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Xenophilia: The preference for members of an outgroup

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This paper explores the idea of xenophilia and the circumstances under which it may occur. Xenophilia is the preference for an outgroup member over an ingroup member. This preference does not have to be amicable, and in fact can be

This paper explores the idea of xenophilia and the circumstances under which it may occur. Xenophilia is the preference for an outgroup member over an ingroup member. This preference does not have to be amicable, and in fact can be exploitative under certain circumstances. Previous research indicates that xenophobia is much more common, but a few researchers have found support for the existence of xenophilia. To experimentally test the circumstances under which xenophilia might occur, I conducted a survey-based experiment on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. This consisted of directed visualizations that manipulated participant goal (self-protection vs. mate acquisition) and the resources offered by both a fictitious outgroup and the hometown ingroup, followed by measures of ingroup/outgroup preference. I hypothesized that when the resource offered by the group addressed the participants’ goal, they would prefer the group with the “matched” resource—even if it was the outgroup providing that resource. My hypothesis was not supported, as the univariate analysis of variance for preference for the outgroup was not significant, F (2, 423) = .723, p = .486. This may have occurred because the goal manipulations were not strong enough to counteract the strong natural preference for ingroup members.

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2018-05

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A Comparison and Contrast of Animal Psychology in the Wild vs. the Human Dominated World

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Animal psychology is the study of how animals interact with one another, their environment, and with humans. This can be done in two different settings, the wild and captivity, and through two different approaches, academic research and practice. Academic research

Animal psychology is the study of how animals interact with one another, their environment, and with humans. This can be done in two different settings, the wild and captivity, and through two different approaches, academic research and practice. Academic research relies primarily on behavioral observation for data collection. Practice uses behavioral observation as well, but allows for a more hands on experience and lets the practitioner make improvements in the quality of life. I interviewed two people, one who practices in captivity, and one who does research in the wild. Dr. David Bunn has done research on wild animals in Kruger National Park in South Africa for over twenty years, studying human-animal interactions. Hilda Tresz has worked in zoos nearly forty years and specializes in chimps. Working within the same field, but utilizing a different setting and approach makes a big difference in the feel of the job. Though I found many differences between the two by doing my own research and from conducting interviews, there are many similarities to note as well. The general field of animal psychology is very rewarding, requires a lot of patience, and leads to a better understanding of animal behavior and how to care for specific species of animals. Working with captive animals allows for the opportunity to make a big difference in animal's lives through behavioral enrichment and general care. Working in the wild allows us to understand the innate animal behaviors displayed. Through practice, people get more hands on experience; while through research, you get to observe animals in their native habitats. Each setting and approach has it's own benefits depending on what each person's goals are for their job.

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2018-05

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White Matter Integrity After Traumatic Brain Injury: Corpus Callosum

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Abstract White matter thickness correlates with various mental illness. Commissure white matter tracts are responsible for interconnecting the same cortical area in both hemispheres. Injury to the brain can result in thinning and shrinkage even collapsing and detachment of the

Abstract White matter thickness correlates with various mental illness. Commissure white matter tracts are responsible for interconnecting the same cortical area in both hemispheres. Injury to the brain can result in thinning and shrinkage even collapsing and detachment of the white matter tracts' myelin sheaths. Injury can affect cognitive function and time points are essential for therapeutic intervention. Research is beginning to identify gradual long-term neurodegenerative effects. With the advancement of brain imaging technology, we know that Wallerian degeneration has a significant negative impact on the white matter tracts throughout the brain (Johnson, Stewart, & Smith, 2013). If major tracts become injured like, the corpus callosum, then it can affect interhemispheric communication. Once myelin is damaged the axon becomes vulnerable, and the mechanisms of nerve recovery are not well known. Myelin sheath recovery has been studied in hopes to proliferate the oligodendrocytes that make up for the atrophied myelin. Neurotoxic chemicals released at activation of macrophages which hinders the brains ability to proliferate myelin protein needed for myelin differentiation adequately. In the central nervous system myelin has mechanisms to recover. Neurogenesis is a naturally occurring recovery mechanism seen after brain injury. Understanding the time points in which brain recovery occurs is important for treatment of diffuse injuries that cannot be identified through some imaging techniques. To better understand critical timepoints of natural recovery after brain injury can allow further investigation for early intervention to promote adequate recovery.

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2018-12

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Contemporary Design Philosophies: Hygge, Wabi-sabi, and Feng Shui as a Means to Address Anxiety

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A home holds so much more meaning and power than the physical structure of a house. As much as our personal space serves as an extension of ourselves, it also affects us. Furthermore, whichever state a home environment is in

A home holds so much more meaning and power than the physical structure of a house. As much as our personal space serves as an extension of ourselves, it also affects us. Furthermore, whichever state a home environment is in has a major impact on psychological well-being. This thesis is an investigation of the idea of home design as a means of addressing psychological anxiety through the point of view of a college student. The information is divided into three chapters; which are Overview of Relevant Scholarly Literature, Design Philosophies, and Personal Experience. Within the scholarly literature, well-being and anxiety are two trends in the studies of environmental psychology, positive psychology, and the humanities. There is still limited knowledge in these areas, so it is important to expand the understanding of the home environment's influence. Based on this research, well-known philosophies, and personal experience, design philosophies are an effective way to potentially improve well-being and reduce anxiety, especially for college students. While Hygge and Wabi-sabi are both design philosophies rising in recognition, Feng Shui is already widespread around the world. Some of the recommendations discoverer were to add cozy décor and lower lighting options to soften the room, get rid of extra clutter taking up space, or bring in nature with greenery and fresh flowers. However, these objects have countless interpretations and there is not a single correct answer. In the end, adjusting the space to be individualized will bring more comfort and these efforts will begin to make a difference in the user’s state of mind.

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2018-05

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Stoicism And Its Use As A Therapeutic Method

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In this thesis, I will be discussing the similarities between Stoicism (as both an ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, as well as how it is interpreted in the modern age) and modern therapeutic methods; However, I will not be developing

In this thesis, I will be discussing the similarities between Stoicism (as both an ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, as well as how it is interpreted in the modern age) and modern therapeutic methods; However, I will not be developing any type of novel theory as to how Stoicism can be used as one of those therapeutic methods by itself. That would require a degree of psychological and medical knowledge that I, as an undergraduate student, do not yet possess and do not have the authority to expand upon in a safe manner. What the goal of this thesis is, instead, is to draw and explore parallels between the ideals and principles of stoicism (such as eudaimonia, ethics, and relative asceticism) as compared to modern therapeutic techniques, like cognitive-behavioral and dialectical-behavioral therapies. I will draw direct parallels between Stoic philosophy and the therapeutic treatments commonly used to address the symptoms of two psychiatric issues (Bipolar Mood Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder). I will also be addressing a third psychiatric case study, as relating to Stoic philosophy - suicide, and how our view of it has changed and progressed,both through a Stoic lens as well as from a contemporary psychological viewpoint.
As a result of drawing these parallels, this thesis will also explore some of the more modern uses of Stoicism - for example, those discussed in A Guide To The Good Life by William B Irvine, and Stoic Warriors by Nancy Sherman. Irvine focuses primarily on the use of Stoicism to avoid the factors of“chronic dissatisfaction” that afflict much of our modern-day lives - an absence of control, unhappiness, and erroneous personal values, to name a few. Sherman takes a more targeted approach - the application of Stoic philosophy to the workings of the military mentality and instinct. Sherman explores how being “Stoic” is taught as a part of military bearing, specifically when serving in the American forces. Stoic values are used to create a culture of discipline and self-control in the military - as Sherman puts it, “The idea that one’s happiness could depend solely on one’s own virtue, and that one’s agency and control might be bulletproof, appealed to [them]” (Sherman, 11). These authors’ perspectives are just two examples of how Stoicism can be applied in the modern age, as will be shown in further detail in subsequent sections.

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2020-05

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The Sneaker Life: A Critical Analysis of Nike and Under Armour Marketing Strategies

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My thesis will revolve around the ideology and sociology of the sneaker brand and it particular, basketball sneakers. The mega sneaker superpower Nike and the under dog of Under Armour have shoes they want to sells and consumers they want

My thesis will revolve around the ideology and sociology of the sneaker brand and it particular, basketball sneakers. The mega sneaker superpower Nike and the under dog of Under Armour have shoes they want to sells and consumers they want to buy them. I will discuss how the advertisement are used and implanted but both Nike and Under Armour. The two points of references from each company will be LeBron James, Nike, and Stephen Curry, Under Armour. Both basketball players have signature shoes and are undoublty the NBAs most relevant players this past season. The two players just so happened to face off against each other in the NBA finals, which enhanced the marketing potential for both companies. Thus, the advertisements for these and their shoes would have been its peak trying sway consumers to either side. Nike and Under Armour both ploy attempts in creating marketing material to attract their consumer base. The Thesis will look at why sneakers have become a social trend and high commodity. I will look at how pop culture and psychological diseases play a roll in the consumers' choice to purchase either shoe. The work as a whole will attempt to bring forth some revitalizing information on today's sneaker culture. Research was limited, however with the information to conduct this thesis, the thesis should spark interest in a new research related field. Thus, bringing forth a new renaissance in today's culture; the Sneaker Life.

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2017-05

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Fooled Them Again: Combating Impostor Phenomenon in First-Time Freshmyn with Self-Compassion

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Impostor Phenomenon (IP) is defined as an occurrence in individuals who have difficulty internalizing success, and live in constant fear of the "mask being unveiled," or being exposed as a fraud (Clance, 1985). It is estimated that 70% of the

Impostor Phenomenon (IP) is defined as an occurrence in individuals who have difficulty internalizing success, and live in constant fear of the "mask being unveiled," or being exposed as a fraud (Clance, 1985). It is estimated that 70% of the population will experience at least one episode of Impostor Phenomenon in their lifetime. (Gravois, 2007) This study surveyed 120 first-time freshmyn at Arizona State University West campus to gain access to demographic information, first-year programming attendance, and their Impostor Phenomenon scores using the Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale. After the data was analyzed, it was determined that there were no significant findings between Impostor Phenomenon scores, honors status, and generational status, nor were there statistically significant findings when compared against age, gender, and first-year programming attendance. The average score for all students surveyed ranged in the "frequent bouts" of Impostor Phenomenon, which is the third-highest level of Impostor Phenomenon. Although there are no statistical differences between the identified groups, it is important to note that the average scores are high, and that changes can be made to first-year programming to help lower the average Impostor Phenomenon scores. Teaching students self-compassion is one way to address the common symptoms of Impostor Phenomenon. In addition to background on self-compassion, this thesis offers suggestions on how self-compassion teachings could be incorporated into first-year programming to make students more comfortable and confident during their first year at Arizona State University.

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2018-05

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You're Not a Potato: Communicating Body Positivity in a World of Self-Hate

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This research explores how to best communicate positive body images to women. This project was intended to improve a blog I created my freshmen year in college called You're Not A Potato where I used original illustrations to tell a

This research explores how to best communicate positive body images to women. This project was intended to improve a blog I created my freshmen year in college called You're Not A Potato where I used original illustrations to tell a narrative about body image issues. The thesis begins with an historical overview of body image issues and finds that women have been dealing with high levels of body dissatisfaction since the Victorian era. The thesis then recaps the role of traditional media as well as contemporary social media and the role they play in imposing rigid beauty ideals on women's bodies. After an analysis of social media culture, it becomes evident women still communicate about their bodies in a negative manner, not only towards themselves, but towards others. To address this issue, I define the Body Positive movement and explore how public figures are using social media to implement Body Positivity. To conclude this project, I utilize my new-found knowledge in body positive communication by impacting my university campus community. I started a "You're Not a Potato" Campaign for Body Pride week with the help of the ASU Wellness Team and designed and facilitated several engaging programs that reflected the values of the Body Positive movement to our students. Through this research, I discovered how our appearance-based culture has stolen self-confidence from young women today, but by the end of this project, I explain how we can attempt to rebuild our culture by effectively communicating self-love and body acceptance in our online and physical communities.

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2018-05

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Learning to Draw lik a Child: How Age and Interest Affect Artistic Style

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This correlational study investigated how adolescent's artistic style changed depending on their level of interest in art. The participants were 28 students from the 7th and 8th grade of Zuni Hills Elementary School. A survey was administered which measured, in

This correlational study investigated how adolescent's artistic style changed depending on their level of interest in art. The participants were 28 students from the 7th and 8th grade of Zuni Hills Elementary School. A survey was administered which measured, in regards to their artwork, the categories of interest, experimentation in subject, experimentation in material, abstract style, literal style, imagination, identity, emotion and storytelling. It was predicted that interest would have a significant positive relationship with abstract style and experimentation with subject. It was also predicted that interest would have a significant negative relationship with literal style and experimentation with material. Scores for all categories were compared and significant positive relations were found in regards to emotion, identity and storytelling. There was also a significant positive realtionship between interest and imagination as well as interest and emotion. These findings add to research about motivation in adolescent art through the means of expression of the self.

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2014-05

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An Analysis of Stimulus Confrontation as Self-Help for Specific Phobias: A Scholarly and Personal Narrative

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Perhaps by some ingrained sense of human preparedness, phobias are an outlier in the world of conditioning. Again and again, they are highlighted as the only thing which avoidance makes worse, rather than alleviates. My own fear of insects had

Perhaps by some ingrained sense of human preparedness, phobias are an outlier in the world of conditioning. Again and again, they are highlighted as the only thing which avoidance makes worse, rather than alleviates. My own fear of insects had reached its most severe level just as I began learning about phobias, and avoidance, in my undergraduate psychology courses. There, I learned that avoidance of the phobic stimulus \u2014 in my case, insects \u2014 seemed to be a fundamental element of maintaining a phobia, and I was more than guilty of it. Following this realization, I endeavored into what I would later come to call Stimulus Confrontation: A self-designed therapeutic course of action to overcome my fear. This thesis, then, is the record of this project. It weaves together my scholarly research on phobias with my own personal narrative concerning the employment of Stimulus Confrontation, beginning with the etymology and proposed etiologies of phobias, followed by an overview of contemporary treatment options available and a recounting of Stimulus Confrontation as applied to my own phobia. Told from her own perspective, English writer and journalist Jenny Diski's book, What I Don't Know About Animals, tells of her own arachnophobia, and includes an honest account of the fear and anxiety it caused for her, as well as her own journey to overcome it. Like my own, Diski's phobia \u2014 arachnophobia \u2014 had come to affect her everyday life. Prior to seeking treatment for her fear at the age of 58, Diski too had learned to avoid the thing which she so feared. Inspired by What I Don't Know About Animals, the personal anecdotes I have included throughout this thesis serve to elaborate upon my personal experience with my own insectophobia, and the cessation of avoidance that led to substantial progress in overcoming my fears. Throughout this thesis, I refer to this cessation of avoidance as Stimulus Confrontation, with the intention that following the same process I did may benefit others in overcoming their own specific phobias.

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2015-12