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Research on the issues and solutions of China's law of prevention and control of atmospheric pollution

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ABSTRACT In recent years, the total amount of air pollutant emissions in China was reduced year by year, but pollution is still very serious, especially in some big cities where the environmental pollution has worsened in the last 20 years.

ABSTRACT In recent years, the total amount of air pollutant emissions in China was reduced year by year, but pollution is still very serious, especially in some big cities where the environmental pollution has worsened in the last 20 years. The "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution" ( LPCAP) was established in 1987. With the development of industrialization and air pollution changes, it had been revised twice in 1995 and 2000.The third revision of the law began in 2009 which was included in the "Eleventh five-year National People's Congress Standing legislative plan" and the State Council's 2009 legislative program. At present, the third revision of the LPCAP is in progress and MEP has completed the manuscript of the revised draft of the law. The purpose of this study is to explore the current situation of China's air pollution, as well as history of LPCAP, analysis of amendments in atmospheric legislation and the achievements of the LPCAP. Combined with China current situation, the research exposed some urgent problems of the Chinese atmospheric legislation which are related to: fã The issues of the regional Total Emission Control (TEC) policy and division. fã The issues of allocation of pollutant emission allowances and trade policy fã The issues of improving the pollution emission permit system. fã The issues of the mobile source emissions management. fã The issues of fuel management. fã The issues of the guarantee measures of the implementation of the LPCAP. In addition, the study compares the LPCAP with the U.S. CAA to offer some solutions for the third revised law and tries to find a fundamental solution for the flaws of China's existing Atmospheric Pollution Prevention legal system to be more Operable. As a result, the gap in air quality in China and the developed countries of the world will be narrowed and China will be better positioned for sustainable development.

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Date Created
2012

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A survey of the use of homemade overpressure chemical devices in several cities in the United States: determining the impact on the United States

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Homemade overpressure chemical devices, commonly known as bottle bombs, are a current topic in the news media. These homemade overpressure chemical devices are a variety of homemade chemical bombs which are constructed by youth for amusement, mischief, or misbehaviors. These

Homemade overpressure chemical devices, commonly known as bottle bombs, are a current topic in the news media. These homemade overpressure chemical devices are a variety of homemade chemical bombs which are constructed by youth for amusement, mischief, or misbehaviors. These bombs are made from common household chemicals. The media is frequently presenting stories about the dangers of these homemade overpressure chemical devices. The media reports that this trend is spurred by the use of YouTube and other social media. As a result of the amount of information about homemade overpressure chemical devices on YouTube and other social media, youths can quickly learn how to fabricate and use these devices. However, these youths, like many in the community, are unaware of the hazards or legal consequences associated with this activity. At this time, reliable information about this form of homemade chemical bombs is limited. Therefore, this research project will explore the culture, fabrication, legality, and risks associated with these homemade chemical bombs. Then, the research will determine if the construction of these devices is a national problem as suggested by the news media and first responder organizations with an annually increasing number incidents, property damage, and injuries. The Center for Disease Control's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report for the week of July 18, 2003 presented the last and only known scientific attempt to determine the impact of homemade overpressure chemical devices on society. However, the Center for Disease Control was not able to get an accurate determination of the trends associated with homemade overpressure chemical devices due to the limitations of the data it reviewed. This research project looks at the data available from national databases, municipal databases, and the first responders of nine cities to determine the impact that Homemade Overpressure Chemical Devices are having on these communities within the United States. The research concluded that the number of Homemade Overpressure Chemical Devices cannot be gathered from either a national database or municipal databases. Interviews with first responders indicate that all areas of the United States are experiencing some Homemade Overpressure Chemical Device activity. However, this activity usually remains low until spurred on in a fad-like pattern.

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Date Created
2011

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Geochemical analysis of the leachate generated after zero valent metals addition to municipal solid waste

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Zero-Valent Metals (ZVM) are highly reactive materials and have been proved to be effective in contaminant reduction in soils and groundwater remediation. In fact, zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) has proven to be very effective in removing, particularly chlorinated organics, heavy metals,

Zero-Valent Metals (ZVM) are highly reactive materials and have been proved to be effective in contaminant reduction in soils and groundwater remediation. In fact, zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) has proven to be very effective in removing, particularly chlorinated organics, heavy metals, and odorous sulfides. Addition of ZVI has also been proved in enhancing the methane gas generation in anaerobic digestion of activated sludge. However, no studies have been conducted regarding the effect of ZVM stimulation to Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) degradation. Therefore, a collaborative study was developed to manipulate microbial activity in the landfill bioreactors to favor methane production by adding ZVMs. This study focuses on evaluating the effects of added ZVM on the leachate generated from replicated lab scale landfill bioreactors. The specific objective was to investigate the effects of ZVMs addition on the organic and inorganic pollutants in leachate. The hypothesis here evaluated was that adding ZVM including ZVI and Zero Valent Manganese (ZVMn) will enhance the removal rates of the organic pollutants present in the leachate, likely by a putative higher rate of microbial metabolism. Test with six (4.23 gallons) bioreactors assembled with MSW collected from the Salt River Landfill and Southwest Regional Landfill showed that under 5 grams /liter of ZVI and 0.625 grams/liter of ZVMn additions, no significant difference was observed in the pH and temperature data of the leachate generated from these reactors. The conductivity data suggested the steady rise across all reactors over the period of time. The removal efficiency of sCOD was highest (27.112 mg/lit/day) for the reactors added with ZVMn at the end of 150 days for bottom layer, however the removal rate was highest (16.955 mg/lit/day) for ZVI after the end of 150 days of the middle layer. Similar trends in the results was observed in TC analysis. HPLC study indicated the dominance of the concentration of heptanoate and isovalerate were leachate generated from the bottom layer across all reactors. Heptanoate continued to dominate in the ZVMn added leachate even after middle layer injection. IC analysis concluded the chloride was dominant in the leachate generated from all the reactors and there was a steady increase in the chloride content over the period of time. Along with chloride, fluoride, bromide, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and sulfate were also detected in considerable concentrations. In the summary, the addition of the zero valent metals has proved to be efficient in removal of the organics present in the leachate.

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Date Created
2019