentation, drug use, epidemic, high-risk use, illicit drugs, implementation, mental health, opiates, opioid, pilot study, psychiatric inpatient hospital, quality improvement, SBIRT, Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment, substance use, unhealthy alcohol use, use disorders