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Proof of Concept of Pseudo-Continuous Monitoring of L-Lactate Levels Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

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As of today, there does not exist a cheap diagnostic for lactate for use in trauma centers. $671 billion are spent on trauma accidents and emergency rooms, with money focused on treatments such as YSI and ELISA, costing $1500 and

As of today, there does not exist a cheap diagnostic for lactate for use in trauma centers. $671 billion are spent on trauma accidents and emergency rooms, with money focused on treatments such as YSI and ELISA, costing $1500 and $200, respectively. Gold disk electrodes were used to immobilize lactate dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase, with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) used as the method for detection. Two lactate experimental runs were completed with data detailing a linear model and positive correlation for imaginary impedance and concentration, and one glucose experimental run was completed proving that a continuous system can be completed accounting for reaction and consumption using EIS, a process previously not done before.

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2017-05

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Development of a Clinically Relevant Brochure About the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative

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The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was created in 1991 with the goal to provide support and education to mothers on breastfeeding in order to increase the rate and duration of breastfeeding across the world. Despite being around for over

The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was created in 1991 with the goal to provide support and education to mothers on breastfeeding in order to increase the rate and duration of breastfeeding across the world. Despite being around for over 20 years, it has only been successfully incorporated into 245 hospitals in the United States as of 2015. Due to the many benefits this initiative brings to mothers, infants, and the hospitals themselves as well as being shown to increase the incidence, duration, and exclusivity of breastfeeding, the goal of this project was to create a mother friendly brochure sharing this. The brochure was created in order to spread the word of the BFHI to expecting mothers so that they are informed and able to use this information to not only improve their own child-birthing experience but also push for implementation in their delivering facilities. The brochure covers additional topics such as breastfeeding benefits and tips, lactation resources, and steps to incorporate into their own hospital stay if outside of a BFHI facility in order to get a few of the benefits that the Baby Friendly Initiative provides. The brochure was tested for clarity, effectiveness, and for overall reactions in a study conducted at a local women's clinic surveying expectant mothers through the use of a short survey. These results were used to make minor improvements to the brochure before moving on to plans of how to disseminate the brochure to more clinics within the Phoenix area. The dissemination of this brochure will share this important information with women of childbearing age and hopefully lead to greater knowledge and progress towards improved maternal and neonatal outcomes.

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2015-05

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Midwifery around the World: A Study in the Role of Midwives in Local Communities and Healthcare Systems

Description

2015 marks the deadline for the UN Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce global maternal mortality rate (MMR) by 75% since 1990. As of 2015, MMR has only been reduced by 45%. Many international organizations claim that more medically trained

2015 marks the deadline for the UN Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce global maternal mortality rate (MMR) by 75% since 1990. As of 2015, MMR has only been reduced by 45%. Many international organizations claim that more medically trained midwives can meet global maternal health care needs. This study investigates two major questions. What is the role of midwives in diverse international maternal healthcare contexts? How do midwives in these different contexts define their roles and the barriers to providing the best care for women? From May to August 2015, I conducted over 70 interviews with midwives in Netherlands, Sweden, Rwanda, Bangladesh, Australia and Guatemala, interviewing between 6 and 13 midwives from each country. The majority of midwives defined their roles as supporting women's individual capacities and power through normal birth, and knowing when to refer when high-risk complications arise. Although thematic barriers vary by country, midwives in all countries believed that maternal healthcare can be improved by increased collaboration between midwives and other health care professionals, better access to culturally appropriate services, and greater public awareness of the role of midwives.

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Date Created
2016-05

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THE CORRELATION BETWEEN MATERNAL PERCEIVED STRESS, CORTISOL REACTIVITY, AND THEIR INFANT'S CORTISOL REACTIVITY

Description

Many stressors today are psychological rather than physical and are influenced by the brain's perception of the stressor. The peripartum period is a particularly volatile time that is susceptible to new and stronger stressors. This current study investigates the relationshi

Many stressors today are psychological rather than physical and are influenced by the brain's perception of the stressor. The peripartum period is a particularly volatile time that is susceptible to new and stronger stressors. This current study investigates the relationship between self-reported perceived stress levels and physiological cortisol reactivity levels in new mothers at the 12-week postpartum time point. In addition, it examines the relationship between the mother and infants' physiological cortisol reactivity levels at 12-weeks postpartum. This current study is part of a longitudinal study and assessed these two correlations for 181 mother-infant dyads from a low income Mexican American population. The self-reported stress levels were assessed using the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the cortisol reactivity data was gathered using four salivary cortisol samples taken from both mother and infant surrounding 5 interaction tasks and analyzed using Area Under the Curve with respect to ground (AUCg). Unexpectedly, the results found no correlation between perceived and physiological stress levels in the mothers, with a Pearson correlation of 0.114 and a p-value of 0.129. However, there was a positive correlation between mother and infant cortisol reactivity, with a correlation of 0.632 and a p-value less than 0.0001. This early postpartum period plays a significant role in developing HPA axis regulation for infants and developing productive mother-infant interactions. The physiological and psychological risks of chronically elevated stress for both mothers and children were addressed in this study as well, with implications for means to address and mitigate potential cortisol dysregulation.

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2016-05

A Cross-Cultural Study of Parental Leave on Quality of Life between Finland, Japan, and The United States

Description

Managing a work-home balance is a daunting task for any parent. It is often difficult to take leave from work to care for one’s family due to financial barriers, which simultaneously poses a threat to family development. Although many countries

Managing a work-home balance is a daunting task for any parent. It is often difficult to take leave from work to care for one’s family due to financial barriers, which simultaneously poses a threat to family development. Although many countries have parental leave policies in place to account for this, effectiveness of these policies vary by country. This study aims to find to what extent parental leave has an impact on the quality of life. In this study, quality of life was investigated by the rank of the country on the Happiness Index and through the lens of achieving sustainable family development, which was subsequently described to be reflected by a country’s governmental resources provided during parental leave, as well as the country’s Gender Inequality Index. Through a cross-cultural review of literature, it was found that there seems to be an indirect, complex correlation of parental leave to the quality of life, and external factors such as sociocultural ideals, gender inequality, and varying workplace practices have greater significance on quality of life.

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Date Created
2021-05

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An Investigation of Navigating Western Biomedical Best Practices and Cultural Norms of Resettled Refugee Women in Sexual, Reproductive, and Maternal Health

Description

Refugee women face many challenges to obtaining maternal, reproductive, and sexual health post-resettlement including the language barrier, navigating the healthcare system, finding childcare to attend appointments, and cultural mismatches between their beliefs and practices around the prenatal, childbirth, and postpartum

Refugee women face many challenges to obtaining maternal, reproductive, and sexual health post-resettlement including the language barrier, navigating the healthcare system, finding childcare to attend appointments, and cultural mismatches between their beliefs and practices around the prenatal, childbirth, and postpartum periods and that of the healthcare system in which they resettle into. This cultural barrier poses a challenge to healthcare providers as well as it necessitates that they respect their patients’ cultural beliefs while still providing them with the highest standard of care. Cultural competency training has been used to assist providers in understanding and responding to cultural differences, but gaps still exist when it comes to navigating specific scenarios. The objective of this research was to conduct a literature review of studies pertaining to refugee maternal, reproductive, and sexual healthcare post-resettlement to investigate the following questions: how tensions between biomedically accepted best practices and cultural norms present themselves in these healthcare fields, how healthcare providers take into consideration their patients’ cultural beliefs and norms when providing maternal, reproductive, and sexual healthcare to refugee women, and what can be done to continue to improve the provision of culturally appropriate care to refugee women. Findings from twenty different studies that focused primarily on eight cultural groups identified that Cesarean sections, inductions, and certain family planning methods are significant points of contention regarding cultural norms for refugee women and that they prefer certain foods, birthing positions, and other cultural practices during the delivery. Healthcare providers consider their refugee patients’ cultural beliefs by creating relationships with them built on trust, utilizing community liaisons, and through attempts to accommodate cultural practices when possible. Some potential improvements offered to improve cultural competency were improved cultural competency training that focused on how healthcare providers ask questions and interact with their patients, increased partnership with refugee communities, and an emphasis on patient education surrounding interventions and procedures related to maternal and reproductive health that could cause hesitations. The results of this literature review accentuated the importance of relationships within the field of refugee women’s healthcare, between both refugee patients and their providers and refugee communities and the healthcare systems. Providing refugee women access to more culturally competent healthcare can increase their trust in the healthcare systems of the countries they resettle in and healthcare utilization that can contribute to improved health outcomes for refugee women and their children.

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2022-05