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Energy-efficient DSP system design based on the Redundant Binary number system

Description

Redundant Binary (RBR) number representations have been extensively used in the past for high-throughput Digital Signal Processing (DSP) systems. Data-path components based on this number system have smaller critical path delay but larger area compared to conventional two's complement systems.

Redundant Binary (RBR) number representations have been extensively used in the past for high-throughput Digital Signal Processing (DSP) systems. Data-path components based on this number system have smaller critical path delay but larger area compared to conventional two's complement systems. This work explores the use of RBR number representation for implementing high-throughput DSP systems that are also energy-efficient. Data-path components such as adders and multipliers are evaluated with respect to critical path delay, energy and Energy-Delay Product (EDP). A new design for a RBR adder with very good EDP performance has been proposed. The corresponding RBR parallel adder has a much lower critical path delay and EDP compared to two's complement carry select and carry look-ahead adder implementations. Next, several RBR multiplier architectures are investigated and their performance compared to two's complement systems. These include two new multiplier architectures: a purely RBR multiplier where both the operands are in RBR form, and a hybrid multiplier where the multiplicand is in RBR form and the other operand is represented in conventional two's complement form. Both the RBR and hybrid designs are demonstrated to have better EDP performance compared to conventional two's complement multipliers. The hybrid multiplier is also shown to have a superior EDP performance compared to the RBR multiplier, with much lower implementation area. Analysis on the effect of bit-precision is also performed, and it is shown that the performance gain of RBR systems improves for higher bit precision. Next, in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the RBR representation at the system-level, the performance of RBR and hybrid implementations of some common DSP kernels such as Discrete Cosine Transform, edge detection using Sobel operator, complex multiplication, Lifting-based Discrete Wavelet Transform (9, 7) filter, and FIR filter, is compared with two's complement systems. It is shown that for relatively large computation modules, the RBR to two's complement conversion overhead gets amortized. In case of systems with high complexity, for iso-throughput, both the hybrid and RBR implementations are demonstrated to be superior with lower average energy consumption. For low complexity systems, the conversion overhead is significant, and overpowers the EDP performance gain obtained from the RBR computation operation.

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Date Created
2011

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Modeling & analysis of a closed loop class D audio amplifier for PSR improvement

Description

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The high efficiency of Class D amplifiers (CDAs) makes them particularly attractive for portable applications. The Digital class D amplifier is an interesting solution to increase the efficiency of embedded systems. However, this solution is not good enough in terms of PWM stage linearity and power supply rejection. An efficient control is needed to correct the error sources in order to get a high fidelity sound quality in the whole audio range of frequencies. A fundamental analysis on various error sources due to non idealities in the power stage have been discussed here with key focus on Power supply perturbations driving the Power stage of a Class D Audio Amplifier. Two types of closed loop Digital Class D architecture for PSRR improvement have been proposed and modeled. Double sided uniform sampling modulation has been used. One of the architecture uses feedback around the power stage and the second architecture uses feedback into digital domain. Simulation & experimental results confirm that the closed loop PSRR & PS-IMD improve by around 30-40 dB and 25 dB respectively.

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Date Created
2012

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Design and analysis of a dual supply class H audio amplifier

Description

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to expect. Class D amplifiers deliver on the goal of increased efficiency, but at the cost of distortion. Class AB amplifiers have low efficiency, but high linearity. By modulating the supply voltage of a Class AB amplifier to make a Class H amplifier, the efficiency can increase while still maintaining the Class AB level of linearity. A 92dB Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) Class AB amplifier and a Class H amplifier were designed in a 0.24um process for portable audio applications. Using a multiphase buck converter increased the efficiency of the Class H amplifier while still maintaining a fast response time to respond to audio frequencies. The Class H amplifier had an efficiency above the Class AB amplifier by 5-7% from 5-30mW of output power without affecting the total harmonic distortion (THD) at the design specifications. The Class H amplifier design met all design specifications and showed performance comparable to the designed Class AB amplifier across 1kHz-20kHz and 0.01mW-30mW. The Class H design was able to output 30mW into 16Ohms without any increase in THD. This design shows that Class H amplifiers merit more research into their potential for increasing efficiency of audio amplifiers and that even simple designs can give significant increases in efficiency without compromising linearity.

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Date Created
2013

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Time-Domain/Digital Frequency Synchronized Hysteresis Based Fully Integrated Voltage Regulator

Description

Power management integrated circuit (PMIC) design is a key module in almost all electronics around us such as Phones, Tablets, Computers, Laptop, Electric vehicles, etc. The on-chip loads such as microprocessors cores, memories, Analog/RF, etc. requires multiple supply voltage domains.

Power management integrated circuit (PMIC) design is a key module in almost all electronics around us such as Phones, Tablets, Computers, Laptop, Electric vehicles, etc. The on-chip loads such as microprocessors cores, memories, Analog/RF, etc. requires multiple supply voltage domains. Providing these supply voltages from off-chip voltage regulators will increase the overall system cost and limits the performance due to the board and package parasitics. Therefore, an on-chip fully integrated voltage regulator (FIVR) is required.

The dissertation presents a topology for a fully integrated power stage in a DC-DC buck converter achieving a high-power density and a time-domain hysteresis based highly integrated buck converter. A multi-phase time-domain comparator is proposed in this work for implementing the hysteresis control, thereby achieving a process scaling friendly highly digital design. A higher-order LC notch filter along with a flying capacitor which couples the input and output voltage ripple is implemented. The power stage operates at 500 MHz and can deliver a maximum power of 1.0 W and load current of 1.67 A, while occupying 1.21 mm2 active die area. Thus achieving a power density of 0.867 W/mm2 and current density of 1.377 A/mm2. The peak efficiency obtained is 71% at 780 mA of load current. The power stage with the additional off-chip LC is utilized to design a highly integrated current mode hysteretic buck converter operating at 180 MHz. It achieves 20 ns of settling and 2-5 ns of rise/fall time for reference tracking.

The second part of the dissertation discusses an integrated low voltage switched-capacitor based power sensor, to measure the output power of a DC-DC boost converter. This approach results in a lower complexity, area, power consumption, and a lower component count for the overall PV MPPT system. Designed in a 180 nm CMOS process, the circuit can operate with a supply voltage of 1.8 V. It achieves a power sense accuracy of 7.6%, occupies a die area of 0.0519 mm2, and consumes 0.748 mW of power.

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Date Created
2019