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Stress and the Genetic Pathway of Schizophrenia: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of the role of early growth response 3 protein (EGR3) in the regulation of the Htr2a gene using mice

Description

Schizophrenia affects 1.1% of the population worldwide. Schizophrenia is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Stress can trigger psychotic episodes and exacerbate schizophrenic symptoms. For humans, one gene implicated in stress and schizophrenia in humans is the early growth response 3 (EGR3).

Schizophrenia affects 1.1% of the population worldwide. Schizophrenia is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Stress can trigger psychotic episodes and exacerbate schizophrenic symptoms. For humans, one gene implicated in stress and schizophrenia in humans is the early growth response 3 (EGR3). Patients with genomic variations in EGR3 have reduced levels of EGR3 in the prefrontal brain region compared with healthy patients. Schizophrenic patients also have less serotonin 2A receptor (5HT2AR), which is coded by the gene Htr2a, in their prefrontal cortex. Mice that are Egr3-deficient also have decreased levels of 5HT2AR, suggesting that Egr3 may be involved in the regulation of 5HT2AR. The purpose of the experiment is to determine if EGR3 binds to the Htr2a gene promoter region by using a Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. We will use ECS to increase EGR3 expression. Previously we have identified two upstream sites of interest where EGR3 potentially binds to the Htr2a gene, one which is distal and one proximal to the transcription start site. After ECS, increased binding is seen in the Htr2a distal region with EGR3 via the ChIP assay. Increased binding was not observed at either of the promoter sites; however, the t-test comparing the distal site of the ECS and the No ECS groups to have a p-value of 0.056, suggesting that increasing the number of animals (n=7) could possibly give a more accurate representation to test our hypothesis. However, the experiment still suggests increased expression and that EGR3 may bind to the distal site of Htr2a. Keywords: stress, environment, genetics, schizophrenia, EGR3, chromatin immunoprecipitation

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2015-05

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Sustainability and Identity: The Case of Costa Rica

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This study examines sustainable development concerns as an essential part of the Costa Rican national identity. Interviews with ecotourism industry workers and an analysis of pertinent news articles shine light on the Costa Rican citizen's perspective of sustainable development, showing

This study examines sustainable development concerns as an essential part of the Costa Rican national identity. Interviews with ecotourism industry workers and an analysis of pertinent news articles shine light on the Costa Rican citizen's perspective of sustainable development, showing that in spite of current initiatives industry workers still have unmet environmental and economic concerns, and that the general public is both passionately interested and personally invested in the topic.

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Date Created
2013-05

Natural Disasters in Italy: Environmental & Cultural Resilience

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My creative project is a brand new Barrett, The Honors course that examines the complex and evolving intersections between natural disasters, culture, and resilience in Italy.

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2020-12

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The Land of Living Memory: Faërie and the Consolation of Things Lost

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Faërie exists in the mythology and literature of northwestern Europe as a spiritual Otherworld, a land of immortal beauty just tangential to our own. This project explored multiple conceptions of Faërie and their common association with things that have been

Faërie exists in the mythology and literature of northwestern Europe as a spiritual Otherworld, a land of immortal beauty just tangential to our own. This project explored multiple conceptions of Faërie and their common association with things that have been lost. The pattern that emerged is one in which the Otherworld is not merely linked to lost things, but becomes a way of preserving and rediscovering them. Faërie embodies the hope that things lost live on, and can be found again.

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Date Created
2013-05

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An Environmental and Economic Analysis of The Near Future of Lithium Ion Batteries

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Lithium ion batteries are quintessential components of modern life. They are used to power smart devices — phones, tablets, laptops, and are rapidly becoming major elements in the automotive industry. Demand projections for lithium are skyrocketing with production struggling to

Lithium ion batteries are quintessential components of modern life. They are used to power smart devices — phones, tablets, laptops, and are rapidly becoming major elements in the automotive industry. Demand projections for lithium are skyrocketing with production struggling to keep up pace. This drive is due mostly to the rapid adoption of electric vehicles; sales of electric vehicles in 2020 are more than double what they were only a year prior. With such staggering growth it is important to understand how lithium is sourced and what that means for the environment. Will production even be capable of meeting the demand as more industries make use of this valuable element? How will the environmental impact of lithium affect growth? This thesis attempts to answer these questions as the world looks to a decade of rapid growth for lithium ion batteries.

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2021-05