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Religiosity as a Heterosexual Mating Strategy and the Influence of a Homosexuality Threat

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A prior experiment by Li and colleagues found that when participants rated same sex faces in physical attractiveness, their self-reports of religiosity were higher in comparison to those that rated

A prior experiment by Li and colleagues found that when participants rated same sex faces in physical attractiveness, their self-reports of religiosity were higher in comparison to those that rated opposite sex faces. Could this be due to participants feeling their sexuality was threatened or misunderstood? In the current experiment, we attempted to replicate these findings and extend them by using a pseudo personality test that presented false feedback to participants. This feedback explained that their personalities were similar to homosexual or heterosexual people. Four hundred and fifty participants from Amazon Mturk were randomized into these conditions. We also measured homophobia, moral values, and the believability of the experiment. Results displayed no replication of the original findings. Men were more homophobic than women, while displaying lower moral values and religiosity. Those that self-reported being more homophobic also reported being more religious and moral. In conditions of sexual threat (homosexual personality, same sex faces) and sexual comfort (heterosexual personality, opposite sex faces), self-reports of moral values increased. Participants that reported believing the feedback displayed higher religiosity in both sexual threat and sexual comfort conditions. For a more concrete understanding of the relationship between religiosity, mating goals, and threats to sexuality, more research needs to be performed.

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  • 2014-12

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ESOPs and the Need towards Democratic Governance in the Workplace

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If democracy is the best way to rule why then is it limited only to the political sphere? This question is central to economic democracy which is the theory that

If democracy is the best way to rule why then is it limited only to the political sphere? This question is central to economic democracy which is the theory that economic activities should be governed by democratic principles. In America, ESOPs are used for a variety of reasons, and I believe that they can be used for the development of democratic firms. My thesis looks at current ESOPs to see if they are democratic, and suggests how they can be used to develop democratic firms.

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  • 2014-05

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Capitalism and Mental Illness: An Investigation of How Our Culture Makes Us Sick

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The purpose of this thesis is to examine the relationship between mental illness and capitalist consumer society. Many Americans are suffering from mental illness and there has to be something

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the relationship between mental illness and capitalist consumer society. Many Americans are suffering from mental illness and there has to be something causing it besides a chemical imbalance in the brain. A capitalist society creates a set of expectations that conflict with human desires. The thesis takes a historical, economical, and psychological approach to answering the following question: Does a capitalist society make its citizens mentally sick? A brief history of capitalism over the past century is discussed, as well as a more in depth look at capitalism and the creation of neoliberalism during the 1980s. The psychological effects capitalism has on human beings is discussed for the majority of the thesis and focuses on ideas from the 1950s as well as the early 2000s. To show the effect capitalism has on modern day society, an analysis of a psychopharmaceutical drug commercial is given. The concluding thoughts attempt to offer solutions to the problems of human unhappiness in a consumer culture.

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  • 2014-05

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Sum sed cogitone? Can children introspect their mental states?

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Introspective awareness refers to direct access to one’s own internal and subjective thoughts and feelings (Wimmer & Hartl, 1991). Two theories, simulation theory and theory-theory, have been used to understand

Introspective awareness refers to direct access to one’s own internal and subjective thoughts and feelings (Wimmer & Hartl, 1991). Two theories, simulation theory and theory-theory, have been used to understand our access to our mental states. Simulation theory (Harris, 1991) involves imagining yourself in another person’s situation, reading off of your mental state, and attributing that state to the other person. Theory-theory (Gopnik, 1993) involves an interrelated body of knowledge, based on core mental-state constructs, including beliefs and desires, that may be applied to everyone—self and others (Gopnik & Wellman, 1994). Introspection is taken for granted by simulation theory, and explicitly denied by theory-theory. This study is designed to test for evidence of introspection in young children using simple perception and knowledge task. The current evidence is against introspective awareness in children because the data suggest that children cannot report their own false beliefs and they cannot report their on-going thoughts (Flavell, Green & Flavell, 1993; Gopnik & Astington, 1988). The hypothesis in this study states that children will perform better on Self tasks compared to Other tasks, which will be evidence for introspection. The Other-Perception tasks require children to calculate the other’s line of sight and determine if there is something obscuring his or her vision. The Other-Knowledge tasks require children to reason that the other’s previous looking inside a box means that he or she will know what is inside the box when it is closed. The corresponding Self tasks could be answered either by using the same reasoning for the self or by introspection to determine what it is they see and do not see, and know and do not know. Children performing better on Self tasks compared to Other tasks will be an indication of introspection. Tests included Yes/No and Forced Choice questions, which was initially to ensure that the results will not be caused by a feature of a single method of questioning. I realized belatedly, however, that Forced Choice was not a valid measure of introspection as children could introspect in both the Self and Other conditions. I also expect to replicate previous findings that reasoning about Perception is easier for children than reasoning about Knowledge.

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  • 2013-12

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Social Intelligence Training: A Pilot Study

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Humans require sufficient social understanding and connectedness to thrive (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). The current study evaluates the effectiveness of the Social Intelligence Institute's training program pilot. At a middle

Humans require sufficient social understanding and connectedness to thrive (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). The current study evaluates the effectiveness of the Social Intelligence Institute's training program pilot. At a middle school in Phoenix, Arizona, students in a 7th and 8th grade class participated in this pilot program during the spring of 2013. Pre- and post-test questionnaires administered indicated changes in participants reported measures of Perspective Taking, Empathetic Concern, Interpersonal Expectations, and Relationship Self-Efficacy. The program consists of seven modules, each with several sessions, including instructional videos with reflection questions and class discussions. It was predicted that there would be a significant increase in mean scores for the dependent variables in the questionnaire mentioned above from the pre-test to the post-test. However, the null hypotheses were not rejected; statistical significance in t-tests of the measured variables were not met. Yet, the program was more effective for 8th graders than for 7th graders for Perspective Taking. This study of the SI pilot program demonstrates areas of improvement and provides support for wider implementation in the future.

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  • 2013-12

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Psychological Model of No Control/Influence

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The Information Measurement Theory (IMT) is a revolutionary thinking paradigm. Its principles allow an individual to accurately perceive reality and simplify the complexities of life. To understand IMT, individuals start

The Information Measurement Theory (IMT) is a revolutionary thinking paradigm. Its principles allow an individual to accurately perceive reality and simplify the complexities of life. To understand IMT, individuals start by first recognizing that everything must follow natural law and cause and effect, that there is no randomness, and that everyone changes at a certain rate. They then move on to understanding that individuals are described by certain characteristics that can be used to predict their future behavior. And finally, they discover that they must learn to understand, accept, and improve themselves while understanding and accepting others. The author, who has spent a considerable amount of time studying and utilizing IMT, believes that IMT can be used within the field of psychology. The extraordinary results that IMT has produced in the construction industry can potentially be produced in a similar fashion within the psychology field. One of the most important principles of IMT teaches that control or influence over others does not exist. This principle alone differentiates IMT from the traditional model of psychology, which is dedicated to changing an individual (through influence). Five case studies will be presented in which individuals have used the principles of IMT to overcome severe issues such as substance abuse and depression. Each case study is unique and exhibits a remarkable change within each individual.

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  • 2014-05

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Efficacies of Peer-Mentorship in the First-Semester Undergraduate Experience in the Life Sciences

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First-semester student retention is a constant priority for undergraduate institutions. The transition to the collegiate level, and to a new scholastic program and format, is frequently challenging academically and socially—for

First-semester student retention is a constant priority for undergraduate institutions. The transition to the collegiate level, and to a new scholastic program and format, is frequently challenging academically and socially—for this reason, many first-semester course schedules for incoming freshman undergraduates feature an introductory seminar to ease transition to an undergraduate lifestyle. Arizona State University features a required “Careers in the Life Sciences” course for its first-semester School of Life Sciences students, which has had tractable results in first semester student retention and academic success. Here, we evaluate a component of the seminar, the peer-mentorship program, for its efficacy in students’ first semester experience. Analysis of self-reports from 168 first-semester “mentees” and their 25 mentors indicates frequency of mentee-mentor contact was the best indicator of a higher first semester GPA, comfort with academic resources and study habits, and desire to engage in extracurricular activities and internships. These data indicate that access to a mentor who actively engages and verbally connects with their mentees is a valuable component of first-semester student academic integration and retention.

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  • 2014-05

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Full Disclosure: A BFA Painting Exhibition Documenting the Transformative Nature of Art Therapy

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Full Disclosure, an honors thesis painting exhibition presented by Bachelor of Fine Arts candidate, Natalie Saez, strives to visually document the mental progression of people undergoing the transformative process of

Full Disclosure, an honors thesis painting exhibition presented by Bachelor of Fine Arts candidate, Natalie Saez, strives to visually document the mental progression of people undergoing the transformative process of art therapy. Although often times a term that brings people on edge under certain circumstances, full disclosure brings to light information that otherwise would not have been expressed. In this same way, the process of art making - specifically referring to art therapy - presents a form of full disclosure. Varying stylistic approaches ranging from naturalistic to more abstracted portraits within the exhibition serve as a way to depict the uninhibited expression that results from the creative process.

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  • 2014-05

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The Chase for a Legal High: Discovering What Arizonans Know About Designer Drugs

Description

This creative project explores the trend of designer/synthetic drug use in Arizona and nationwide. The project serves as "gap research" - bringing to light the problem of limited use statistics

This creative project explores the trend of designer/synthetic drug use in Arizona and nationwide. The project serves as "gap research" - bringing to light the problem of limited use statistics and constantly-changing drug chemical compounds. The project was thoroughly researched using media reports, psychology/drug addiction experts, community education organizers and available healthcare statistics. The results provided not definitive answer other than that more work needs to be done in the area of synthetic drug use. Parents and youth must educate themselves on the dangers of using these "legal" drugs.

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  • 2014-05

The Use of Sports Psychology for the Mental Recovery of Athletes Post-Injury

Description

The purpose of this thesis was to identity various sports psychology techniques utilized during the injury recovery process of an NCAA athlete. Using a qualitative approach, past research was analyzed

The purpose of this thesis was to identity various sports psychology techniques utilized during the injury recovery process of an NCAA athlete. Using a qualitative approach, past research was analyzed to uncover different features of an athletic injury as well as possible intervention methods. Findings suggested that effective intervention techniques structured around the Self Determination Theory (SDT), more specifically the concept of strengthening the satisfaction of an individual's three basic psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness. Following the collection of past research, a series of interviews were conducted with four practicing sports psychologists. Interview questions focused on determining possible distinctions between acute, chronic and career-ending injuries as well as intervention techniques employed. Utilizing data collected from past research as well as the interviews, an applied brochure was developed for the potential benefit of an injured athlete. The established techniques, if utilized properly, should strengthen the satisfaction of an athlete's psychological needs according to the SDT, which may ultimately foster a positive and successful return-to-sport experience.

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  • 2014-05