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Industrial design is the practice of creating solutions by studying people and businesses. Originally centered on development of goods, industrial design uses methods rooted in human behavioral study, human factors, and strategic problem solving. As our economy and professional practice shift away from manufacturing towards a service-dominant landscape, industrial design must align its profession to formally include service design. The small service business setting is a microcosm in which the value of design and branding in business is magnified. This research reinforces design's ties with services marketing and business and is dedicated to finding solutions for the backbone of our economy. Micro-businesses with fewer than 20 employees often lack the sophisticated management, marketing, and strategies that bring about success. Despite the fact that 70% to 80% of small and micro businesses are service based, little research is dedicated to unique strategies for these small service firms. Research has shown that using strategic business design increases small business success. Given high small business failure rates, it behooves entrepreneurs to use intuitive planning tools that are appropriate for the dynamic startup years. When put within reach and context of small business owners, the tools used in design draw a clear map of insights into the "design" of small businesses. Through a literature review, interviews, and a new workshop method, the needs of small business owners and the challenges they face are used to design and implement an accessible, actionable strategic toolkit for small service businesses. This simple, interdisciplinary toolkit was designed with the goal of increasing the efficacy and likelihood of ongoing strategic business planning through context-specific, instrumental activities. The tools are shown to help a business owner form pragmatic, iterative problem-solving approaches that allow the business owner to plan in the face of uncertainty and find insights into her own business, brand, and services.
The goal of this research was to contribute to the understanding of how the physical design of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environments may be improved to enhance nursing communication, and in turn, the quality and safety of patient outcomes. This study was guided by two research questions: (1) What are the major characteristics of nurse communication in a hybrid ICU nurse station design? (2) What are the factors in the built environment that enhance or hinder nurse communication in a hybrid ICU nurse station design? The research design was exploratory and qualitative. Observations were conducted in two ICUs with hybrid nurse station layouts. Participant observation was used to systematically observe and document nurse communication and the physical attributes of the ICU nurse work environment that affect communication. Literature, observations, and information regarding staffing and design about the selected ICUs were analyzed for the generation of concepts and the exploration of significant themes. Results show that nurse interactions with other staff members varied within the different zones of the ICU pod. A biaxial map illustrates four key types of core nurse communication interactions: At ease, On guard, In motion, and On the edge. The quadrants representing barriers to nurse communication are On guard and On the edge, and included interactions with other staff members in the pod. The quadrants representing facilitators to nurse communication are At ease and In motion. The hybrid nurse station layout supported nurse-nurse communication, but not communication interactions with other staff members present on the pod. The results provide a broad understanding of how nurse communication is affected by the environment in which nurses work, and allows for the emergence of design opportunities to enhance nurse communication.
In recent years, the length of time people use and keep belongings has decreased. With the acceptance of short-lived furniture and inexpensive replacements, the American mentality has shifted to thinking that discarding furniture is normal, often in the guise of recycling. Americans are addicted to landfills. The high cost of landfill real estate and other considerable ecological impacts created by the manufacturing of furniture should persuade people to give their belongings a longer life, but in reality, furniture is often prematurely discarded. This grounded theory study takes a multi-method approach to analyze why some types of furniture are kept longer and to theorize about new ways to design and sell furniture that lasts well past its warranty. Case studies bring new insight into designer intention, manufacturer intent, the world of auction-worthy collectables and heirlooms, why there is a booming second-hand furniture market and the growing importance of informed interior designers and architects who specify or help clients choose interior furnishings. An environmental life cycle assessment compares how the length of furniture life affects environmental impacts. A product's life could continue for generations if properly maintained. Designers and manufacturers hoping to promote longevity can apply the conclusions of this report in bringing new pieces to the market that have a much longer life span. This study finds areas of opportunity that promote user attachment, anticipate future repurposing, and provide services. This thinking envisions a paradigm for furniture that can re-invent itself over multiple generations of users, and ultimately lead to a new wave of desirable heirloom furniture.
This thesis documents the design history of the Riordan Mansion, and Arts and Crafts style duplex built in Flagstaff, Arizona in 1904 by brothers Michael and Timothy Riordan. The study investigates factors that influenced the design including the Riordan family; the location in Flagstaff, Arizona; the architect, Charles Whittlesey; the Arts and Crafts Movement, and other cultural influences such as religion, naturalism, exoticism, art, and literature. Exterior facade and interior plan, construction materials, technological advances, and furnishings all demonstrate Arts and Crafts characteristics and key principles of the design reform movement. Design reform began in the 1860s with a rejection of the Industrial Revolution's use of machine produced goods, seeking to restore to daily life fundamental values and living standards based upon usefulness and beauty and to promote the importance of the craftsman. The Riordan Mansion (now an Arizona State Park) demonstrates Arts and Crafts principles through its setting and incorporation of local materials; its unified duplex plan, which is unique among grand American Arts and Crafts mansions; its sophisticated interior that utilizes such typical traits as the inglenook, built-in and custom designed furnishings; moldings that repeat from room to room; and collections of Native American and Asian artifacts, an extensive library, paintings and photographs. This home is an extension of its Flagstaff setting to which the Riordans were tied as community leaders.
A growing body of research shows that characteristics of the built environment in healthcare facilities impact patients' well-being. Research findings suggest that patients form judgments of perceived quality care based on environmental characteristics. Patient outcomes and ratings of quality of care are linked to the environments' ability to reduce patient stress as well as influence perceptions of quality of care. Historically, this research has been focused in the hospital environment. The United States healthcare system heavily relies on hospitals to treat (rather than prevent) illness, leading to a high per capita healthcare expenditure. Currently, this healthcare system is shifting to rely heavily on ambulatory care settings and primary care providers to detect, prevent, and manage expensive medical conditions. The highest rates of preventable disease and the lowest rates of primary care usage are found in the young adult population (ages 18 to 24). More than any other patient population, this segment rates their satisfaction with healthcare significantly low. For this population education, early detection, and monitoring will be key for a primary care focused model to have the greatest impact on care and long-term savings. Strong patient-physician connections ensure the success of a primary care focused model. The physical environment has the opportunity to provide a message consistent with a physician's practice values and goals. Environmental cues in the waiting area have the potential to relay these messages to the patient prior to physician contact. Through an understanding and optimization of these cues patient perception of quality of care may be increased, thus improving the patient-physician relationship. This study provides insight on how to optimize environmental impact on the healthcare experience. This descriptive exploratory study utilized a non-verbal self-report instrument to collect demographic information and measure participant's responses to two panoramic photos of primary care provider waiting areas. Respondents were asked to identify physical elements in the photos that contributed to their perceptions of the quality of care to be expected. The sample population consisted of 33, 18 to 24 year-olds leaving a total of 234 emotional markers and comments. Qualitative and quantitative revealed three key themes of appeal, comfort, and regard. Physical elements, in the photos, related to the themes include: General areas that were important to the respondents were the seating and reception areas, as well as the overall appearance of the waiting area. Key elements identified to be significant characteristics influencing perceptions of quality of care are presented in this study.
Much of the literature and many of the studies surrounding brainstorming focus on the performance and the quantitative aspects of the process in comparing the efficacy of individual versus group settings, specifically the benefits and pitfalls associated with each. This study looked at using alternate combinations of both individual and group styles of brainstorming to most efficiently maximize production of ideas and satisfaction of participants, while minimizing obstacles and shortcomings typically seen in brainstorming sessions. This research was designed to compare results of three different aspects of these sessions: real efficacy, perceived efficacy, and participant satisfaction. Two cohorts of eight student volunteers each were used to participate in and evaluate the specific session sequence they attended, either that of group then individual or individual then group. Each cohort consisted of four introverts and four extroverts, and the results and responses of each were then compared against each other in the same session and then against the results of the other session to see if there was a difference between the two personality types. The findings of this research revealed that the brainstorming session sequence of group then individual generated a larger quantity of solutions to the given problem and was perceived as more effective by both introverts and extroverts. The study also showed that introverts self-reported a higher satisfaction for the session ending in individual brainstorming, while the extroverts preferred the session ending with the group brainstorming.
This project is an Industrial Design concept development using personal research from developing Southeast Asian countries. The scope of the project is from initial conception, research, ideation, computer modeling and rendering.
The process of this study involves conducting empirical tests on consumer's emotional responses toward tableware designs by statistic measurements (PrEmo), including both Chinese and American cultures. The objective to this study is to research the correlation between consumers' cognitive analysis of Chinese tableware designs and their emotional responses. The author proposes that the correlationship between consumers' cognition of Chinese tableware and emotional responses will lead to a new opportunity in the industrial design industry. Fifty-seven people responded to sixty-seven invitations to join the research project at Chinese restaurants in both China and America. Throughout the process of coding and organizing the survey data, a finding shows that there is a connection between consumer sensitivity toward the products and their emotional bonds to the assigned product designs. The data showed that more people in China are expending greater effort in choosing suitable tableware designs compared to the people in the U.S. Key words: Emotion, Cognition, Culture, Tableware design, Chinese restaurants