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A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) backplane technology for flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays has been developed to create 4.1-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process include the qualification and optimization of the low temperature (200 °C) metal oxide process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication of white organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays. Mixed oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs) on flexible plastic substrates typically suffer from performance and stability issues related to the maximum processing temperature limitation of the polymer. A novel device architecture based upon a dual active layer enables significant improvements in both the performance and stability. Devices are directly fabricated below 200 ºC on a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using mixed metal oxides of either zinc indium oxide (ZIO) or indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) as the active semiconductor. The dual active layer architecture allows for adjustment in the saturation mobility and threshold voltage stability without the requirement of high temperature annealing, which is not compatible with flexible colorless plastic substrates like PEN. The device performance and stability is strongly dependent upon the composition of the mixed metal oxide; this dependency provides a simple route to improving the threshold voltage stability and drive performance. By switching from a single to a dual active layer, the saturation mobility increases from 1.2 cm2/V-s to 18.0 cm2/V-s, while the rate of the threshold voltage shift decreases by an order of magnitude. This approach could assist in enabling the production of devices on flexible substrates using amorphous oxide semiconductors.
All-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS) fiber optic cables are used for data transfer by the utilities. They are installed along high voltage transmission lines. Dry band arcing, a phenomenon which is observed in outdoor insulators, is also observed in ADSS cables. The heat developed during dry band arcing damages the ADSS cables' outer sheath. A method is presented here to rate the cable sheath using the power developed during dry band arcing. Because of the small diameter of ADSS cables, mechanical vibration is induced in ADSS cable. In order to avoid damage, vibration dampers known as spiral vibration dampers (SVD) are used over these ADSS cables. These dampers are installed near the armor rods, where the presence of leakage current and dry band activity is more. The effect of dampers on dry band activity is investigated by conducting experiments on ADSS cable and dampers. Observations made from the experiments suggest that the hydrophobicity of the cable and damper play a key role in stabilizing dry band arcs. Hydrophobic-ity of the samples have been compared. The importance of hydrophobicity of the samples is further illustrated with the help of simulation results. The results indi-cate that the electric field increases at the edges of water strip. The dry band arc-ing phenomenon could thus be correlated to the hydrophobicity of the outer sur-face of cable and damper.
Redundant Binary (RBR) number representations have been extensively used in the past for high-throughput Digital Signal Processing (DSP) systems. Data-path components based on this number system have smaller critical path delay but larger area compared to conventional two's complement systems. This work explores the use of RBR number representation for implementing high-throughput DSP systems that are also energy-efficient. Data-path components such as adders and multipliers are evaluated with respect to critical path delay, energy and Energy-Delay Product (EDP). A new design for a RBR adder with very good EDP performance has been proposed. The corresponding RBR parallel adder has a much lower critical path delay and EDP compared to two's complement carry select and carry look-ahead adder implementations. Next, several RBR multiplier architectures are investigated and their performance compared to two's complement systems. These include two new multiplier architectures: a purely RBR multiplier where both the operands are in RBR form, and a hybrid multiplier where the multiplicand is in RBR form and the other operand is represented in conventional two's complement form. Both the RBR and hybrid designs are demonstrated to have better EDP performance compared to conventional two's complement multipliers. The hybrid multiplier is also shown to have a superior EDP performance compared to the RBR multiplier, with much lower implementation area. Analysis on the effect of bit-precision is also performed, and it is shown that the performance gain of RBR systems improves for higher bit precision. Next, in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the RBR representation at the system-level, the performance of RBR and hybrid implementations of some common DSP kernels such as Discrete Cosine Transform, edge detection using Sobel operator, complex multiplication, Lifting-based Discrete Wavelet Transform (9, 7) filter, and FIR filter, is compared with two's complement systems. It is shown that for relatively large computation modules, the RBR to two's complement conversion overhead gets amortized. In case of systems with high complexity, for iso-throughput, both the hybrid and RBR implementations are demonstrated to be superior with lower average energy consumption. For low complexity systems, the conversion overhead is significant, and overpowers the EDP performance gain obtained from the RBR computation operation.
The tracking of multiple targets becomes more challenging in complex environments due to the additional degrees of nonlinearity in the measurement model. In urban terrain, for example, there are multiple reflection path measurements that need to be exploited since line-of-sight observations are not always available. Multiple target tracking in urban terrain environments is traditionally implemented using sequential Monte Carlo filtering algorithms and data association techniques. However, data association techniques can be computationally intensive and require very strict conditions for efficient performance. This thesis investigates the probability hypothesis density (PHD) method for tracking multiple targets in urban environments. The PHD is based on the theory of random finite sets and it is implemented using the particle filter. Unlike data association methods, it can be used to estimate the number of targets as well as their corresponding tracks. A modified maximum-likelihood version of the PHD (MPHD) is proposed to automatically and adaptively estimate the measurement types available at each time step. Specifically, the MPHD allows measurement-to-nonlinearity associations such that the best matched measurement can be used at each time step, resulting in improved radar coverage and scene visibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the MPHD in improving tracking performance, both for tracking multiple targets and targets in clutter.
Semiconductor devices are generally analyzed with relatively simple equations or with detailed computer simulations. Most text-books use these simple equations and show device diagrams that are frequently very simplified and occasionally incorrect. For example, the carrier densities near the pinch-off point in MOSFETs and JFETs and the minority carrier density in the base near the reverse-biased base-collector junction are frequently assumed to be zero or near zero. Also the channel thickness at the pinch-off point is often shown to approach zero. None of these assumptions can be correct. The research in thesis addresses these points. I simulated the carrier densities, potentials, electric fields etc. of MOSFETs, BJTs and JFETs at and near the pinch-off regions to determine exactly what happens there. I also simulated the behavior of the quasi-Fermi levels. For MOSFETs, the channel thickness expands slightly before the pinch-off point and then spreads out quickly in a triangular shape and the space-charge region under the channel actually shrinks as the potential increases from source to drain. For BJTs, with collector-base junction reverse biased, most minority carriers diffuse through the base from emitter to collector very fast, but the minority carrier concentration at the collector-base space-charge region is not zero. For JFETs, the boundaries of the space-charge region are difficult to determine, the channel does not disappear after pinch off, the shape of channel is always tapered, and the carrier concentration in the channel decreases progressively. After simulating traditional sized devices, I also simulated typical nano-scaled devices and show that they behave similarly to large devices. These simulation results provide a more complete understanding of device physics and device operation in those regions usually not addressed in semiconductor device physics books.
Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers are a versatile category of controllers that are commonly used in the industry as control systems due to the ease of their implementation and low cost. One problem that continues to intrigue control designers is the matter of finding a good combination of the three parameters - P, I and D of these controllers so that system stability and optimum performance is achieved. Also, a certain amount of robustness to the process is expected from the PID controllers. In the past, many different methods for tuning PID parameters have been developed. Some notable techniques are the Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon, Astrom methods etc. For all these techniques, a simple limitation remained with the fact that for a particular system, there can be only one set of tuned parameters; i.e. there are no degrees of freedom involved to readjust the parameters for a given system to achieve, for instance, higher bandwidth. Another limitation in most cases is where a controller is designed in continuous time then converted into discrete-time for computer implementation. The drawback of this method is that some robustness due to phase and gain margin is lost in the process. In this work a method of tuning PID controllers using a loop-shaping approach has been developed where the bandwidth of the system can be chosen within an acceptable range. The loop-shaping is done against a Glover-McFarlane type ℋ∞ controller which is widely accepted as a robust control design method. The numerical computations are carried out entirely in discrete-time so there is no loss of robustness due to conversion and approximations near Nyquist frequencies. Some extra degrees of freedom owing to choice of bandwidth and capability of choosing loop-shapes are also involved and are discussed in detail. Finally, comparisons of this method against existing techniques for tuning PID controllers both in continuous and in discrete-time are shown. The results tell us that our design performs well for loop-shapes that are achievable through a PID controller.
This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy storage systems which can serve many applications like economically meeting peak loads, providing spinning reserve. Economic dispatch is performed with bulk energy storage with wind energy penetration in power systems allocating the generation levels to the units in the mix, so that the system load is served and most economically. The results obtained in previous research to solve for economic dispatch uses a linear cost function for a Direct Current Optimal Power Flow (DCOPF). This thesis uses quadratic cost function for a DCOPF implementing quadratic programming (QP) to minimize the function. A Matlab program was created to simulate different test systems including an equivalent section of the WECC system, namely for Arizo-na, summer peak 2009. A mathematical formulation of a strategy of when to charge or discharge the storage is incorporated in the algorithm. In this thesis various test cases are shown in a small three bus test bed and also for the state of Arizona test bed. The main conclusions drawn from the two test beds is that the use of energy storage minimizes the generation dispatch cost of the system and benefits the power sys-tem by serving the peak partially from stored energy. It is also found that use of energy storage systems may alleviate the loading on transmission lines which can defer the upgrade and expansion of the transmission system.
A new type of Ethernet switch based on the PCI Express switching fabric is being presented. The switch leverages PCI Express peer-to-peer communication protocol to implement high performance Ethernet packet switching. The advantages and challenges of using the PCI Express as the switching fabric are addressed. The PCI Express is a high-speed short-distance communication protocol largely used in motherboard-level interconnects. The total bandwidth of a PCI Express 3.0 link can reach as high as 256 gigabit per second (Gb/s) per 16 lanes. Concerns for PCI Express such as buffer speed, address mapping, Quality of Service and power consumption need to be considered. An overview of the proposed Ethernet switch architecture is presented. The switch consists of a PCI Express switching fabric and multiple adaptor cards. The thesis reviews the peer-to-peer (P2P) communication protocol used in the switching fabric. The thesis also discusses the packet routing procedure in P2P protocol in detail. The Ethernet switch utilizes a portion of the Quality of Service provided with PCI Express to ensure guaranteed transmission. The thesis presents a method of adapting Ethernet packets over the PCI Express transaction layer packets. The adaptor card is divided into the following two parts: receive path and transmit path. The commercial off-the-shelf Media Access Control (MAC) core and PCI Express endpoint core are used in the adaptor. The output address lookup logic block is responsible for converting Ethernet MAC addresses to PCI Express port addresses. Different methods of providing Quality of Service in the adaptor card include classification, flow control, and error detection with the cooperation of the PCI Express switch are discussed. The adaptor logic is implemented in Verilog hardware description language. Functional simulation is conducted in ModelSim. The simulation results show that the Ethernet packets are able to be converted to the corresponding PCI Express transaction layer packets based on their destination MAC addresses. The transaction layer packets are then converted back to Ethernet packets. A functionally correct FPGA logic of the adaptor card is ready for implementation on real FPGA development board.
Power management plays a very important role in the current electronics industry. Battery powered and handheld applications require novel power management techniques to extend the battery life. Most systems have multiple voltage regulators to provide power sources to the different circuit blocks and/or sub-systems. Some of these voltage regulators are low dropout regulators (LDOs) which typically require output capacitors in the range of 1's to 10's of µF. The necessity of output capacitors occupies valuable board space and can add additional integrated circuit (IC) pin count. A high IC pin count can restrict LDOs for system-on-chip (SoC) solutions. The presented research gives the user an option with regard to the external capacitor; the output capacitor can range from 0 - 1µF for a stable response. In general, the larger the output capacitor, the better the transient response. Because the output capacitor requirement is such a wide range, the LDO presented here is ideal for any application, whether it be for a SoC solution or stand-alone LDO that desires a filtering capacitor for optimal transient performance. The LDO architecture and compensation scheme provide a stable output response from 1mA to 200mA with output capacitors in the range of 0 - 1µF. A 2.5V, 200mA any-cap LDO was fabricated in a proprietary 1.5µm BiCMOS process, consuming 200µA of ground pin current (at 1mA load) with a dropout voltage of 250mV. Experimental results show that the proposed any-cap LDO exceeds transient performance and output capacitor requirements compared to previously published work. The architecture also has excellent line and load regulation and less sensitive to process variation. Therefore, the presented any-cap LDO is ideal for any application with a maximum supply rail of 5V.
Human operators have difficulty driving cranes quickly, accurately, and safely because of the slow response of heavy crane structures, non-intuitive control interfaces, and payload oscillations. Recently, a novel hand-motion crane control system has been proposed to improve performance by coupling an intuitive control interface with an element that reduces the complex oscillatory behavior of the payload. Hand-motion control allows operators to drive a crane by simply moving a hand-held radio-frequency tag through the desired path. Real-time location sensors are used to track the movements of the tag and the tag position is used in a feedback control loop to drive the crane. An input shaper is added to eliminate dangerous payload oscillations. However, tag position measurements are corrupted by noise. It is important to understand the noise properties so that appropriate filters can be designed to mitigate the effects of noise and improve tracking accuracy. This work discusses implementing filtering techniques to address the issue of noise in the operating environment. Five different filters are used on experimentally-acquired tag trajectories to reduce noise. The filtered trajectories are then used to drive crane simulations. Filter performance is evaluated with respect to the energy usage of the crane trolley, the settling time of the crane payload oscillations, and the safety corridor of the crane trajectory. The effects of filter window lengths on these parameters are also investigated. An adaptive filtering technique, namely the Kalman filter, adapts to the noise characteristics of the workspace to minimize the tag tracking error and performs better than the other filtering techniques examined.