Matching Items (27)
- All Subjects: psychology
- Creators: School of Life Sciences
- Member of: Barrett, The Honors College Thesis/Creative Project Collection
- Status: Published
First-semester student retention is a constant priority for undergraduate institutions. The transition to the collegiate level, and to a new scholastic program and format, is frequently challenging academically and socially—for this reason, many first-semester course schedules for incoming freshman undergraduates feature an introductory seminar to ease transition to an undergraduate lifestyle. Arizona State University features a required “Careers in the Life Sciences” course for its first-semester School of Life Sciences students, which has had tractable results in first semester student retention and academic success. Here, we evaluate a component of the seminar, the peer-mentorship program, for its efficacy in students’ first semester experience. Analysis of self-reports from 168 first-semester “mentees” and their 25 mentors indicates frequency of mentee-mentor contact was the best indicator of a higher first semester GPA, comfort with academic resources and study habits, and desire to engage in extracurricular activities and internships. These data indicate that access to a mentor who actively engages and verbally connects with their mentees is a valuable component of first-semester student academic integration and retention.
An introduction to neuroscientific thought aimed at an audience that is not educated in biology. Meant to be readable and easily understood by anyone with a high school education. The first section is completed in its entirety, with outlines for the proposed final sections to be completed over the next few years.
The relationship of attachment style to both the selection and efficacy of emotion management strategies in adult dyadic contexts is not well elucidated. In non-romantic contexts, the interplay between emotion management and individual attachment style may provide a better understanding of how affect can be mitigated in daily life. The present study investigated these interactions by studying 56 pairs of college age women who were close friends. Participants were asked to have a conversation about a current source of concern/distress to one partner, while seated in the laboratory. After the conversation, participants were asked to report their subjective experience of several emotions during the conversation, such as ‘sadness,’ ‘joy,’ and ‘fear.’ Participants were also asked to complete a questionnaire assessing adult attachment style, specifically attachment anxiety and avoidance. Behavior during the conversation was coded for co-rumination and co-cognitive reappraisal by the “listener.” Listener attachment insecurity showed a trending association with increased use of co-detached reappraisal, for both avoidance (p=0.14) and anxiety (p=0.14). Listener attachment insecurity also predicted lower use of co-rumination, for both anxiety (p=0.10) and avoidance (p=0.02). Speaker attachment insecurity moderated the relationship between co-detached reappraisal and speaker emotion. Greater co-detached reappraisal predicted higher reports of non-fear negative and positive emotions, but only for high-avoidance speakers. Greater co-detached reappraisal also predicted greater non-fear negative emotions among speakers high, but not low, on attachment anxiety. Greater listener use of co-positive reappraisal was associated with higher reports of speaker fear; this effect was not moderated by speaker attachment style. These findings are discussed in relation to theoretical conceptions of attachment style, and in terms of the impact of context on emotion.
This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among diurnal cortisol rhythms and sleeping patterns in adolescents. 79 participants completed the study over three days during the spring semester of their senior year in high school, and 76 of these subjects participated again over three days during the fall semester of their freshman year in college. They completed daily saliva samples and diary entries, while wearing an actigraph to obtain objective measurements of sleep duration and efficiency. Cross-sectionally, longer sleep duration was associated with a lower cortisol awakening response, a smaller area under the cortisol curve, and a steeper cortisol slope. Longitudinally, there was no significant relationship between sleep duration and these cortisol parameters. Moreover, sleep efficiency was not associated with cortisol parameters cross-sectionally nor longitudinally. Results suggest associations between concurrent sleep duration and cortisol patterns, and may have significant impact on understanding adolescents' physiological response to stress.
This paper encompasses part of the complex topic of relationships between consumers, organic products, and advertising in America with a particular focus on Tempe, Arizona. Background research included in this paper includes how the term "organic" was developed and regulated to fit the federal standards that are implied through the use of the USDA organic label that was introduced in October of 2002. Further research considers the factors that have empirically and overwhelmingly contributed to motivations of attitude development and purchasing behaviors of the average organic consumer in America, tracking changes and potential causes over the past several decades. A large proportion of this paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted in Tempe between late 2014 and early 2015. This survey, shown in the appendices, includes responses from 310 Tempe consumers regarding questions of demographics, knowledge and perception of organic products, perceived access to organic products, consumer values, and purchasing behaviors. The results of the survey reflect the values displayed in previous studies on national surveys, with some discrepancies that appear to set Tempe apart from the national average. However, the results of the survey are limited by their exclusion and limited parsing of multiple confounds. Additionally, the respondents of the survey were not proportionate to the actually population of Tempe and therefore cannot be accurately generalized to the Tempe population as a whole. The third and final section of this paper deals with the relationship between advertisers and consumers. This considers how advertising helps to develop product values and perceptions through various methods. Future directions for advertising of organic products is also addressed, as advertisers can potentially become a source of developing scientific information if properly utilized. Further directives and gaps in research are addressed in the final portion of the paper and include how to increase consumer knowledge, the problems faced by organic advocates, what is important about what we already know, and where to go from here.
Joseph Henrich coined the term WEIRD: Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic to describe individuals who were noted to be the predominant sample subjects in psychology research studies and whose behavior is often used to represent behavioral studies (Henrich et al., 2010). Three distinctive conclusions were drawn from a review of a compilation of psychological and behavioral science research: massively biased samples – with approximately 96% of the experimental participants being drawn from northern Europe, North America, or Australia, and 70% of this subpopulation being American undergraduates; psychological diversity; and psychological peculiarity. In Henrich’s book, he discusses the points in history when the West began to differentiate themselves, psychologically speaking, from other cultures and the various driving factors that contributed to this change. Henrich emphasizes the narrowness of sampling within the psychological and behavioral sciences due to the nature of WEIRD societies. As such, it is difficult to generalize the normative ways of development in cross-cultural settings when there is a lack of representation for non-WEIRD societies. For example, shame is one of the vehicles that heavily influences non-WEIRD societies while guilt appears to be a driving factor in WEIRD societies. An idea that is guided by shame, “losing face,” is prominent in multiple non-WEIRD populations and may act as the driving force for adolescents to adopt ‘adult-like’ behaviors. Specifically, “migrant youth” is a phenomenon whereby youth from underdeveloped and developing nations leave some vestige of home to better themselves (Cortina et al., 2014). There is evidence to suggest that unaccompanied Latino migrant youth (LMY) in particular, live as “adults” despite being adolescents (Carlos Chavez et al., 2021). Whether their migration to the U.S. is motivated for a better life and future (Carlos Chavez et al., 2022) or as a family strategy (Stark & Stark, 1991) for the financial survival of the household, it may be possible that unaccompanied LMY are willing to sacrifice themselves in order to ‘save their parents’ face’ from poverty, hunger, and poor health. This type of ‘adult-like’ behavior among LMY challenges the normative human development literature and brings to surface the cultural implications and psychological consequences of non-WEIRD individuals who live in WEIRD societies.
South Asian students are known for having immense pressure on them due to parental expectation and oftentimes that stress can present in psychosomatic symptoms. This investigation aimed to better understand the physical presentations of stress and how South Asians compare to their white peers. An online study was conducted with both South Asian (n = 15) and White (n = 58) individuals that use the Perceived Stress Scale and the New York State United Teachers physical stress assessment to understand the differences in stress. It was found that South Asians have a higher average perceived stress core of 25 versus 20 for whites and experience headaches, sore neck, an overall feeling of worry and anxiety, and diarrhea more frequently than their white counterparts. This suggests that South Asians may in fact have more psychosomatic manifestations of stress. It is posited that this is due to South Asian students not having an adequate outlet in which they can express negative emotions.
This study investigates the effects of familiarity and the size of a novel object on perception of depth. Familiar size is a visual depth cue that provides information about the distance of an object. This project explores if the familiar size illusion is a result of an automatic perceptual process or an intellectual thought process. This data was collected in two phases, a familiarization phase and a testing phase. The experimental participants were familiarized for 30 seconds with a novel object, while the control group was not shown any objects prior to presentation of test objects. The novel test stimuli were constructed in 5 sizes and participants in the familiar group were familiarized with the medium size object. Participants were then asked to indicate the perceived distance of different sized objects by moving a rod with a pointer at the end to match the distance. The smaller comparison objects subtended visual angles that participants had not previously experienced, while larger comparison objects produced a larger visual angle than the participants had seen during the familiarization phase. The testing phase was identical for both familiar and unfamiliar control groups. Apparent distance was influenced by the size of the objects. Larger objects were judged to be closer than the smaller objects. Participants not familiarized showed smaller effects of stimulus size than the familiarized group. The effect of familiarity was not significant for the smaller stimuli but was very significant for the larger stimuli. The results were not consistent with the cognitive theory which argues that familiar size is a result of a conscious thought process. These outcomes are predicted under the model of familiar size being an automatic perceptual process.
The structure of this project will open with the dangers posed by inadequate screening techniques to both individuals with Body Dysmorphic Disorder and their plastic surgeons. This discussion will be followed by a summary of the existing mental health screenings implemented in plastic surgery clinics and their limitations. The assessments that will be examined include The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination, The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination - Self-Report, The Cosmetic Procedure Screening Questionnaire, The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder, and The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire. These screening techniques were chosen based on a multitude of factors: frequency of use in psychiatric and cosmetic settings, innovation of screening methodology, and significance of studies that utilize the assessments. After describing the screening techniques, there will be a brief discussion of the limitations of developing a screening method for Body Dysmorphic Disorder, along with suggestions for methodology in future research. This thesis will demonstrate that no existing screening method for Body Dysmorphic Disorder in aesthetic surgery is flawless. Still, future research efforts should investigate combining questionnaires and clinical interviews to screen for the disorder within clinics efficiently and more reliably.
As the use of social media becomes more prevalent, especially in adolescents and young adults, there is a growing need to understand how social media use affects psychological well-being in the emerging adult population. Prior research has found that exposure to nature reduces stress and increases attention in comparison to urban environments, but nature has not been studied as a way to reduce the potentially negative effects of social media. The current study aimed to determine if viewing social media or nature for a brief time affected psychological well-being, social comparisons, future self-identification, and awe, and to test whether viewing nature scenes could buffer the effects of viewing social media. Data was collected from 275 participants using a survey on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Results showed that emerging adults exposed to nature scenes had significantly less negative affect compared to those exposed to their social media feeds. Exploratory analyses showed that those who spent more time outside tended to experience decreased negative affect when they viewed both social media and nature photos, but those who spent more time outside experienced increased negative affect when only viewing social media. Those who used social media more often generally experienced lower negative affect. Findings show that relations between humans, social media, and nature, are complex, and further research into these relations and their underlying causes may be beneficial.