Matching Items (29)
Over the past century, the relationship between the built environment and people’s health and well-being has become central to the discussion and critique of healthcare design. The concept of such a relationship is not new; more than a century ago, Florence Nightingale promoted a particular vision for hospital design. Her concerns with naturalism, acoustics, ventilation, and aesthetics in the healthcare environment are as relevant today as they were in the mid-19th century.
This dissertation examines Nightingale’s contributions to the development of the nascent field of healthcare interiors by: identifying major developments of healthcare interiors through the centuries; investigating Nightingale’s life, work, and principles on the healthcare environment; and examining whether certain contemporary hospital design approaches support, expand upon, or negate her principles. The research integrates material culture analysis of extant objects and content analysis of documents within the framework of a case study of two healthcare facilities in Tucson, Arizona.
Findings show that the Nightingale era was seminal in the evolution of the healthcare environment, with key developments towards healthful interiors for the sick. Wide adoption of hospital design guidelines suggested by Nightingale—emphasizing physical elements such as ventilation, natural light, view, sanitization, and ambiance—occurred in various types of healthcare facilities, including military and tuberculosis sanatoria around the world. Additionally, analysis of the case study shows just how welcoming and supportive a 1920s healthcare facility, like the Desert Sanitarium, can be. The facility successfully adapts Florence Nightingale’s principles to the local climate and context, including indigenous pueblo architecture, traditional
Southwestern materials, Native American artifacts, desert views, and even the traditional courtyard plan used by Spanish colonial settlers. This successful adaptation suggests that Nightingale’s principles may be valuable to and relevant within different places and times, even today.
Thus, Nightingale contributed to the emerging field of healthcare interiors by: 1) functionally organizing the built environment affecting patients’ healing, 2) preventing healthcare-associated infection in the physical environment, and 3) supporting psychological health with aesthetic amenities. The findings advance interior design scholarship, education, and practice; and further the documentation and explication of Arizona’s history in the healthcare environment.
Study in user experience design states that there is a considerable gap between users and designers. Collaborative design and empathetic design methods attempt to make a strong relationship between these two. In participatory design activities, projective `make tools' are required for users to show their thoughts. This research is designed to apply an empathetic way of using `make tools' in user experience design for websites clients, users, and designers.
A magnetic wireframe tool has been used as a `make tool', and a sample project has been defined in order to see how the tool can create empathy among stakeholders. In this study fourth year graphic design students at Arizona State University (ASU), USA, are participating as users, faculty members have the role of clients, and Forty, Inc., a design firm in the Phoenix area, is the design team for the study. All of these three groups are cooperating on re-designing the homepage of the Design School in Herberger Institute for Design and Art (HIDA) at ASU.
A method for applying the magnetic tool was designed and used for each group. Results of users and clients' activities were shared with the design team, and they designed a final prototype for the wireframe of the sample project. Observation and interviews were done to see how participants work with the tool. Also, follow up questionnaires were used in order to evaluate all groups' experiences with the magnetic wireframe. Lastly, as a part of questionnaires, a sentence completion method has been used in order to collect the participants' exact thoughts about the magnetic tool.
Observations and results of data analysis in this research show that the tool was a helpful `make tool' for users and clients. They could talk about their ideas and also designers could learn more about people. The entire series of activities caused an empathetic relationship among stakeholders of the sample project. This method of using `make tools' in user experience design for web sites can be useful for collaborative UX design activities and further research in user experience design with empathy.
The humans-food relationship is a 2.5 million year old, symbiotic connection of “living together” which encouraged a “system of communication up and down the food chain” (Pollan, 2008). (Reardon, 2015). Many researchers agree that this connection is a critical foundation for a beneficial relationship with food and engaging in healthy eating behaviors (McKeown, 2010; Neumark-Stainer et al., 2007; Ristovski-Slejepcevic et al., 2008; Simontacchi, 2007). Against the backdrop of a steadily increasing obesity rate and associated spending, it is critical to approach this issue from a systematic perspective such as understanding the powers that impact the consumer-food relationship (Aronne and Havas, 2009). Experts agree that the rapid increase in convenience food environments has contributed to an obesogenic foodscape that has negatively impacted consumers’ understanding of and interactions with food, resulting in consumption of nutritionally poor food, over-nutrition and chronic illness (Brownell and Battle-Horgen, 2004; Nestle, 2002). Additionally, designers and researchers are beginning to recognize the influence the built environment can have on actions (Patel, 2012; Wansink, 2010), behaviors and attitudes (Gallagher, 1993), even hindering or encouraging one to partake in healthy behaviors (Mikkelsen, 2011; Story et al., 2008). The goal of this study is to understand modern built convenience food environment design and its potential to impact the consumer-food relationship. This study utilizes a heavily qualitative approach, structured by a grounded theory methodology due to the lack of existing research (Martin & Hanington, 2012; O’Leary, 2010) and triangulates utilizing an analysis of secondary research, environmental audit through observations and a survey. The final result will be a compilation of design suggestions, based on those findings, for designing a BCCFE that encourages a healthy relationship between the consumer and food.
Eat Your Heart Out is a visually rich qualitative ethnic food research that examines consumption, production, and distribution practices transnationally. Through the example of Mumbai’s street foods, the study aims to discover how design participates in fashioning the street food experiences locally and globally.
Food is an important cultural artifact in the world. However, past research in design suggests that the discipline has mainly focused on food as a catalyst for creativity and imagination or as a tool to examine materialistic, economical, sensorial, and emotional connections. Studying the user-focused involvement in the creation of food artifacts and focusing on cultural, global, and historical aspects of that participation are important to address the gaps in the knowledge required to solve increasingly “wicked problems” (Buchanan, 1992; Rittel, 1971). To achieve this goal, Eat Your Heart Out implemented a comparative practice-based study of the Indian street foods in Mumbai and Phoenix to examine consumption, production, and distribution practices at both places. The methodological design was highly multi-disciplinary in nature and included rapid ethnographic assessment, interviews, visual research, and a generative method of co-creation.
The study revealed that street foods as cultural artifacts were deeply rooted in specific traditional values specific to the context, which significantly influenced personal and communal consumption, production, and distribution practices of Indian street foods in Mumbai and Phoenix. The values of standardization, formality, and higher food regulation practices limited the diversity and radically transformed the central values of Mumbai’s street foods when the foods re-territorialized in Phoenix. This resulted in lowering the consumption.
Eat Your Heart Out presents cultural and practical insights into the interactions between contexts, artifacts, practices, and participants. Eat Your Heart Out recommends new frameworks of correlation for various consumption and production practices and suggests how street food artifacts alter when they move across cultures. Such knowledge can be valuable for similar ethnic food culture studies and the development of innovative research tools incorporating transnational and multidisciplinary methods in the future.
On a broader scope, Eat Your Heart Out provides a unique opportunity to study a culture that has not been examined by scholars much in the past. It also focuses on gaining knowledge about ethnic culinary practices of Indian immigrants in the United States and encouraging enhanced cross-cultural acceptance.
Recent studies indicate that there is a positive influence of nature and nature integrated built environments on human health and wellness in various physical, physiological and social domains. This thesis critically reviews formally and contextually three distinct residential typologies designed by renowned architects Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959), Lina Bo Bardi (1914-1992), and Ryue Nishizawa (1966-), in different periods and countries; the United States of America (USA), Brazil and Japan. Yet, the buildings analyzed in the research are relatively connected by means of nature and the natural elements in their constructed essence. This research focuses on the features of the buildings that characterize the Biophilic Design, along with theoretical and practical ideas of the architects behind each building in their own process of formation.
The Biophilic Design Framework has been developed out of the Biophilia Hypothesis (Fromm, 1973; Wilson, 1984) which puts forward an explanatory suggestion that human affinity and affiliation with nature are based on genetic and environmental adaptation processes. This research is designed to display how specific natural phenomena apply to the built environment within the Framework of Biophilic Design (Kellert, & Calabrese, 2015) and how the Biophilia Hypothesis translates into the built environment. To accomplish this, two primary and three secondary research questions were developed for the study. The research will provide an understanding of the Biophilia Hypothesis and its impact on the built environment through the evaluation of research variables on the case studies using the ‘twenty-four attributes’ indicated in the ‘three experiences’ of Biophilic Design.
These architects’ approaches and the methods applied theoretically and practically to these research sites were unveiled and analyzed through three case studies. A positive correlation regarding the success of the case studies and their Biophilic characteristics is found by analyzing the research sites and critiques from the authorities in written literature. The applicability of the ‘Biophilic Design Framework’ was found and evidenced by the findings from these case studies designed by master architects and located in different climates, regions and contexts.
Interior design continues to re-define itself as a discipline that presents designers with new problems that require innovative solutions. This is particularly true in the case in office design. The transformation of the office environment from the standard bullpen configuration to today's dynamic, flexible, and open floor plans has required new design methodologies that incorporate tools and technologies that are readily available to interior designers. Today, increased use of teams in the workplace challenges interior designers to create environments that accommodate both group and individual tasks (Brill, Weidermann & BOSTI associates, 2001). Collaboration has received considerable attention as organizations focus on productivity and reducing costs to compete in a global economy (Hassanain, 2006). Designers and architects should learn to create environments that respond to dynamic, moveable, and flexible work methods. This web-based research study explores the use of pattern language as a new tool for designing collaborative work environments. In 1977, Christopher Alexander and his associates developed `Pattern language' (Alexander, Ishikawa & Silverstein, 1977) as a design formulation methodology. It consists of a series of interrelated physical elements combined to create a framework for design solutions. This pattern language tool for collaborative work environments was created based on research by Lori Anthony (2001). This study further builds upon current trends and research in collaborative work environments. The researcher conducted a pilot test by sending the web-based tool and an online questionnaire to all graduate students and faculty members in the fields of interior design and healthcare and healing environment (HHE). After testing its validity in The Design School at Arizona State University, the same tool and questionnaire was sent to the employees of one of the leading architecture and interior design firms in Phoenix, AZ. The results showed that among those design professionals surveyed, the majority believe pattern language could be a valuable design tool. The insights obtained from this study will provide designers, architects, and facility managers with a new design tool to aid in creating effective collaborative spaces in a work environment.
Many of the scholars that have chronicled the creation of the modern American kitchen have written about how the technological, societal, and cultural revolutions of the twentieth century played a role in dramatically changing its structure and design. More recently, some scholarly research has focused on the evolution of the kitchen and its meaning over time. In several of these research publications scholars profess that the modern American kitchen, more than any other room, has come to symbolize the center or heart of the home, and the warmest room in the house. However, they are quick to acknowledge that, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the kitchen was not so fondly regarded. Little research exists regarding why individuals increasingly became attached to the kitchen or how that attachment influenced the layout, size, objects, and activities conducted in the kitchen. This thesis fills this void by exploring the implications of place attachment on the evolution of the American kitchen from 1901 through 1964. By approaching this research from a combination of design history and environmental psychology, this thesis provides a new perspective to our understanding of the evolution of kitchen design. Using this two-pronged approach, this study contributes to our understanding of the evolution of the kitchen. This study traces the evolution of the modern American kitchen using two qualitative methodologies: material culture and phenomenology. Drawing from a variety of floor plans, advertisements, and articles contained in the House Beautiful magazine 1901 through 1964, as well as writings from popular domestic advisors of the period, this thesis charts the transformation of the modern American kitchen from a "hell on earth" into the "heart and soul of the home." By combining place attachment theory and kitchen design research this thesis provides interior designers new insight into designing kitchens that foster endearing emotional attachment for our clients.
The development of literacy abilities in young children has been a major concern for authorities and teachers in the USA for the last two decades. Significant effort has been devoted to ensure that preschool settings allow and motivate children to engage in literacy activities before entering kindergarten. Research has found that a rich classroom environment in preschool settings enables teachers to encourage literacy interest in children at a young age. While a large amount of research has concentrated in testing the effect of prescriptive modifications in the classroom environment, few have focused on studying the design process and tools that teachers follow to design their classrooms. Public policy and research studies in the United States, mention the design of the classroom environment among teacher's responsibilities, but they do not include practical or methodological guides for them to use. The purpose of this research was to study the design process and tools that teachers use to design literacy rich classrooms in preschool settings. A case study was conducted at the ASU Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College Preschool at Arizona State University. This setting provides a unique opportunity for an exploratory study of this nature because it is a private child development laboratory with a flexible curriculum. Participant observation sessions and in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the design process used and experienced by the teachers. Findings revealed an iterative and cyclic design process that is repeated over time adjusting to the influence of numerous factors. Results also suggest that teacher's knowledge and beliefs highly influence the organization of their classrooms. Considering these factors as a standpoint allows for further exploration to determine a design process suitable for teachers when designing their learning environments. The use of a structured yet flexible design process, can be a potential tool for educators to design their classrooms, collaborate, document and transmit their knowledge. Although the findings correspond to a specific site studied, the implications are wide reaching as problems and opportunities expressed by the staff are common to other educational settings with similar characteristics.
The study of lighting design has important implications for consumer behavior and is an important aspect of consideration for the retail industry. In today's global economy consumers can come from a number of cultural backgrounds. It is important to understand various cultures' perceptions of lighting design in order for retailers to better understand how to use lighting as a benefit to provide consumers with a desirable shopping experience. This thesis provides insight into the effects of ambient lighting on product perception among Americans and Middle Easterners. Both cultural groups' possess significant purchasing power in the worldwide market place. This research will allow marketers, designers and consumers a better understanding of how culture may play a role in consumer perceptions and behavior Results of this study are based on data gathered from 164 surveys from individuals of American and Middle Eastern heritage. Follow up interviews were also conducted to examine the nuances of product perception and potential differences across cultures. This study, using qualitative and quantitative methods, was executed using a Sequential Explanatory Strategy. Survey data were analyzed to uncover significant correlations and relationships using measures of descriptive analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression analysis. Interviews were analyzed using theme-based coding and reported in narrative form. The results suggest that lighting does in fact have an impact on product perception, however despite minor differences, this perception does not vary much between individuals from American and Middle Eastern cultures. It was found that lighting could affect price and quality perception with reference to store-image and store atmospherics. Additionally, lighting has a higher impact on subjective impressions of product (such as Freshness, Pleasantness, and Attractiveness), more than Price and Quality perceptions. This study suggests that particular lighting characteristics could be responsible for differences in product perception between these two cultures. This is important to note for lighting designers and marketers to create retail atmospheres that are preferable to both cultures.
Research has shown that the ability to smell is the most direct sense an individual can experience. With every breath a person takes, the brain recognizes thousands of molecules and makes connections with our memories to determine their composition. With the amount of research looking into how and why we smell, researchers still have little understanding of how the nose and brain process an aroma, and how emotional and physical behavior is impacted. This research focused on the affects smell has on a caregiver in a simulated Emergency Department setting located in the SimET of Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center in Phoenix, Arizona. The study asked each participant to care for a programmed mannequin, or "patient", while performing simple computer-based tasks, including memory and recall, multi-tasking, and mood-mapping to gauge physical and mental performance. Three different aromatic environments were then introduced through diffusion and indirect inhalation near the participants' task space: 1) a control (no smell), 2) an odor (simulated dirty feet), and 3) an aroma (one of four true essential oils plus a current odor-eliminating compound used in many U.S. Emergency Departments). This study was meant to produce a stressful environment by leading the caregiver to stay in constant movement throughout the study through timed tasks, uncooperative equipment, and a needy "patient". The goal of this research was to determine if smells, and of what form of pleasantness and repulsiveness, can have an effect on the physical and mental performance of emergency caregivers. Findings from this study indicated that the "odor eliminating" method currently used in typical Emergency Departments, coffee grounds, is more problematic than helpful, and the introduction of true essential oils may not only reduce stress, but increase efficiency and, in turn, job satisfaction.