Matching Items (7)

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The Dimensionality of Trust-Relevant Constructs in Four Institutional Domains: Results From Confirmatory Factor Analyses.

Description

Using confirmatory factor analyses and multiple indicators per construct, we examined a number of theoretically derived factor structures pertaining to numerous trust-relevant constructs (from 9 to12) across four institutional contexts

Using confirmatory factor analyses and multiple indicators per construct, we examined a number of theoretically derived factor structures pertaining to numerous trust-relevant constructs (from 9 to12) across four institutional contexts (police, local governance, natural resources, state governance) and multiple participant-types (college students via an online survey, community residents as part of a city’s budget engagement activity, a random sample of rural landowners, and a national sample of adult Americans via an Amazon Mechanical Turk study). Across studies, a number of common findings emerged. First, the best fitting models in each study maintained separate factors for each trust-relevant construct. Furthermore, post hoc analyses involving addition of higher-order factors tended to fit better than collapsing of factors. Second, dispositional trust was easily distinguishable from the other trust-related constructs, and positive and negative constructs were often distinguishable. However, the items reflecting positive trust attitude constructs or positive trustworthiness perceptions showed low discriminant validity. Differences in findings between studies raise questions warranting further investigation in future research, including differences in correlations among latent constructs varying from very high (e.g., 12 inter-factor correlations above .9 in Study 2) to more moderate (e.g., only 3 correlations above .8 in Study 4). Further, the results from one study (Study 4) suggested that legitimacy, fairness, and voice were especially highly correlated and may form a single higher-order factor, but the other studies did not. Future research is needed to determine when and why different higher-order factor structures may emerge in different institutional contexts or with different samples.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-03-31

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Self-Efficacy and Confidence: Theoretical Distinctions and Implications for Trial Consultation

Description

Self-Efficacy Theory (SET; Bandura, 1986, 2000) has generated research and practice ramifications across areas of psychology. However, self-efficacy has yet to be assessed in a legal context. The present paper

Self-Efficacy Theory (SET; Bandura, 1986, 2000) has generated research and practice ramifications across areas of psychology. However, self-efficacy has yet to be assessed in a legal context. The present paper juxtaposes self-efficacy with self-confidence in terms of theoretical foundations and practical implications, with attention to the area of witness testimony. It is concluded that the concept of witness self-efficacy possesses thorough theoretical grounding as a potential target for witness preparation. As such, we put forth an integrated model of witness preparation featuring self-efficacy bolstering techniques within an established witness training framework.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2009

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Barret Nursing Mentorship Program: A Pilot Study

Description

Mentorship is important to learning because it provides a frame of reference and the guidance necessary to succeed for those who are inexperienced. The purpose of this study was to

Mentorship is important to learning because it provides a frame of reference and the guidance necessary to succeed for those who are inexperienced. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a one-semester mentorship program for freshman Barrett nursing students. Specifically, it was hypothesized that freshman Barrett nursing students (mentees) would experience higher levels of confidence as they enter their second year. With improved confidence and better preparation in handling stress, freshman Barrett students are more likely to stay in the Barrett program throughout their time at a university in the southwestern United States. The mentorship program included freshman Barrett students pursuing a degree in nursing as the mentees and Term 8 (senior) Barrett Nursing students as the mentors. The mentorship program supported freshman students in reaching out to their mentors for study tips, class advice, homework help, and use them as a general resource throughout the application process. Quantitative data was collected in a pre- and post-survey in order to analyze the confidence scores of mentors and mentees. The survey asked participants questions regarding their level of self-confidence and asked them to rank their responses on a Likert scale with 1 being strongly disagree and 5 being strongly agree. The results showed that confidence levels based on the quantitative data either stayed the same or was improved in every participant. Specifically, there were multiple statistically significant findings based on the paired t-tests that were run. Findings suggest the mentorship program improved the confidence levels in both freshman Barrett students and their Senior mentors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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The Confidence Gap: How Women Hold Themselves Back in the Business World

Description

I will explore that confidence gap between men and women and how it holds women back in a male-dominated business world. Then, I will give recommendations to businesswomen and managers

I will explore that confidence gap between men and women and how it holds women back in a male-dominated business world. Then, I will give recommendations to businesswomen and managers to overcome the confidence gap. Everyone knows that women on average get paid less per dollar than men. Clearly, this is partly due to a social ill that discriminates against women. However, I am not the type of person to sit back and wait for things to change. As a young woman graduating Barrett and moving onto law school, I wanted to explore what I myself can do to combat disadvantages I may encounter in the corporate world. My objective is to investigate the differences between men and women in the business world using the book, The Confidence Code, by Katty Kay and Claire Shipman as a framework for discussion. Is there a confidence gap between males and females and how is that hindering the latter in the workplace? Next, I will discuss why it is important for businesses to even care about having women on their teams at all. Finally, I will explore possible ways to build self-confidence in women in order to make them more successful in their careers. I will give recommendations to businesswomen themselves and to businesses in general to achieve this goal. For the purposes of this thesis, I will define confidence in business as "the belief that one is able to succeed at something" and furthermore, "the act of actually trying to be successful at something". To take it a step further, confidence also means being resilient instead of discouraged in the face of failure. Self-confidence is absolutely essential to a successful career as a businessperson. It is necessary to build skills such as: speaking up, sharing ideas, negotiating, applying for jobs, positions, projects, and promotions, not letting others intimidate you, not feeling the need to unnecessarily apologize, and to be proactive instead of hesitant. I found that part of the reason for the wage gap and why there are so few women CEOs is due to women's lack of confidence. For example, women do not initiate salary negotiations as often as men do and they ask for significantly less money when they do. Women will not apply for promotions unless they feel 100% qualified while men will go for it if they feel they have about half the qualifications. Then I decided to do research on whether or not women are as confident as men- and the answer is absolutely yes. Companies with more women in leadership positions outperform companies without. Men and women generally produce the same results but women still doubt themselves more. Finally, it turns out women actually have more effective leadership strategies then men. The confidence gap is due to many biological, psychological, and sociological factors. At the beginning of my research, I was frustrated by what I was finding. But the good news is that there are many ways women can overcome the confidence gap through reframing, taking action, and practice. There are ways businesses can foster a culture that meets the needs of women in a previously male dominated space. This information is empowering and I hope my thesis can help other women the way it has helped me.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Reimagining Honors Writing Education: Fostering Student Confidence in Critical Analysis

Description

This study aims to produce efficient and effective group writing workshops for students within the Barrett Honors College at Arizona State University. To balance two opposing theories in writing center

This study aims to produce efficient and effective group writing workshops for students within the Barrett Honors College at Arizona State University. To balance two opposing theories in writing center pedagogy - the direct instruction theory and the student-led/ collaborative theory - this study also aims to determine whether a balanced combination of these approaches in writing workshops will increase student confidence in their writing abilities. Several writing workshops were held over Zoom utilizing a combination of direct teaching methods and collaborative techniques. Students were then surveyed to determine whether they found the workshops helpful, learned new skills, and/or grew more confident in their abilities. The student responses proved the hypothesis that a combined approach leads to an increase in student confidence.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Optimism, attribution and corporate investment policy

Description

Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) whose observed personal option-holding patterns are not consistent with theoretical predictions are variously described as overconfident or optimistic. Existing literature demonstrates that the investment and financing

Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) whose observed personal option-holding patterns are not consistent with theoretical predictions are variously described as overconfident or optimistic. Existing literature demonstrates that the investment and financing decisions of such CEOs differ from those of CEOs who do not exhibit such behavior and interprets the investment and financing decisions by overconfident or optimistic CEOs as inferior. This paper argues that it may be rational to exhibit behavior interpreted as optimistic and that the determinants of a CEO’s perceived optimism are important. Further, this paper shows that CEOs whose apparent optimism results from above average industry-adjusted CEO performance in prior years make investment and financing decisions which are actually similar, and sometimes superior to, those of unbiased CEOs.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

Moving Sustainability Forward: A Game-based Approach For Building Confidence In Municipal Administration

Description

Cities with a car-oriented mobility system are significant consumers of energy and require drastic transformations in their structure and function to minimize their harmful impacts on environment and people and

Cities with a car-oriented mobility system are significant consumers of energy and require drastic transformations in their structure and function to minimize their harmful impacts on environment and people and to achieve sustainability goals. To promote such sustainable transformations, municipal administrators need to act as change-agents. Because municipal governments are often not agile organizations, they tend toward incrementalism even in the pursuit of transformational goals. Therefore, there is a need in municipal governments to build individual transformative capacity so that municipal administrators can design, test, and implement plans, projects, and policies that are capable of transforming cities toward sustainability. This research presents a game-based workshop, “Stadt-liche Ziele” (AudaCity), that uses a backcasting approach to make municipal administrators build a sustainability strategy. I conducted a pilot study to test the effects of the game on municipal administrators’ confidence in their own ability and power to implement sustainability actions, a key determinant of transformative capacity. Five municipal administrators from Lüneburg, Germany, working on mobility issues, participated in a three-hour-workshop playing the game. Interviews and questionnaires were used before and after the workshop and participants’ contributions during the event were recorded to explore collective changes in confidence. Results indicate that the game increased participant confidence by rewarding collective success, breaking down an ambitious goal into achievable tasks, and acknowledging how administrators’ current actions already contribute to the goal.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-06-28