Matching Items (3)

Integrated Clinical Animal Behavior

Integrated Clinical Animal Behavior

Description

In this paper, I outline the drawbacks with the two main behavioral approaches to animal behavior problems and argue that each alone is insufficient to underpin a field of clinical

In this paper, I outline the drawbacks with the two main behavioral approaches to animal behavior problems and argue that each alone is insufficient to underpin a field of clinical animal behavior. Applied ethology offers an interest in an animal’s spontaneous behavior in natural contexts, understood within an ecological and evolutionary context, but lacks an awareness of mechanisms that can be manipulated to modify the behavior of individual animals. Behaviorism in the form of Applied Behavior Analysis offers a toolkit of techniques for modifying the behavior of individual animals, but has seldom been applied to non-human species, and often overlooks phylogenetic aspects of behavior. Notwithstanding the historical animosities between the two fields of animal behavior they are philosophically highly compatible – both being empiricist schools stemming ultimately from Darwin’s insights. Though each individually is incomplete, I argue that an integrated approach that synthesizes the strengths of each holds great promise in helping the many animals who need our assistance to survive and thrive in human-dominated environments.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-02-05

157999-Thumbnail Image.png

A look into the design process: theory driven design for behavior change

Description

As the designer is asked to design, create, or simply solve a problem, many factors go into that process. It generally begins with defining the scope or problem that undergoes

As the designer is asked to design, create, or simply solve a problem, many factors go into that process. It generally begins with defining the scope or problem that undergoes an iterative process utilizing different tools and techniques to generate the desired outcome. This is often referred to as the design process. Notwithstanding the many factors that influence this process, this study investigates the use of theory for behavior change and its effect on the design process. While social behavioral theories have been extensively discussed in the realm of design, and a well-developed body of literature exists, there is limited knowledge about how designers respond to and incorporate theory into their design process. Fogg’s persuasive design (2003), Lockton’s design with intent (2009) and Tromp’s social implication framework (2011) stand as exemplars of new strategies developed towards design for behavior change that are able to empower designers’ mindsets, providing them with a uniquely insightful perspective to entice change. Instead of focusing on the effectiveness of the design end product, this study focuses on how theory-driven approaches affect the ideation and framing fragment of the design process. A workshop case study with senior design students was utilized with focused observations and post-workshop interviews to answer the research questions. This study contributes by providing a useful method of documenting a behavioral economics theory to the design process in a workshop setting. It also provides insights on how behavioral change theory application can be incorporated in a segment of the design process.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

154138-Thumbnail Image.png

Interval timing under a behavioral microscope: dissociating motivational and timing processes in fixed-interval performance

Description

Theories of interval timing have largely focused on accounting for the aggregate properties of behavior engendered by periodic reinforcement, such as sigmoidal psychophysical functions and their scalar property. Many theories

Theories of interval timing have largely focused on accounting for the aggregate properties of behavior engendered by periodic reinforcement, such as sigmoidal psychophysical functions and their scalar property. Many theories of timing also stipulate that timing and motivation are inseparable processes. Such a claim is challenged by fluctuations in and out of states of schedule control, making it unclear whether motivation directly affects states related to timing. The present paper seeks to advance our understanding of timing performance by analyzing and comparing the distribution of latencies and inter-response times (IRTs) of rats in two fixed-interval (FI) schedules of food reinforcement (FI 30-s and FI 90-s), and in two levels of food deprivation. Computational modeling revealed that each component was well described by mixture probability distributions embodying two-state Markov chains. Analysis of these models revealed that only a subset of latencies are sensitive to the periodicity of reinforcement, and pre-feeding only reduces the size of this subset. The distribution of IRTs suggests that behavior in FI schedules is organized in bouts that lengthen and ramp up in frequency with proximity to reinforcement. Pre-feeding slowed down the lengthening of bouts and increased the time between bouts. When concatenated, these models adequately reproduced sigmoidal FI response functions. These findings suggest that behavior in FI fluctuates in and out of schedule control; an account of such fluctuation suggests that timing and motivation are dissociable components of FI performance. These mixture-distribution models also provide novel insights on the motivational, associative, and timing processes expressed in FI performance, which need to be accounted for by causal theories of interval timing.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015