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The Wham-Womb Effect: Words with the Phoneme /æ/ are Rated as More Rousing than those with /u/

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Recent findings support that facial musculature accounts for a form of phonetic sound symbolism. Yu, McBeath, and Glenberg (2019) found that, in both English words and Mandarin pinyin, words with the middle phoneme /i:/ (as in “gleam”) were rated as

Recent findings support that facial musculature accounts for a form of phonetic sound symbolism. Yu, McBeath, and Glenberg (2019) found that, in both English words and Mandarin pinyin, words with the middle phoneme /i:/ (as in “gleam”) were rated as more positive than their paired words containing the phoneme /ʌ/ (as in “glum”). The present study tested whether a second largely orthogonal dimension of vowel phoneme production (represented by the phonemes /æ/ vs /u/), is related to a second dimension perpendicular to emotional valence, arousal. Arousal was chosen because it is the second dimension of the Russell Circumplex Model of Affect. In phonetic similarity mappings, this second dimension is typically characterized by oral aperture size and larynx position, but it also appears to follow the continuum of consonance/dissonance. Our findings supported the hypothesis that one-syllable words with the center vowel phoneme /æ/ were reliably rated as more rousing, and less calming, than matched words with the center vowel phoneme /u/. These results extend the Yu, et al. findings regarding the potential contribution of facial musculature to sounds associated with the emotional dimension of arousal, and further confirm a model of sound symbolism related to emotional expression. These findings support that phonemes are not neutral basic units but rather illustrate an innate relationship between embodied emotional expression and speech production.

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2019-05

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The Temporal Stability and Predictive Utility of Semiannual Teacher Assessments Across Elementary School

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Teacher assessments are often used alongside parent assessments to identify behavioral problems and patterns in school-aged children. These assessments can aid in the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders and are used to screen children for targeted delinquency prevention programs. Although

Teacher assessments are often used alongside parent assessments to identify behavioral problems and patterns in school-aged children. These assessments can aid in the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders and are used to screen children for targeted delinquency prevention programs. Although researchers have heavily studied the relationship between parent and teacher assessments, not as much research has analyzed teacher assessments alone, specifically semiannual teacher assessments. Teacher assessments are typically conducted during the fall semester, normally a couple months into the school year, or during the spring semester, normally a couple months after the winter break period. Using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS), we aimed to determine the temporal stability and predictive utility of semiannual teacher assessments of children's behavioral problems from 2nd grade to 5th grade. Results showed that mean assessment scores increased from the fall to the spring semester across all 4 grades. We also found that teacher assessments of behavioral problems in grade school were significantly correlated with future serious violence. Although our statistical model did not identify a specific time period or semester when these assessments were most predictive, we observed a pattern where the spring semesters were more predictive for the younger grades, and the fall semesters were more predictive for the older grades. Future research could aim to understand why this pattern exists and what its implications are.

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2018-12

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The Push for Perfection: Parent Influence, Perfectionism, & Stress as Predictors of Student Adjustment

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Nearly a decade of research has shown that high achieving students are at elevated risk for serious adjustment problems \u2014 including internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use. In this study, we examine the relationship among three types of risk

Nearly a decade of research has shown that high achieving students are at elevated risk for serious adjustment problems \u2014 including internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use. In this study, we examine the relationship among three types of risk factors, including parent expectations and criticism, self-reported perfectionism, and daily stressors, and internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and substance use.

Perfectionism and daily stressors (e.g., relationship stress and hours of sleep) were significantly associated with internalizing symptoms and rule-breaking behaviors for both males and females across schools. Our findings suggest that there may be a unique interplay among perfectionism, relationship stress, and hours of sleep for students attending high achieving schools. Future research should attempt to tease apart the interactions among these risk factors and determine whether interventions should address them as separate, modifiable dimensions or treat them in a holistic manner.

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2018-12

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All You See is the Dog: Attitudes Towards Non-Visible Disabilities and Service Dogs

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A recent controversy has surrounded service dogs in public environments. Use of service dogs may trigger discrimination against individuals with non-visible disabilities. Major goals of this thesis study are to examine if significant differences exist in personality perceptions and attitude

A recent controversy has surrounded service dogs in public environments. Use of service dogs may trigger discrimination against individuals with non-visible disabilities. Major goals of this thesis study are to examine if significant differences exist in personality perceptions and attitude towards service dog owners with visible disabilities versus those with non-visible disabilities, and whether these perceptions and attitude predict how they would be treated in a public setting. The study employed a mixed 2 x2 factorial experiment design. The first independent variable was visibility of the disability, with the two levels being visible vs non-visible, and this factor was non-repeated in nature. The second independent variable was the target of evaluation, with the owner and the dog being the two levels, and this was a repeated measure. Specifically, this study assessed personality perceptions using the Big Five personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Openness to Experience) and operationalized attitude in terms of the positivity of personality perceptions. Additionally, this study examined whether an owner of a service dog with a non-visible disability would be treated differently from their counterpart who has a visible disability. In the study, participants were given a scenario and picture where they encounter an individual who either had a visible or non-visible disability with a service dog at a restaurant. Then, participants rated the owner and the dog individually on the Big Five personality traits, and indicated whether and how likely they would seat the individual and their service dog at the restaurant. When considering the visibility of a disability alone, an individual with a non-visible disability was perceived as less conscientious. When considering how the owner and the dog were perceived regardless of visibility of disability, owners were rated significantly lower than their dog on agreeableness and extraversion, but significantly higher on openness to experience. There was also a significant difference in treatment of the dog owners based on the visibility of their disability, service dog owners with non-visible disabilities have a higher likelihood of experiencing unlawful treatment. Furthermore, personality perceptions and attitude were significantly correlated with treatment for both individuals with non-visible and visible disabilities. Together, findings of this study inform the design of future research. Future research on this topic may help inform policy makers the challenges and unfair treatment facing individuals who have non-visible disabilities.

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2019-05

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The Sneaker Life: A Critical Analysis of Nike and Under Armour Marketing Strategies

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My thesis will revolve around the ideology and sociology of the sneaker brand and it particular, basketball sneakers. The mega sneaker superpower Nike and the under dog of Under Armour have shoes they want to sells and consumers they want

My thesis will revolve around the ideology and sociology of the sneaker brand and it particular, basketball sneakers. The mega sneaker superpower Nike and the under dog of Under Armour have shoes they want to sells and consumers they want to buy them. I will discuss how the advertisement are used and implanted but both Nike and Under Armour. The two points of references from each company will be LeBron James, Nike, and Stephen Curry, Under Armour. Both basketball players have signature shoes and are undoublty the NBAs most relevant players this past season. The two players just so happened to face off against each other in the NBA finals, which enhanced the marketing potential for both companies. Thus, the advertisements for these and their shoes would have been its peak trying sway consumers to either side. Nike and Under Armour both ploy attempts in creating marketing material to attract their consumer base. The Thesis will look at why sneakers have become a social trend and high commodity. I will look at how pop culture and psychological diseases play a roll in the consumers' choice to purchase either shoe. The work as a whole will attempt to bring forth some revitalizing information on today's sneaker culture. Research was limited, however with the information to conduct this thesis, the thesis should spark interest in a new research related field. Thus, bringing forth a new renaissance in today's culture; the Sneaker Life.

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2017-05

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Embodied Cognition and Video Games: A Possible Role in Anorexia Treatment

Description

Anorexia Nervosa is an increasing problem in today's day and age. With the overbearing messages of what the media portrays to be beautiful, some people are responding by engaging in unhealthy eating habits. By taking embodied cognition into consideration, there

Anorexia Nervosa is an increasing problem in today's day and age. With the overbearing messages of what the media portrays to be beautiful, some people are responding by engaging in unhealthy eating habits. By taking embodied cognition into consideration, there may be a method to help treat people with Anorexia Nervosa that has not been attempted yet. According to embodied cognition, the body influences the way a person thinks (Glenberg, 2010). If people with Anorexia Nervosa are thinking in unhealthy ways in terms of their body, providing relief from these unhealthy forms of thinking may come in the form of using a surrogate body: a virtual avatar in a video game. Through explanation and integration of the Embodied Social Presence Theory, the use of a virtual avatar as a surrogate body for victims of Anorexia Nervosa becomes a probable and viable method of ushering treatment. The avatars are not an explicit treatment of Anorexia Nervosa, but rather a way to allow actual treatment and therapy to be more successful.

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2014-05

Explaining Motor Imagery: Mirror Neurons as a Physiological Mechanism

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This project, which consists of a review article and an applied creative project, proposes mirror neurons as being a physiological mechanism for motor imagery. The review article highlights similarities between motor imagery research and research on mirror neurons. The research

This project, which consists of a review article and an applied creative project, proposes mirror neurons as being a physiological mechanism for motor imagery. The review article highlights similarities between motor imagery research and research on mirror neurons. The research is roughly divided into three types of studies: neuroimaging studies, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyography (EMG) studies, and electroencephalography (EEG) studies. The review also discusses the associative hypothesis of mirror neuron origin as support for the hypothesis and concludes with an assessment of conflicting research and the limitations of the hypothesis. The applied creative project is an instructional brochure, aimed at anyone who teaches motor skills, such as dance teachers or sports coaches. The brochure takes the academic content of the review and presents it in a visually pleasing, reader-friendly fashion in an effort to educate the intended audience and make the research more accessible. The brochure also prescribes research-based suggestions for how to use motor imagery during teaching sessions and how to get the best benefits from it.

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2015-05

Theory of Mind Development in Middle Childhood

Description

How do children understand how others see the world? I examined correlations between 4-8 year old children's understanding of beliefs and their understanding of other ways that people represent the world. Beliefs that I measured are understanding of pretense, understanding

How do children understand how others see the world? I examined correlations between 4-8 year old children's understanding of beliefs and their understanding of other ways that people represent the world. Beliefs that I measured are understanding of pretense, understanding that things can have multiple identities, understanding that people can know things by inference, and understanding that people can look at the same thing and have different representations of it. I predicted that there would be correlations among these tasks. In particular, I predicted children would be able to understand these tasks when they understood true and false beliefs, based on current theories on belief understanding. I predicted that the classic false belief task alone would not be a good predictor of task performance, but that the combination of true and false belief tasks would. Participants were 100 children recruited at the Phoenix Children's Museum between ages 4 and 8. Previous research has found that children pass all of these tasks between the ages of 6 and 8, but no other studies have looked at the inter-correlations among them. Contrary to my prediction, children did not pass these tasks all at once, but scores went up gradually with age and belief understanding.

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2016-12

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Sum sed cogitone? Can children introspect their mental states?

Description

Introspective awareness refers to direct access to one’s own internal and subjective thoughts and feelings (Wimmer & Hartl, 1991). Two theories, simulation theory and theory-theory, have been used to understand our access to our mental states. Simulation theory (Harris, 1991)

Introspective awareness refers to direct access to one’s own internal and subjective thoughts and feelings (Wimmer & Hartl, 1991). Two theories, simulation theory and theory-theory, have been used to understand our access to our mental states. Simulation theory (Harris, 1991) involves imagining yourself in another person’s situation, reading off of your mental state, and attributing that state to the other person. Theory-theory (Gopnik, 1993) involves an interrelated body of knowledge, based on core mental-state constructs, including beliefs and desires, that may be applied to everyone—self and others (Gopnik & Wellman, 1994). Introspection is taken for granted by simulation theory, and explicitly denied by theory-theory. This study is designed to test for evidence of introspection in young children using simple perception and knowledge task. The current evidence is against introspective awareness in children because the data suggest that children cannot report their own false beliefs and they cannot report their on-going thoughts (Flavell, Green & Flavell, 1993; Gopnik & Astington, 1988). The hypothesis in this study states that children will perform better on Self tasks compared to Other tasks, which will be evidence for introspection. The Other-Perception tasks require children to calculate the other’s line of sight and determine if there is something obscuring his or her vision. The Other-Knowledge tasks require children to reason that the other’s previous looking inside a box means that he or she will know what is inside the box when it is closed. The corresponding Self tasks could be answered either by using the same reasoning for the self or by introspection to determine what it is they see and do not see, and know and do not know. Children performing better on Self tasks compared to Other tasks will be an indication of introspection. Tests included Yes/No and Forced Choice questions, which was initially to ensure that the results will not be caused by a feature of a single method of questioning. I realized belatedly, however, that Forced Choice was not a valid measure of introspection as children could introspect in both the Self and Other conditions. I also expect to replicate previous findings that reasoning about Perception is easier for children than reasoning about Knowledge.

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2013-12

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Social Intelligence Training: A Pilot Study

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Humans require sufficient social understanding and connectedness to thrive (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). The current study evaluates the effectiveness of the Social Intelligence Institute's training program pilot. At a middle school in Phoenix, Arizona, students in a 7th and 8th

Humans require sufficient social understanding and connectedness to thrive (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). The current study evaluates the effectiveness of the Social Intelligence Institute's training program pilot. At a middle school in Phoenix, Arizona, students in a 7th and 8th grade class participated in this pilot program during the spring of 2013. Pre- and post-test questionnaires administered indicated changes in participants reported measures of Perspective Taking, Empathetic Concern, Interpersonal Expectations, and Relationship Self-Efficacy. The program consists of seven modules, each with several sessions, including instructional videos with reflection questions and class discussions. It was predicted that there would be a significant increase in mean scores for the dependent variables in the questionnaire mentioned above from the pre-test to the post-test. However, the null hypotheses were not rejected; statistical significance in t-tests of the measured variables were not met. Yet, the program was more effective for 8th graders than for 7th graders for Perspective Taking. This study of the SI pilot program demonstrates areas of improvement and provides support for wider implementation in the future.

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2013-12