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Different dimensions of anxiety differentially predict binge drinking among juvenile offenders

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Although research has documented robust prospective relationships between externalizing symptomatology and subsequent binge drinking among adolescents, the extent to which internalizing symptoms increase risk for drinking remains controversial. In particular, the role of anxiety as a predictor of binge drinking

Although research has documented robust prospective relationships between externalizing symptomatology and subsequent binge drinking among adolescents, the extent to which internalizing symptoms increase risk for drinking remains controversial. In particular, the role of anxiety as a predictor of binge drinking remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that one possible reason for these mixed findings is that separate dimensions of anxiety may differentially confer risk for alcohol use. The present study tested two dimensions of anxiety - worry and physiological anxiety -- as predictors of binge drinking in a longitudinal study of juvenile delinquents. Overall, results indicate that worry and physiological anxiety showed differential relations with drinking behavior. In general, worry was protective against alcohol use, whereas physiological anxiety conferred risk for binge drinking, but both effects were conditional on levels of offending. Implications for future research examining the role of anxiety in predicting drinking behavior among youth are discussed.

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2014

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Investigating adverse effects of adolescent group interventions

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This study examined an adverse effect of an adolescent group intervention. Group interventions represent one of the most economical, convenient, and common solution to adolescent behavior problems, although prior findings from program evaluation studies have suggested that these groups can

This study examined an adverse effect of an adolescent group intervention. Group interventions represent one of the most economical, convenient, and common solution to adolescent behavior problems, although prior findings from program evaluation studies have suggested that these groups can unexpectedly increase the externalizing behaviors that they were designed to reduce or prevent. The current study used data from a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial of the Bridges to High School / Puentes a La Secundaria Program, a multicomponent prevention program designed to reduce risk during the middle school transition, which has demonstrated positive effects across an array of outcomes. Data were collected at the beginning of 7th grade, with follow-up data collected at the end of the 7th, 8th, 9th, and 12th grade from a sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers. Analyses evaluated long-term effects on externalizing outcomes, trajectories of externalizing behaviors across adolescence, and potential mediators of observed effects. Results showed that the adverse effect that was originally observed based on adolescent self-report of externalizing symptoms at 1-year posttest among youth with high pretest externalizing symptoms was not maintained over time and was not reflected in changes in adolescents' trajectories of externalizing behaviors. Moreover, neither of the peer mediators that theory suggests would explain adverse effects were found to mediate the relationship between intervention status and externalizing symptoms at 1-year posttest. Finally, only beneficial effects were found on externalizing symptoms based on mother report. Together, these findings suggest that the Bridges intervention did not adversely affect adolescent problem behaviors and that future studies should use caution when interpreting unexpected adverse effects.

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2015

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Substance Use Among Mexican Adolescents Moderators of Intervention Efficacy and Risk Profile

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Adolescent substance use is a complex and significant public health concern that has received considerable attention among researchers and practitioners (Gray & Squeglia, 2018). The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with substance use intervention effects and

Adolescent substance use is a complex and significant public health concern that has received considerable attention among researchers and practitioners (Gray & Squeglia, 2018). The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with substance use intervention effects and to develop subgroups of risk factors for Mexican adolescents. This dissertation utilizes secondary data from a randomized controlled trial of the school-based substance use universal prevention program, keepin’ it REAL (kiR). The dissertation included two studies. Study 1: This study tested a model on the efficacy of the school-based substance use universal prevention program, keepin’ it REAL, among a sample of Mexican adolescents (N = 3,742, 11-17 years old). Study 1 analysis included Structural Equation Modeling and results demonstrated that participation in kiR positively predicted alcohol resistance strategies and those alcohol resistance strategies were negatively and significantly associated with alcohol use. Further, depressive symptomology was a moderator of intervention effects as the effects of kiR on resistance strategies increased as the level of depressive symptomology increased. Study 2: this study explored subgroups (classes) of Mexican adolescents (N = 5,520, 11-14 years old) based on their experiences with violence (witnessing, victimization, and perpetration), depressive symptomology, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana). Using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) four empirically, well-differentiated classes emerged representing adolescents various risk typologies (Moderate Risk-Violence at 55% of the sample, Low Risk at 35%, High Risk at ~8%; and Moderate Risk-Substance Use at ~2%) Implications for research and practice are discussed across both studies.

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2021

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Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): Implementation in the Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Setting

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Background: The cost of substance use (SU) in the United States (U.S.) is estimated at $1.25 trillion annually. SU is a worldwide health concern, impacting physical and psychological health of those who use substances, their friends, family members, communities and

Background: The cost of substance use (SU) in the United States (U.S.) is estimated at $1.25 trillion annually. SU is a worldwide health concern, impacting physical and psychological health of those who use substances, their friends, family members, communities and nations. Screening, Brief Intervention (BI) and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) provides an evidence-based (EB) framework to detect and treat SU. Evidence shows that mental health (MH) providers are not providing EB SU management. Federally grant-funded SBIRT demonstrated evidence of decreased SU and prevention of full disorders. Implementation outcomes in smaller-scale projects have included increased clinician knowledge, documentation and interdisciplinary teamwork.

Objective: To improve quality of care (QOC) for adolescents who use substances in the inpatient psychiatric setting by implementing EB SBIRT practices.

Methods: Research questions focused on whether the number of SBIRT notes documented (N=170 charts) increased and whether training of the interdisciplinary team (N=26 clinicians) increased SBIRT knowledge. Individualized interventions used existing processes, training and a new SBIRT Note template. An SBIRT knowledge survey was adapted from a similar study. A pre-and post-chart audit was conducted to show increase in SBIRT documentation. The rationale for the latter was not only for compliance, but also so that all team members can know the status of SBIRT services. Thus, increased interdisciplinary teamwork was an intentional, though indirect, outcome.

Results: A paired-samples t-test indicated clinician SBIRT knowledge significantly increased, with a large effect size. The results suggest that a short, 45-60-minute tailored education module can significantly increase clinician SBIRT knowledge. Auditing screening & BI notes both before and after the study period yielded important patient SU information and which types of SBIRT documentation increased post-implementation. The CRAFFT scores of the patients were quite high from a SU perspective, averaging over 3/6 both pre- and post-implementation, revealing over an 80% chance that the adolescent patient had a SU disorder. Most patients were positive for at least one substance (pre- = 47.1%; post- = 65.2%), with cannabis and alcohol being the most commonly used substances. Completed CRAFFT screenings increased from 62.5% to 72.7% of audited patients. Post-implementation, there were two types of BI notes: the preexisting Progress Note BI (PN BI) and the new Auto-Text BI (AT BI), part of the new SBIRT Note template introduced during implementation. The PN BIs not completed despite a positive screen increased from 79.6% to 83.7%. PN BIs increased 1%. The option for AT BI notes ameliorated this effect. Total BI notes completed for a patient positive for a substance increased from 20.4% to 32.6%, with 67.4% not receiving a documented BI. Total BIs completed for all patients was 21.2% post-implementation.

Conclusion: This project is scalable throughout the U.S. in MH settings and will provide crucial knowledge about positive and negative drivers in small-scale SBIRT implementations. The role of registered nurses (RNs), social workers and psychiatrists in providing SBIRT services as an interdisciplinary team will be enhanced. Likely conclusions are that short trainings can significantly increase clinician knowledge about SBIRT and compliance with standards. Consistent with prior evidence, significant management involvement, SBIRT champions, thought leaders and other consistent emphasis is necessary to continue improving SBIRT practice in the target setting.

Keywords: adolescents, teenagers, youth, alcohol, behavioral health, cannabis, crisis, documentation, drug use, epidemic, high-risk use, illicit drugs, implementation, mental health, opiates, opioid, pilot study, psychiatric inpatient hospital, quality improvement, SBIRT, Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment, substance use, unhealthy alcohol use, use disorders

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2019-05-02