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Traditional design education consists of three phases: perceptual, transitional, and professional. This study explored three independent variables (IVs) as predictors of success in the Transitional Phase of a visual communication design (VCD) program: (a) prior academic performance (as reported by GPA); (b) cognitive style (assessed with Peterson, Deary, and Austin's Verbal Imagery Cognitive Styles Test [VICS] and Extended Cognitive Style Analysis-Wholistic Analytic Test [E-CSA-WA]); and (c) learning style (assessed with Kolb's Learning Style Inventory [LSI] 3.1). To address the research problem and hypothesis, this study examined (a) the relationship between academic performance, cognitive style, and learning style, and visual communication design students' performance in the Transitional Phase; (b) the cognitive style and learning style preferences of visual communication design students as compared with other samples; and (c) how the resulting knowledge can be used to improve instructional design for the Transitional Phase in VCD programs. Multiple regression analysis revealed that 9% of Transitional Phase performance was predicted by studio GPA. No other variables were statistically significant predictors of Transitional Phase performance. However, ANOVA and t tests revealed statistically significant and suggested relationships among components of the independent variables, that indicate avenues for future study. The results are discussed in the context of style-based learning theory, and the cognitive apprenticeship approach to instructional design.
Industrial design is the practice of creating solutions by studying people and businesses. Originally centered on development of goods, industrial design uses methods rooted in human behavioral study, human factors, and strategic problem solving. As our economy and professional practice shift away from manufacturing towards a service-dominant landscape, industrial design must align its profession to formally include service design. The small service business setting is a microcosm in which the value of design and branding in business is magnified. This research reinforces design's ties with services marketing and business and is dedicated to finding solutions for the backbone of our economy. Micro-businesses with fewer than 20 employees often lack the sophisticated management, marketing, and strategies that bring about success. Despite the fact that 70% to 80% of small and micro businesses are service based, little research is dedicated to unique strategies for these small service firms. Research has shown that using strategic business design increases small business success. Given high small business failure rates, it behooves entrepreneurs to use intuitive planning tools that are appropriate for the dynamic startup years. When put within reach and context of small business owners, the tools used in design draw a clear map of insights into the "design" of small businesses. Through a literature review, interviews, and a new workshop method, the needs of small business owners and the challenges they face are used to design and implement an accessible, actionable strategic toolkit for small service businesses. This simple, interdisciplinary toolkit was designed with the goal of increasing the efficacy and likelihood of ongoing strategic business planning through context-specific, instrumental activities. The tools are shown to help a business owner form pragmatic, iterative problem-solving approaches that allow the business owner to plan in the face of uncertainty and find insights into her own business, brand, and services.
In geographical locations with hot-arid climates, sun control in buildings is one primary problem to solve for the building envelope design. Today's technological advances in building science bring with them the opportunity to design dynamic façade systems for sun radiation control and daylighting. Although dynamic systems can become an attractive visual element, they can be costly and challenging to maintain for building owners. Alternatively, fixed solar-shading systems can be designed to create dynamism in the façade of the building, while providing similar functionalities for sun control. The work presented in this project focuses on the use of a visual scripting editor for modeling software, Grasshopper, to develop a Solar Control Visual Script that evaluates building envelope surfaces with planar and non-uniform rational basis-spline (NURBS) forms and provides projections for fixed sun control systems. The design platform of Grasshopper allows individuals with no experience or prior computer coding education to build up programming-like capabilities; this feature permits users to discover new design possibilities within flexible frames that can contribute to the overall design being pursued, while also having an environmental response. The Solar Control Visual Script provides minimum sizing geometries that achieve shading in openings at a particular date and time of the year. The model for this method of analysis makes use of three components to derive the appropriate values for the projections of shading geometries: typical meteorological year (TMY) data, irradiation isotropic equations and shading profile angles equations for vertical and tilted surfaces. Providing an automatic visual of generated geometries uncovers the opportunity to test several model forms and reiterates the analysis when modifying control parameters. By employing building science as a set of environmental parameters, the design outcome bears a dynamic form that responds to natural force conditions. The optimized results promote an efficient environmental design solution for sun control as an integral alternative into the building envelope.
Digital Fabrication has played a pivotal role in providing reality to industrial designers' ideas since its first commercial use in late 80's. Making the final prototype of a design project has been the initial assumed use for these technologies in the design process. However, new technology advances in this area offer further opportunities for designers. In this research these opportunities have been carefully explored. This research will be conceptualized through discussing the findings of a case study and theories in the areas of Industrial Design methodology, digital fabrication, and design pedagogy. Considering the span of digital fabrication capabilities, this research intends to look into the design-fabrication relation from a methodology perspective and attempts to answer the question of how the digital fabrication methods can be integrated into the Industrial Design process to increase the tangibility of the design process in very first steps. It will be argued that the above is achievable in certain design topics - i.e. those with known components but unknown architecture. This will be studied through the development of series of hypothetical design processes emphasizing the role of digital fabrication as an ideation tool rather than a presentation tool. In this case study, two differing processes have been developed and given to Industrial Design students to design specific power tools. One of them is developed based on the precedence of digital fabrication. Then the outcome of the two processes is compared and evaluated. This research will introduce the advantages of using the digital fabrication techniques as a powerful ideation tool, which overcomes the imagination problems in many of complicated design topics. More importantly, this study suggests the criteria of selecting the proposed design methodology. It is hoped that these findings along with the advances in the area of additive and subtractive fabrication will assist industrial designers to create unique methodologies to deal with complicated needs both in practice and design education.
Despite public demand for climate change mitigation and natural open space conservancy, existing political and design efforts are only beginning to address the declining efficacy of the biotic carbon pool (C-pool) to sequester carbon. Advances in understanding of biogeochemical processes have provided methods for estimating carbon embodied in natural open spaces and enhancing carbon sequestration efficacy. In this study, the benefits of carbon embodied in dryland open spaces are determined by estimating carbon flux and analyzing ecological, social, and economic benefits provided by sequestered carbon. Understanding the ecological processes and derived benefits of carbon exchange in dryland open spaces will provide insight into enhancing carbon sequestration efficacy. Open space carbon is estimated by calculating the amount of carbon sequestration (estimated in Mg C / ha / y) in dryland open space C-pools. Carbon sequestration in dryland open spaces can be summarized in five open space typologies: hydric, mesic, aridic, biomass for energy agriculture, and traditional agriculture. Hydric (wetland) systems receive a significant amount of moisture; mesic (riparian) systems receive a moderate amount of moisture; and aridic (dry) systems receive low amounts of moisture. Biomass for energy production (perennial biomass) and traditional agriculture (annual / traditional biomass) can be more effective carbon sinks if managed appropriately. Impacts of design interventions to the carbon capacity of dryland open space systems are calculated by estimating carbon exchange in existing open space (base case) compared to projections of carbon sequestered in a modified system (prototype design). A demonstration project at the Lower San Pedro River Watershed highlights the potential for enhancing carbon sequestration. The site-scale demonstration project takes into account a number of limiting factors and opportunities including: availability of water and ability to manipulate its course, existing and potential vegetation, soil types and use of carbon additives, and land-use (particularly agriculture). Specific design challenges to overcome included: restoring perennial water to the Lower San Pedro River, reestablishing hydric and mesic systems, linking fragmented vegetation, and establishing agricultural systems that provide economic opportunities and act as carbon sinks. The prototype design showed enhancing carbon sequestration efficacy by 128-133% is possible with conservative design interventions.
All too often, industrial designers face seemingly intractable obstacles as they endeavor to, as Simon (1996, p. 111) describes, devise "courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones." These problems, described by Rittel and Webber (1973) as "wicked," are insurmountable due to the contradictory and changing nature of their requirements. I argue that that industrial design (ID) is largely subject to Rittel's quandary because of its penchant for producing single solutions for large populations; such design solutions are bound, in some senses, to fail due to the contradictory and changing nature of large and, thus, inherently diverse populations. This one-size-fits-all approach is not a necessary attribute of ID, rather, it is a consequence of the time in which it came into being, specifically, the period of industrial mass production. Fortunately, new, agile manufacturing techniques, inexpensive sensors, and machine learning provide an alternative course for ID to take, but it requires a new way of thinking and it requires a new set of methods, which I will elaborate in this thesis. According to Duguay, Landry, and Pasin (1997), we are entering an age where it will be feasible to produce individualized, one-off products from large-scale industrial manufacturing facilities in a way that is not only cost effective, but in many ways as cost effective as the existing techniques of mass production. By availing ourselves of these opportunities, we can tame the problem, not by defeating Rittel's logic, rather by reducing the extent to which his theories are appropriate to the domain of ID. This thesis also describes a test study: an experiment whose design was guided by the proposed design methodologies. The goal of the experiment was to determine the feasibility of a noninvasive system for measuring the health of the forearm muscles. Such a tool would provide the basis for assessing the true impact and possible pathogeny of the manual use of products or modifications to products. Previously, it was considered impossible to use surface electromyography (as opposed to needle or wire based electromyography) to assess muscular activity and muscular health due to the complexity of the arrangement of muscles in the forearm. Attempts to overcome this problem have failed because they have tried to create a single solution for all people. My hypothesis is that, by designing for each individual, a solution may be found. Specifically, I show that, for any given individual, there is a high correlation between the EMG signal and the movements of the fingers that, ostensibly, those muscles control. In other words, by knowing, with great accuracy, the position and the motion of the hand then it would become possible to disambiguate the mixed signals coming from the complex web of muscles in the forearm and enable the assessment of the forearm's health by non-invasive means.
This research contributes to emergent body of knowledge regarding the understanding of relationship between visual elements and E-learning outcomes. Visual images and texts are the main visual elements within the study.
A literature review was conducted on E-learning situations, and a discussion on the role of visual elements in E-learning. Data collection was also conducted by way of a test, which randomly placed participants into three groups and assigned them to three different E-learning courses. The texts for the three courses were the same font, but the first course had text only, the second course had text and "bad" images, and the third one had text and "good" images. Every time participants finished a short course, they were requested to do a short quiz based on what they had learned. In addition, every participant needed to do a survey based on his or her E-learning experience. Research data was finally collected through the test scores and surveys.
Key findings of this research are: (1) The combination of text and "good" image materials in E-learning can greatly enhance the learning outcomes; (2) the "good" images in learning materials can add to the value of the text content as well as improve the satisfactory level of learners in E-learning; (3) "bad" images do not enhance E-learning outcomes; and (4) E-learners will spend a longer time to complete learning materials containing images, no matter how good or "bad" the images are.
Millions of US aging individuals are at risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (Ad). Ad is progressive; there is no clinical cure to date. Certain drugs treat symptoms yet fog memory. Memory activity is critical to strengthen cognition. The Phoenix Art Museum (PAM) and Banner Alzheimer's Institute (BAI) founded the Arts Engagement Program (AEP), a non-clinical, specialized arts program for adults with (MCI) and their caregiver. The museum environment is thought to enhance communication and raise self-esteem in certain MCI individuals. The interior surroundings may spurn memory enhancement. Scholarship to substantiate this theory is minimal; therefore, further studies are required. Empirical literature regarding design elements researched specific types of memory impairment was employed. The hypotheses that design elements of the museum's infrastructure and design elements from art themes enhance memory, and the results of these findings when applied to other environments enhance memory emerged. An experience-based study was performed. Semi-structured interviews noting design elements of both infrastructure and art were conducted after each of nine AEP sessions with volunteers from 8 dyads, a term used by the PAM as one caregiver and one MCI individual. The presiding docent was later interviewed. Volunteer interviews with dyads and docents was coded and ranked. Overlapping themes that tallied five or higher were considered significant due the low sample size. Results showed that neither group considered infrastructure design elements or art theme design elements a contributor to memory enhancement. The hypotheses proved null. Both groups expressed pleasure in experiencing the PAM’s environment. Keywords: MCI, infrastructure, art themes.
Due to the lack of understanding of soil thermal behavior, rules-of-thumb and generalized procedures are typically used to guide building professionals in the design of ground coupled heat pump systems. This is especially true when sizing the ground heat exchanger (GHE) loop. Unfortunately, these generalized procedures often encourage building engineers to adopt a conservative design approach resulting in the gross over-sizing of the GHE, thus drastically increasing their installation cost. This conservative design approach is particularly prevalent for buildings located in hot and arid climates, where the soils are often granular and where the water table tends to exist deep below the soil surface. These adverse soil conditions reduce the heat dissipation efficiency of the GHE and have hindered the adoption of ground coupled heat pump systems in such climates. During cooling mode operation, heat is extracted from the building and rejected into the ground via the GHE. Prolonged heat dissipation into the ground can result in a coupled flow of both heat and moisture, causing the moisture to migrate away from the GHE piping. This coupled flow phenomenon causes the soil near the GHE to dry out and results in the degradation of the GHE heat dissipation capacity. Although relatively simple techniques of backfilling the GHE have been used in practice to mitigate such coupled effects, methods of improving the thermal behavior of the backfill region around the GHE, especially in horizontal systems, have not been extensively studied. This thesis presents an experimental study of heat dissipation from a horizontal GHE, buried in two backfill materials: (1) dry sand, and (2) wax-sand composite mixture. The HYDRUS software was then used to numerically model the temperature profiles associated with the aforementioned backfill conditions, and the influence of the contact resistance at the GHE-backfill interface was studied. The modeling strategy developed in HYDRUS was proven to be adequate in predicting the thermal performance of GHE buried in dry sand. However, when predicting the GHE heat dissipation in the wax-sand backfill, significant discrepancies between model prediction and experimental results still exist even after calibrating the model by including a term for the contact resistance. Overall, the thermal properties of the backfill were determined to be a key determinant of the GHE heat dissipation capacity. In particular, the wax-sand backfill was estimated to dissipate 50-60% more heat than dry sand backfill.
The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of baby boomers' attitudes toward video chat applications and software based on their user experiences through the measurement of the level of use, usefulness, usability and aesthetics preferences. 133 participants recruited at a local public library and at three senior centers took the survey and 14 respondents were interviewed. The results of the study indicate: (1) Baby boomers have diverse attitudes and experiences in video chatting, but their attitudes do not present a significant difference from those of older generations; (2) Baby boomers' preferences for interface design are influenced by their psychological characteristics rather than physical changes; (3) Family members and close friends are a great resource for assistance and motivation for boomers. The knowledge of motivational factors and barrier factors could help maintain the existing baby boomer users and encourage potential users by providing an improved video chat experience design for them to connect with younger generations. This research could also lead social services into the telehealth age by bridging the gap between a traditional intervention and modern instant video communication.