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User Experience Laws in Learning

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The relationship between user experience, learning, and psychology is complex. There are many rules and concepts that guide experience design. It is likely that some of the guidance is valid whereas other guidance is not. This explores some of that

The relationship between user experience, learning, and psychology is complex. There are many rules and concepts that guide experience design. It is likely that some of the guidance is valid whereas other guidance is not. This explores some of that guidance and evaluates how they are linked to learning. Do the guidance’s made 25, 50, 100 years ago still hold true today? Additionally, the psychological background behind the way someone holds memory is important. Knowing how information is stored and processed helps educators provide the best learning experience possible. With an eye toward perception and cognition, this paper examines the relevance of the various pieces of guidance. The results suggest that, overall, this guidance is still valid and valuable to current learning trends and designs. This suggests that user experience designers for education need to pay attention to the guidance provided by psychology when designing learning management systems, placing content in a course, and choosing which aesthetics to follow.

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2020-05

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Equating user experience and Fitts law in gesture based input modalities

Description

The International Standards Organization (ISO) documentation utilizes Fitts’ law to determine the usability of traditional input devices like mouse and touchscreens for one- or two-dimensional operations. To test the hypothesis that Fitts’ Law can be applied to hand/air gesture based

The International Standards Organization (ISO) documentation utilizes Fitts’ law to determine the usability of traditional input devices like mouse and touchscreens for one- or two-dimensional operations. To test the hypothesis that Fitts’ Law can be applied to hand/air gesture based computing inputs, Fitts’ multi-directional target acquisition task is applied to three gesture based input devices that utilize different technologies and two baseline devices, mouse and touchscreen. Three target distances and three target sizes were tested six times in a randomized order with a randomized order of the five input technologies. A total of 81 participants’ data were collected for the within subjects design study. Participants were instructed to perform the task as quickly and accurately as possible according to traditional Fitts’ testing procedures. Movement time, error rate, and throughput for each input technology were calculated.

Additionally, no standards exist for equating user experience with Fitts’ measures such as movement time, throughput, and error count. To test the hypothesis that a user’s experience can be predicted using Fitts’ measures of movement time, throughput and error count, an ease of use rating using a 5-point scale for each input type was collected from each participant. The calculated Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) were regressed on Fitts’ measures of movement time, throughput, and error count to understand the extent to which they can predict a user’s subjective rating.

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Date Created
2015

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Effects of elderly priming on driving speeds: a driving simulator study

Description

Research on priming has shown that a stimulus can cause people to behave according to the stereotype held about the stimulus. Two experiments were conducted in which the effects of elderly priming were tested by use of a driving simulator.

Research on priming has shown that a stimulus can cause people to behave according to the stereotype held about the stimulus. Two experiments were conducted in which the effects of elderly priming were tested by use of a driving simulator. In both experiments, participants drove through a simulated world guided by either an elderly or a younger female voice. The voices told the participants where to make each of six turns. Both experiments yielded slower driving speeds in the elderly voice condition. The effect was universal regardless of implicit and explicit attitudes towards elderly people.

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2012

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A comparison of the effects of imagery and action observation on baseball batting performance

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This study investigated the effect of two different preparation methods on hitting performance in a high&ndashfidelity; baseball batting simulation. Novice and expert players participated in one of three conditions: observation (viewing a video of the goal action), visualization (hearing a

This study investigated the effect of two different preparation methods on hitting performance in a high&ndashfidelity; baseball batting simulation. Novice and expert players participated in one of three conditions: observation (viewing a video of the goal action), visualization (hearing a script of the goal action), or a no&ndashpreparation; control group. Each participant completed three different hitting tasks: pull hit, opposite&ndashfield; hit, and sacrifice fly. Experts had more successful hits, overall, than novices. The number of successful hits was significantly higher for both the observation and visualization conditions than for the control. In most cases, performance was best in the observation condition. Experts demonstrated greater effects from the mental preparation techniques compared to novices. However, these effects were mediated by task difficulty. The difference between experts and novices, as well as the difference between the observation and visualization conditions was greater for the more difficult hitting task (opposite&ndashfield; hitting) than for the easier hitting task (sacrifice fly). These effects of mental preparation were associated with significant changes in batting kinematics (e.g., changes in point of bat/ball contact and swing direction). The results indicate that mental preparation can improve directional hitting ability in baseball with the optimal preparation methods depending on skill&ndashlevel; and task difficulty.

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Date Created
2010

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The impact of working memory, tags, and tag clouds, on search of websites

Description

Although there are many forms of organization on the Web, one of the most prominent ways to organize web content and websites are tags. Tags are keywords or terms that are assigned to a specific piece of content in order

Although there are many forms of organization on the Web, one of the most prominent ways to organize web content and websites are tags. Tags are keywords or terms that are assigned to a specific piece of content in order to help users understand the common relationships between pieces of content. Tags can either be assigned by an algorithm, the author, or the community. These tags can also be organized into tag clouds, which are visual representations of the structure and organization contained implicitly within these tags. Importantly, little is known on how we use these different tagging structures to understand the content and structure of a given site. This project examines 2 different characteristics of tagging structures: font size and spatial orientation. In order to examine how these different characteristics might interact with individual differences in attentional control, a measure of working memory capacity (WMC) was included. The results showed that spatial relationships affect how well users understand the structure of a website. WMC was not shown to have any significant effect; neither was varying the font size. These results should better inform how tags and tag clouds are used on the Web, and also provide an estimation of what properties to include when designing and implementing a tag cloud on a website.

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Date Created
2011

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The effects of stress and mood on cognitive performance

Description

When discussing human factors and performance, researchers recognize stress as a factor, but overlook mood as contributing factor. To explore the relationship between mood, stress and cognitive performance, a field study was conducted involving fire fighters engaged in a fire

When discussing human factors and performance, researchers recognize stress as a factor, but overlook mood as contributing factor. To explore the relationship between mood, stress and cognitive performance, a field study was conducted involving fire fighters engaged in a fire response simulation. Firefighter participants completed a stress questionnaire, an emotional state questionnaire, and a cognitive task. Stress and cognitive task performance scores were examined before and after the firefighting simulation for individual cognitive performance depreciation caused by stress or mood. They study revealed that existing stress was a reliable predictor of the pre-simulation cognitive task score, that, as mood becomes more positive, perceived stress scores decrease, and that negative mood and pre-simulation stress are also positively and significantly correlated.

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Date Created
2014

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Driving and elderly primes in a simulated driving environment

Description

ABSTRACT Research studies have demonstrated that stereotypes can elicit a priming response. An experiment was conducted to test the effects of priming elderly and young stereotypes on driving behavior. Participants drove in a driving simulator while navigating through two driving

ABSTRACT Research studies have demonstrated that stereotypes can elicit a priming response. An experiment was conducted to test the effects of priming elderly and young stereotypes on driving behavior. Participants drove in a driving simulator while navigating through two driving routes. Participants were guided by a neutral voice similar to "Siri" that informed them where to turn. Each route primed the participants with names that were deemed "old" or "young" as determined by a survey. The experiment yielded slower driving speeds in the elderly condition than in the young consistent with previous research regarding elderly stereotypes (Bargh et al, 1996; Branaghan and Gray, 2010; Taylor, 2010; Foster, 2012). These findings extend research on priming and behaviors elicited by participants in a simulated driving environment.

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Date Created
2014

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Self-explaining and individual differences in multimedia learning

Description

Multimodal presentations have been found to facilitate learning, however, may be a disadvantage for low spatial ability students if they require spatial visualization. This disadvantage stems from their limited capacity to spatially visualize and retain information from both text and

Multimodal presentations have been found to facilitate learning, however, may be a disadvantage for low spatial ability students if they require spatial visualization. This disadvantage stems from their limited capacity to spatially visualize and retain information from both text and diagrams for integration. Similarly, working memory capacity (WMC) likely plays a key role in a learner's ability to retain information presented to them via both modalities. The present study investigated whether or not the act of self-explaining helps resolve deficits in learning caused by individual differences in spatial ability, working memory capacity, and prior knowledge when learning with text, or text and diagrams. No interactions were found, but prior knowledge consistently predicted performance on like posttests. The author presents methodological and theoretical explanations as to the null results of the present study.

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Date Created
2014

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Impatience and driving speeds: a driving simulator study

Description

Research on priming has shown that exposure to the concept of fast food can have an effect on human behavior by inducing haste and impatience (Zhong & E. DeVoe, 2010). This research suggests that thinking about fast food makes individuals

Research on priming has shown that exposure to the concept of fast food can have an effect on human behavior by inducing haste and impatience (Zhong & E. DeVoe, 2010). This research suggests that thinking about fast food makes individuals impatient and strengthens their desire to complete tasks such as reading and decision making as quickly and efficiently as possible. Two experiments were conducted in which the effects of fast food priming were examined using a driving simulator. The experiments examined whether fast food primes can induce impatient driving. In experiment 1, 30 adult drivers drove a course in a driving simulator after being exposed to images by rating aesthetics of four different logos. Experiment 1 did not yield faster driving speeds nor an impatient and faster break at the yellow light in the fast food logo prime condition. In experiment 2, 30 adult drivers drove the same course from experiment 1. Participants did not rate logos on their aesthetics prior to the drive, instead billboards were included in the simulation that had either fast food or diner logos. Experiment 2 did not yielded faster driving speeds, however there was a significant effect of faster breaking and a higher number of participants running the yellow light.

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Date Created
2014

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Advance cues in soccer penalty kicks

Description

The study at hand investigated the effects of guidance and type of occlusion on the prediction of shot direction during a soccer penalty kick. Seventy participants took an online survey where they had to guess the direction of a penalty

The study at hand investigated the effects of guidance and type of occlusion on the prediction of shot direction during a soccer penalty kick. Seventy participants took an online survey where they had to guess the direction of a penalty kick from the perspective of a goalkeeper. Half the participants were placed in a group where they had access to tips on what to look for, while the other group had no tips provided. Participants were shown videos in which the penalty shooter had their upper body covered or their lower body covered. Participants had 30 seconds to decide what side the ball was going to, right or left. Results showed that there is no significant between the two groups in terms of judgment accuracy. The group that received no guidance and had the kicker's lower body covered was the group with the highest average score, 50.44%. The findings may help future studies that focus on what material is taught to goalkeepers in a classroom setting and the role of occlusion during free kicks outside the 18-yard box.

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Date Created
2019