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Institutionalizing Urban Resilience: Coordination Strategies within 19 North American City Governments

Description

City governments are increasingly interested in the concept of urban resilience. While theoretical debates continue to develop and critique the value of ‘urban resilience,’ a growing number of cities are organizing policies and projects around the concept. Building urban resilience

City governments are increasingly interested in the concept of urban resilience. While theoretical debates continue to develop and critique the value of ‘urban resilience,’ a growing number of cities are organizing policies and projects around the concept. Building urban resilience is viewed as a key concern for cities facing, in particular, climatic threats –although other urban challenges and equity concerns are increasingly prioritized. Support from city leadership and large funding opportunities, such as the Rockefeller Foundation’s 100 Resilient Cities program, have encouraged some leading cities to create and manage city-wide resilience strategies. Yet pioneering cities have few guideposts to institutionalize resilience. This research evolved out of conversations with city officials in Portland, OR who were interested to learn how other cities were organizing resilience work. We explore how urban resilience is being structured and coordinated in 19 North American cities, focusing on emerging definitions, organizational structures, internal and external coordination efforts, and practitioners’ insights. We situate our findings on emerging governance approaches and lessons learned within the current urban resilience literature on governance by reviewing 40 academic papers and identifying 6 recurrent factors for effective governance. Additionally, we conducted 19 semi-structured interviews with North American resilience practitioners to describe emerging organization trends and share lessons from practice. Based off our interviews, we propose 5 key findings for structuring resilience work in cities effectively. These include: establishing a clear, contextual definition and scope, bringing communities into the process, championing the agreed-upon vision, balancing a centralized and dispersed approach, and recognizing tradeoffs in organizational placement. This research provides practitioners with insights to help facilitate resilience work within their cities and contributed to the scholarly debate on moving resilience theory toward implementation.

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2019-04-25

An Exploration of Communicating Sustainability Ideas Through Technology to Inspire Sustainable Urban Planning Practice

Description

This report describes the process by which I created a concise but comprehensive online source of information about best practices in sustainability for urban planners. The goal of the project was to provide accessible information that would help planners in

This report describes the process by which I created a concise but comprehensive online source of information about best practices in sustainability for urban planners. The goal of the project was to provide accessible information that would help planners in ways that help them comprehend and implement sustainable solutions to common planning problems that are found throughout the United States. To create the website, I researched methods for communicating clearly to planners, took a graduate course in communicating about sustainability, and drew on information that I had compiled on sustainable solutions for transportation, economy, water, green space, and governance.

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2017-12-01

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Apache Junction Trail Connectivity State Land and Visioning Final Report

Description

In the spring of 2016, The City of Apache Junction partnered with the School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning at Arizona State University on three forward-thinking plans for development in Apache Junction. Graduate students in the Urban and Environmental

In the spring of 2016, The City of Apache Junction partnered with the School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning at Arizona State University on three forward-thinking plans for development in Apache Junction. Graduate students in the Urban and Environmental Planning program worked alongside City staff, elected officials and the public to identify opportunities and visions for:

1. Multi-modal access and connectivity improvements for City streets and open space.
2. Downtown development.
3. A master-planned community on state land south of the U.S. 60.

The following sections of the report present Apache Junction’s unique characteristics, current resident demographics, development needs and implementation strategies for each project:

1. Community Profile
2. Trail Connectivity Master Plan
3. Downtown Visioning
4. State Land Visioning

The Trail Connectivity Master Plan optimizes existing trails and wide road shoulders to improve multi-modal connections across the city. The proposed connections emphasize access to important recreation, education and other community facilities for pedestrians, equestrians and bicycles. Trail and lane designs recommend vegetated buffers, wherever possible, to improve traveler safety and comfort. The proposals also increase residents’ interaction with open space along urban-rural trails and park linkages to preserve opportunities to engage with nature. The objectives of the report are accomplished through three goals: connectivity, safety improvements and open space preservation.

Downtown Visioning builds on a large body of conceptual design work for Apache Junction’s downtown area along Idaho Road and Apache Trail. This report identifies three goals: to establish a town center, reestablish the grid systems while maintaining a view of the Superstition Mountains, and create an identity and sense of place for the downtown.

State Land Visioning addresses a tract of land, approximately 25 square miles in area, south of the U.S. 60. The main objective is to facilitate growth and proper development in accordance with existing goals in Apache Junction’s General Plan. This is accomplished through three goals:

1. Develop a foundation for the creation of an economic corridor along US-60 through preliminary market research and land use planning.
2. Create multi-modal connections between existing development north of US-60 and future recreational space northeast of US-60.
3. Maintain a large ratio of open space to developed area that encompasses existing washes and floodplains using a master planned community framework to provide an example for future land use planning.

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2016-05

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Advancing the Implementation of Medication-Assisted Treatment in Residential Treatment

Description

Abstract
Objective: To assess the attitudes and knowledge of behavioral health technicians (BHTs)
towards opioid overdose management and to assess the effect of online training on opioid
overdose response on BHTs’ attitudes and knowledge, and the confidence to identify and

Abstract
Objective: To assess the attitudes and knowledge of behavioral health technicians (BHTs)
towards opioid overdose management and to assess the effect of online training on opioid
overdose response on BHTs’ attitudes and knowledge, and the confidence to identify and
respond to opioid overdose situations.

Design/Methods: Pre-intervention Opioid Overdose Knowledge Scale (OOKS) and Opioid
Overdose Attitude Scale (OOAS) surveys were administered electronically to five BHTs in
2020. Data obtained were de-identified. Comparisons between responses to pre-and post-surveys questions were carried out using the standardized Wilcoxon signed-rank statistical test(z). This study was conducted in a residential treatment center (RTC) with the institutional review board's approval from Arizona State University. BHTs aged 18 years and above, working at this RTC were included in the study.

Interventions: An online training was provided on opioid overdose response (OOR) and
naloxone administration and on when to refer patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) for
medication-assisted treatment.

Results: Compared to the pre-intervention surveys, the BHTs showed significant improvements
in attitudes on the overall score on the OOAS (mean= 26.4 ± 13.1; 95% CI = 10.1 - 42.7; z =
2.02; p = 0.043) and significant improvement in knowledge on the OOKS (mean= 10.6 ± 6.5;
95% CI = 2.5 – 18.7; z =2.02, p = 0.043).

Conclusions and Relevance: Training BHTs working in an RTC on opioid overdose response is
effective in increasing attitudes and knowledge related to opioid overdose management. opioid
overdose reversal in RTCs.

Keywords: Naloxone, opioid overdose, overdose education, overdose response program

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Date Created
2021-04-12

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Advancing the Implementation of Medication-Assisted Treatment in Residential Treatment

Description

Objective: To assess the attitudes and knowledge of behavioral health technicians (BHTs)
towards opioid overdose management and to assess the effect of online training on opioid
overdose response on BHTs’ attitudes and knowledge, and the confidence to identify and
respond

Objective: To assess the attitudes and knowledge of behavioral health technicians (BHTs)
towards opioid overdose management and to assess the effect of online training on opioid
overdose response on BHTs’ attitudes and knowledge, and the confidence to identify and
respond to opioid overdose situations.
Design/Methods: Pre-intervention Opioid Overdose Knowledge Scale (OOKS) and Opioid
Overdose Attitude Scale (OOAS) surveys were administered electronically to five BHTs in
2020. Data obtained were de-identified. Comparisons between responses to pre-and post-surveys
questions were carried out using the standardized Wilcoxon signed-rank statistical test(z). This
study was conducted in a residential treatment center (RTC) with the institutional review board's
approval from Arizona State University. BHTs aged 18 years and above, working at this RTC
were included in the study.
Interventions: An online training was provided on opioid overdose response (OOR) and
naloxone administration and on when to refer patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) for
medication-assisted treatment.
Results: Compared to the pre-intervention surveys, the BHTs showed significant improvements
in attitudes on the overall score on the OOAS (mean= 26.4 ± 13.1; 95% CI = 10.1 - 42.7; z =
2.02; p = 0.043) and significant improvement in knowledge on the OOKS (mean= 10.6 ± 6.5;
95% CI = 2.5 – 18.7; z =2.02, p = 0.043).
Conclusions and Relevance: Training BHTs working in an RTC on opioid overdose response is
effective in increasing attitudes and knowledge related to opioid overdose management. opioid
overdose reversal in RTCs.

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Created

Date Created
2021-04-12

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Opioid Overdose: How to Spot the Signs and Act

Description

Background and Aims: Due to the significant rise in opioid use and fatal opioid overdoses, an opioid reversal agent naloxone has been made available to the public through standing orders at Arizona pharmacies. The aim of this project is to

Background and Aims: Due to the significant rise in opioid use and fatal opioid overdoses, an opioid reversal agent naloxone has been made available to the public through standing orders at Arizona pharmacies. The aim of this project is to implement a virtual naloxone education program to increase community knowledge of opioid addiction, opioid overdose, and opioid overdose response. Design: Utilized a one group, pretest-posttest design utilizing Brief Opioid Overdose Knowledge (BOOK) screening tool. Participants recruited through Mesa Community College website as an online event open to students, staff, and public. Setting: Online WebEx event through Mesa Community College. Intervention: Presented a 45-minute educational PowerPoint on opioids, opioid overdose, and opioid overdose response with a 15-minute question answer session. Participants: A total of 67 people attended the online event, 38 participated in pre-test and 19 participated in post-test survey. Demographics included 73.7% female, 55.3% between ages 18-30, 86.7% identify as white/Caucasian, and 92% signed up with a community college email address. Findings: Statistically significant results, with alpha value of 0.05, t(13) = -3.99, p = .002, d=1.07. Conclusions: Implementing an online education session is associated with increased knowledge on opioid use, opioid overdose, and opioid overdose response. Implementing community-based education programs may increase knowledge on opioid overdose prevention and community intervention.

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Date Created
2021-04-27

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Observing and Modeling the Nocturnal Park Cool Island of an Arid City: Horizontal and Vertical Impacts

Description

We examined the horizontal and vertical nocturnal cooling influence of a small park with irrigated lawn and xeric surfaces (∼3 ha) within a university campus of a hot arid city. Temperature data from 0.01- to 3-m heights observed during a

We examined the horizontal and vertical nocturnal cooling influence of a small park with irrigated lawn and xeric surfaces (∼3 ha) within a university campus of a hot arid city. Temperature data from 0.01- to 3-m heights observed during a bicycle traverse of the campus were combined with modeled spatial temperature data simulated from a three-dimensional microclimate model (ENVI-met 3.1). A distinct park cool island, with mean observed magnitudes of 0.7–3.6°C, was documented for both traverse and model data with larger cooling intensities measured closer to surface level. Modeled results possessed varying but generally reasonable accuracy in simulating both spatial and temporal temperature data, although some systematic errors exist. A combination of several factors, such as variations in surface thermal properties, urban geometry, building orientation, and soil moisture, was likely responsible for influencing differential urban and non-urban near-surface temperatures. A strong inversion layer up to 1 m over non-urban surfaces was detected, contrasting with near-neutral lapse rates over urban surfaces. A key factor in the spatial expansion of the park cool island was the advection of cooler park air to adjacent urban surfaces, although this effect was mostly concentrated from 0- to 1-m heights over urban surfaces that were more exposed to the atmosphere.

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2010-05-21

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Reductions in Air Conditioning Energy Caused by a Nearby Park

Description

Field observations were carried out to determine the influence of a park on the urban summer climate in the nearby areas. The possibilities of reduction in air conditioning energy were investigated. Air temperature, relative humidity and other meteorological factors were

Field observations were carried out to determine the influence of a park on the urban summer climate in the nearby areas. The possibilities of reduction in air conditioning energy were investigated. Air temperature, relative humidity and other meteorological factors were measured at many locations inside a park and in the surrounding areas in the Tama New Town, a city in the west of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan. The observations indicated that vegetation could significantly alter the climate in the town. At noon, the highest temperature of the ground surface of the grass field in the park was 40.3 °C, which was 19 °C lower than that of the asphalt surface or 15 °C lower than that of the concrete surface in the parking or commercial areas. At the same time, air temperature measured at 1.2 m above the ground at the grass field inside the park was more than 2 °C lower than that measured at the same height in the surrounding commercial and parking areas. Soon after sunset, the temperature of the ground surface at the grass field in the park became lower than that of the air, and the park became a cool island whereas paved asphalt or concrete surfaces in the town remained hotter than the overlying air even late at night. With a size of about 0.6 km2, at noon, the park can reduce by up to 1.5 °C the air temperature in a busy commercial area 1 km downwind. This can lead to a significant decrease of in air conditioning energy in the commercial area.

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1998-05-27

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Tradeoffs Between Water Conservation and Temperature Amelioration In Phoenix and Portland: Implications For Urban Sustainability

Description

This study addresses a classic sustainability challenge—the tradeoff between water conservation and temperature amelioration in rapidly growing cities, using Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon as case studies. An urban energy balance model— LUMPS (Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme)—is used to

This study addresses a classic sustainability challenge—the tradeoff between water conservation and temperature amelioration in rapidly growing cities, using Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon as case studies. An urban energy balance model— LUMPS (Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme)—is used to represent the tradeoff between outdoor water use and nighttime cooling during hot, dry summer months. Tradeoffs were characterized under three scenarios of land use change and three climate-change assumptions. Decreasing vegetation density reduced outdoor water use but sacrificed nighttime cooling. Increasing vegetated surfaces accelerated nighttime cooling, but increased outdoor water use by ~20%. Replacing impervious surfaces with buildings achieved similar improvements in nighttime cooling with minimal increases in outdoor water use; it was the most water-efficient cooling strategy. The fact that nighttime cooling rates and outdoor water use were more sensitive to land use scenarios than climate-change simulations suggested that cities can adapt to a warmer climate by manipulating land use.

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2013-05-16

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Urban Adaptation Can Roll Back Warming of Emerging Megapolitan Regions

Description

Modeling results incorporating several distinct urban expansion futures for the United States in 2100 show that, in the absence of any adaptive urban design, megapolitan expansion, alone and separate from greenhouse gas-induced forcing, can be expected to raise near-surface temperatures

Modeling results incorporating several distinct urban expansion futures for the United States in 2100 show that, in the absence of any adaptive urban design, megapolitan expansion, alone and separate from greenhouse gas-induced forcing, can be expected to raise near-surface temperatures 1–2 °C not just at the scale of individual cities but over large regional swaths of the country. This warming is a significant fraction of the 21st century greenhouse gas-induced climate change simulated by global climate models. Using a suite of regional climate simulations, we assessed the efficacy of commonly proposed urban adaptation strategies, such as green, cool roof, and hybrid approaches, to ameliorate the warming. Our results quantify how judicious choices in urban planning and design cannot only counteract the climatological impacts of the urban expansion itself but also, can, in fact, even offset a significant percentage of future greenhouse warming over large scales. Our results also reveal tradeoffs among different adaptation options for some regions, showing the need for geographically appropriate strategies rather than one size fits all solutions.

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2014-02-25