Matching Items (16)
- All Subjects: psychology
While the cross-cultural literature on body dissatisfaction among Mexican and Mexican-American women has continued to grow, the traditional Latino female gender role of marianismo, sociocultural factors related to ethnic culture and mainstream/American culture ideal perceived discrepancies in body size, and one’s romantic relationship have not been explored with this population in relationship to body satisfaction. The current study included 227 female participants predominantly from a large southwestern university in the United States and a large university in northern Mexico. The study examined differences in marianismo and body satisfaction between 120 Mexican and 107 Mexican-American women, investigated the role of marianismo as a mediator between weight-related teasing and body satisfaction, and explored the relationship between marianismo, Partner Ideal Discrepancy, Ethnic Culture Ideal Discrepancy, Mainstream/American Culture Ideal Discrepancy, Perceived Weight-Related Criticism/Teasing, Relationship Support, Relationship Depth, and Relationship Conflict to overall body satisfaction. Results indicated Mexican-American women endorsed less overall body satisfaction than did their Mexican counterparts suggesting that Mexican American women may be more influenced by societal messages about thinness and beauty than are Mexican women. The findings also revealed a possible trend for marianismo as a mediator between weight-related criticism and body satisfaction. Marianismo and weight-related teasing were found to have a negative relationship with body satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses revealed that Partner Ideal and Mainstream/American Culture Ideal discrepancies accounted for significant variance in body satisfaction. Relationship Conflict accounted for a smaller but still significant amount of the variance in body satisfaction. Ethnic Culture Discrepancy, Relationship Support, and Relationship Depth were not significant predictors. These findings from this study suggest that both cultural variables and romantic relationship variables are related to the body image of Mexican American and Mexican women. These findings have important implications for the adaptation of current etiological models explaining body satisfaction among Mexican and Mexican-American women as well as highlighting the need to consider the role of both cultural and relationship variables in designing clinical interventions for Mexican American and Mexican women coping with body image concerns.
The happiness project: a randomized control trial of an online positive psychology intervention for graduate students
Positive psychology focuses on the promotion of well-being (Seligman, & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Positive psychology interventions (PPIs) have been developed to help facilitate the development of skills needed to flourish and current research suggests that PPIs can help individuals improve their happiness, reduce stress, and become more resilient (Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005). National surveys highlight that students in higher education are in dire need of interventions aimed at helping them cope with the negative impact of stress (Douce & Keeling, 2014; Marks & Wade, 2015). Research among the graduate student population is scant even though they report high levels of stress and work even more hours than undergraduate students (Wyatt & Oswalt, 2013). PPIs implemented in the graduate student population focus heavily on psychologically-based programs, like psychology and social work, whose students may already be receiving assistance in self-care (Botta, Cadet, & Maramaldi, 2015; Burkhart, 2014; Nelson, Dell'Oliver, Koch, & Buckler, 2001). Thus, this current study is a randomized controlled trial testing an online PPI, adapted from Achor's work in the business industry (2012, 2014), compared with an online informative stress group and a wait list control group among graduate students from various disciplines at a large, public university in the Southwest. Participants were administered pre-, post-, and three-month follow-up tests to determine the impact of the interventions on their levels of perceived stress, happiness, and resilience. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used with covariates of age, gender, race, program of study, and graduate level of study (masters versus doctoral). The main findings of the study included: the students in the PPI group reported significantly higher resilience at the end of the three weeks than did the students in the informative stress or wait list control groups, even though measures of happiness or perceived stress were not impacted; and students from psychologically based programs received the most benefit from treatment, especially from the PPI intervention. All findings, implications, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.
This study explored the motivation and persistence factors for non-professional athletes who decided after the age of 40 to begin training for an IRONMAN distance triathlon. The qualitative methodology of grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was used in conceptualizing and implementing the research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 individuals in the Southwest region of the United States. Data was coded in accordance with grounded theory methods. Motivation themes that emerged from the data centered around either initiating training for triathlon as an approach toward a specific goal or outcome, or beginning triathlon as a way to cope with personal difficulties. Obstacles to motivation also emerged, such as finances and time, injury, fear and doubt, and interpersonal difficulties. Persistence themes emerged that centered around either taking active steps to help continue training and relying on internal traits or characteristics to promote persistence. Data are discussed in terms of how these individuals adopt triathlon as a part of their lifestyle and identity, and how they come to persist in training beyond IRONMAN.
Over recent decades, euthanasia has been a topic of increasing debate. With legalization of euthanasia in the states of Oregon and Washington and attempted reform in several other U.S. states and nations worldwide, it has become increasingly important to understand the roles and values of helping professionals who might be working with clients considering this option. The current study targeted 85 undergraduate students, 54 doctoral students in counseling psychology, and 53 doctoral-level professionals in psychology to assess both their personal values regarding euthanasia and their willingness to allow a client the autonomy to make a decision about euthanasia. Several factors were analyzed in regards to their relation to client autonomy and attitudes toward euthanasia, including age of client and sex of client. These variables were manipulated in vignettes to create four scenarios: a 24 year old male, 24 year old female, 80 year old male, 80 year old female. Other factors included level of education of the participant, spirituality and strength of religiosity of the participant, and personal experiences with deaths of friends or family members. Results indicated that more education was associated with greater support for euthanasia and that stronger religiosity and spirituality were related to less support for euthanasia. This study also found that participants did not exhibit differential levels of support based solely on the age or the sex of the client depicted in the vignette. Results further indicated that for doctoral students and professionals the loss of a loved one, regardless of cause of death, did not have a significant effect on their attitudes toward euthanasia. It is important for training programs to be aware of these findings in order to monitor trainees in terms of personal biases in the therapy relationship. With objectivity a high priority while working with clients, it is necessary to be aware of outside factors potentially influencing one's work with clients surrounding this value-laden issue.
This study examined four research questions investigating relationships among the experience of trauma, identity development, distress, and positive change. There were 908 participants in the study, ranging in age from 18 to 24 which is known as the period of emerging adulthood. Participants completed an online survey regarding their exposure to trauma and reactions to these experiences. The first research question examined the experience of trauma for the sample. The second question examined group differences among the participant's identity status, gender, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status on the hypothesized variables. In general, comparisons among the four identity status groups found participants who experienced greater identity exploration (diffused and moratorium) experienced more distress, whereas the identity status groups that reported greater identity commitments (foreclosed and achieved) were associated with positive change. Similar findings were found for PTSD diagnostic status indicating more distress and identity exploration for participants with the diagnosis and more positive change and identity commitments for participants without the diagnosis. Female participants were found to experience more PTS symptoms, centrality of the trauma event, and positive growth than males. Examination of the relationships between trauma severity and posttraumatic growth revealed an inverted U-shaped relationship (quadratic) that was a significant improvement from the linear model. An S-shaped relationship (cubic) was found for the relationship between trauma exposure and posttraumatic growth. Regression analyses found the centrality of the trauma event to one's identity predicted identity distress above and beyond the experience of trauma. In addition, identity distress and the centrality of the trauma contributed to the variance for identity exploration, while only identity distress contributed to identity commitments. Finally, identity development significantly predicted positive change above and beyond, identity distress, centrality of the trauma event, and the experience of trauma. Collectively, these results found both distress and growth to be related to the experience of trauma. Distress within one's identity can contribute to difficulties in the psychosocial stage of identity development among emerging adults. However, the resolution of identity exploration towards commitments to goals, roles, and beliefs, can help trauma survivors experience resilience and growth after stressful experiences.
Authenticity is a familiar concept in popular culture. Despite its popularity, few studies have empirically examined the construct of authenticity. In this study, the Authenticity Scale and Authenticity Inventory, two recently created scales measuring dispositional authenticity, were examined to determine how they compare to one another as well as how they related to theoretically relevant measures including well-being and career indecision. Results from 576 undergraduate students supported the factor structure of the Authenticity Scale, but empirical support for the Authenticity Inventory was not found. Findings indicated that the Authenticity Scale was strongly related to well-being and moderately correlated with career indecision. Small correlations between the Authenticity Scale and the Self-Concept Discrepancy Scale provided evidence that the constructs of authenticity and congruence are related but measure different things. The clinical and research implications of this study are explored and encourage a broader perspective in conceptualizing vocational concerns. The empirical support found for the Authenticity Scale advocates for its use in future research applications.
The prevalence of chronic illness among children in the United States is on the rise (CDC, 2014). Having a child with a chronic illness can be a substantial source of stress for a couple, including physical, emotional, and financial demands of caregiving as well as difficult decision-making regarding the child’s health (Mayo Clinic, 2015). Coping with such stressors can have a negative effect on the couple’s well-being, and, if not managed within the relationship, can lead to increased negative outcomes for both partners. Partners can, however, learn to cope with stress by engaging in the coping process together with dyadic coping (DC). Couples can engage in positive (i.e., supportive emotion-focused, supportive problem-focused, and delegated) or negative forms of DC. DC has been shown to mitigate stress for couples, while increasing reports of individual well-being (IWB) and relational well-being (RWB), but it has not been examined in the context of couples with a child with a chronic illness.
To bridge this gap, the present study examined how couples cope with general stress as well as stress associated with their child’s diagnosis of a chronic illness (CI-related stress) and whether positive DC and negative DC moderate association between stress (general stress and CI-related stress) and well-being (IWB and RWB). Consistent with hypotheses, there were significant main effects of both types of stress (general and CI-related stress) on both types of well-being (IWB and RWB). Contrary to the hypotheses that DC (positive DC and negative DC) would moderate the associations between both types of stress and both types of well-being, only one significant interaction was found between CI-related stress and negative DC on IWB. Implications of these findings are discussed.
The relationship between decision-making style and self-construal and the subjective happiness of Native Americans
What is the effect of decision-making-style (maximizer versus satisficer) and an interdependent-versus-independent self-construal on the subjective happiness of Native Americans? One hundred seventy-nine Native American adult community members were administered the Maximization Inventory, the Self-Construal Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Correlations between variables in addition to multiple regression analyses were conducted with predictors of decision making style, self-construal, gender, annual income, traditionalism, and Native language ability with subjective happiness as the dependent variable. These variables explained a significant amount of the variance of subjective happiness for this sample of Native Americans. The most variance was explained by satisficing. Maximizing was associated with unhappiness. Individuals with greater satisficing tendencies also tended to be more interdependent. Higher income was positively associated with happiness and negatively associated with maximizing. Interdependence did not have an effect on happiness. However, independence increased happiness while having no effect on maximizing. No gender differences were found for maximizing. Traditionalism and Native language ability were not associated with satisficing nor interdependence. Limitations, implications for counseling, and future directions are explored.
Borderline personality disorder features, perceived social support, sleep disturbance, and rejection sensitivity
Those who have borderline personality disorder (BPD), and those who have subclinical levels of BPD features, experience distress and impairment in important life domains, especially in their interpersonal interactions. It is critical to understand the factors that alleviate BPD symptoms in order to help affected individuals lead healthier lives. Rejection sensitivity and sleep disturbance are two factors that may maintain or exacerbate BPD symptoms, yet new research indicates socially supportive relationships are related to symptom remission. While extensive research exists on the interpersonal impairments associated with borderline personality pathology, little research exists on how individuals with BPD or BPD features perceive and experience their social support. The present study examined the relationships between BPD features, perceived social support, sleep quality, and rejection sensitivity in a racially diverse, large sample of primarily college-aged individuals (N = 396). Results indicated that BPD features had a significant positive relationship with self-reported rejection sensitivity and a significant negative relationship with self-reported perceived social support. Additionally, BPD features had a significant positive relationship with sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance did not moderate the relationship between BPD features and rejection sensitivity as expected; however, the regression of rejection sensitivity on BPD features and sleep disturbance was significant. Finally, sleep disturbance moderated the relationship between BPD features and rejection sensitivity. Results extend and replicate recent research findings on the possible mechanisms that may maintain and alleviate BPD symptoms. Furthermore, the moderating effect of sleep disturbance on perceived social support for those with higher levels of BPD features is unique to this study.
Mental Health Professionals' Perceptions of Their Therapeutic Role with Survivors of Sexual Trafficking
Sexual trafficking, the commercial sexual exploitation of individuals for profit, is reported to occur around the world. Tens of thousands of women and children are reported to be trafficked into the United States each year. Reports indicate a negative impact on an individual’s physical, mental, and interpersonal health. Presently, therapeutic models have been proposed but not yet formalized. Current training programs are not focused on developing therapeutic skills. The primary researcher developed the present study to discern an understanding of the lived experience of mental health professionals who have provided therapy with this population. Moreover, the primary researcher sought to understand how these mental health professionals view current preparation programs.
The present study used qualitative inquiry to examine the experience of practitioners in this field. Constructivism was used to center upon each interviewees’ description of their lived experience. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data generated within each interview. Thematic structures were intricately linked to the data generated by focusing on the internal elements of the interview rather than a pre-conceived structure. Validation was employed through analytic memo writing and audits.
Findings were consistent with core components of therapy; however, analysis yielded some themes specific to therapy with survivors of sexual trafficking. Interviewees shared a common practice of conceptualizing each client and a motivation to build a safe and collaborative relationship, provide focused therapeutic structure, and support their clients beyond the average boundaries of therapy. Interviewees reported a minimal amount of interaction with training programs due to scarcity.
The findings suggest an increased need for training programs to prepare professionals to provide therapy with this population. Interviewees described a need for sensitive and specific trauma therapy training, consistent with suggestions in the literature. Future research may include further investigation into training programs when more have been developed. Interdisciplinary teams were a common desire among interviewees. Future research may explore the efficacy of interdisciplinary teams with this population. Finally, interviewees indicated advocacy work as an intricate part of their role as a therapist with this population and future research could investigate how this may impact the therapeutic relationship.