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Effects of Positive Affirmations on Depressive Symptoms among Female and Male Senior Barrett Honors Students

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The purpose of this study was to examine whether positive affirmations can lower depressive symptoms amongst male and female Arizona State University (ASU) honors students. Male and female ASU honors students (20-22 years of age; N=40) were recruited from Barrett,

The purpose of this study was to examine whether positive affirmations can lower depressive symptoms amongst male and female Arizona State University (ASU) honors students. Male and female ASU honors students (20-22 years of age; N=40) were recruited from Barrett, the Honors College, through email and online newsletters. Students who had been previously or were at the time diagnosed with clinical depression were not permitted to participate in the study. Only 9 female and 14 males completed the entire study. Participants completed a pre- and post- test that each consisting of reading aloud questions and their answers from the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) while being video and audio recorded. Participants were given a list of 20 affirmations after the pre-test and were instructed to choose and read to themselves a new affirmation three times a day, 3 times a week for a total of 6 weeks. There was an average increase among all participants' BDI scores, but no significance was found in the improvement. Emotional responses were captured using the facial recognition software, Noldus FaceReader, and was used to observe whether there was emotional dissonance in the BDI answers. The correlation between the emotion "sad" and the answer chosen was found by using Pearson's r for each participants. There were only 2 total interviews that indicated a strong positive correlation and 1 interview that indicated strong negative correlation. All others were either moderate or minimal correlation, showing that the majority of participants' emotions may have not affected their answer choices. Results indicated there is no significant improvement when using affirmations to improve depressive symptoms and mood.

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2017-05

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Serious running: factors that lead to awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty to long distance running

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Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process a person goes through to become committed to a leisure

Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process a person goes through to become committed to a leisure activity. Awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty make of the four stages of PCM. Both perspectives have been used to describe committed leisure activity participants and commitment to organized recreational events. Research on leisure activity has yet to determine how the individual becomes loyal. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the process in which recreation activity participates becomes loyal and to identify who can be labels as serious within the PCM Framework. Data was obtained from an online electronic survey distributed to participants of four U.S. marathon and half marathon events. A total of 579 responses were used in the final analysis. Path analysis determined the process in which a runner becomes committed. MANOVA is used to determine difference between leisure groups in the four stages of PCM. Results indicate that activity participants need to go through all four stages of PCM before becoming loyal. As knowledge increases, individuals are more motivated to participate. When the activity satisfies motives and becomes a reflection of their identity, feelings become stronger which results in loyalty. Socialization is instrumental to the progression through the PCM Framework. Additionally, attachment is the "bottleneck" in which all loyal activity participants my pass through. Differences exist between serious leisure groups in the attachment and loyalty stages. Those that are `less serious' are not as committed to the activity as their counterparts.

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2014

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A pilot study to examine the impact of a 7-day gratitude journal on perceptions of physical activity and happiness in the workplace

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Introduction: Less than half of U.S. adults meet the aerobic physical activity guidelines to exercise at least 150 minutes a week. An individual's decision to be physically active is influenced by their perceptions of physical activity. To address perceptions, interventions

Introduction: Less than half of U.S. adults meet the aerobic physical activity guidelines to exercise at least 150 minutes a week. An individual's decision to be physically active is influenced by their perceptions of physical activity. To address perceptions, interventions need to be implemented where adults spend one third of their day; the workplace. A number of physical activity interventions have been conducted and few have been successful at improving physical activity; therefore, there is a need to explore novel approaches to improve physical activity in the worksite. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the impact of a seven-day gratitude intervention on perceptions of physical activity and happiness in the workplace. Methods: Full-time employees at two worksites participated in a seven-day online journaling study. Participants were randomized into the intervention (gratitude) or control group and were assessed for perceptions of physical activity and happiness at baseline, immediate post-test (day 7) and one-week follow-up (day 14). Results: Results of this study indicate that the seven-day gratitude intervention may not significantly improve perceptions of physical activity or increase happiness. Future research should consider assessing the individual's readiness for change at baseline, increasing the length of the intervention, testing participant level of gratitude at baseline and employing a larger sample size.

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2014