Matching Items (11)

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Achieving Zero: Building a Zero Waste Program for the Sprouts Farmers Market Headquarters

Description

As the sustainability issue of solid waste management magnifies worldwide, organizations are considering making their offices or operations Zero Waste, but many do not understand how or where to start.

As the sustainability issue of solid waste management magnifies worldwide, organizations are considering making their offices or operations Zero Waste, but many do not understand how or where to start. With the goal of contributing insights and advice to future designers and managers of Zero Waste programs, this thesis explores notable attributes of existing Zero Waste programs through case interviews and documents the researcher’s own journey in designing and executing a Zero Waste program at the Sprouts Farmers Market headquarters. The result is a detailed account that reveals how the Sprouts program was executed, how it could be improved, and which practices future Zero Waste program managers should use to maximize the success of their program. These practices include building personal and trusting relationships with the network of people involved; remaining flexible, patient and passionate; conducting thorough quantitative research on the proposed changes; and tailoring communication to effectively motivate behavior change.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Game as Life, Life as Game: A Study on Successful Behavior Change with Ubiquitous Computing

Description

Abstract Whether it is an abandoned New Year's Resolution or difficulty controlling procrastination, most can attest to failing to meet a goal. With ubiquitous computing, there is potential to support

Abstract Whether it is an abandoned New Year's Resolution or difficulty controlling procrastination, most can attest to failing to meet a goal. With ubiquitous computing, there is potential to support users' goals on a constant basis with pervasive technology elements such as integrated sensors and software. This study serves as a pilot for the behavior change component of a ubiquitous system, Game as Life, Life as Game (GALLAG), and how goal creation and motivation can be positively altered with the inclusion of a specific framework for users to follow. The study looked to find the efficacy of support tools (goal creation, reflection on past experience, and behavior change techniques and self-tracking) on creating a plan to reach a behavior goal, without the help of technology. Technology was ignored to focus on the effect of a framework for goal and plan generation. Over two weeks, there were 11 participants in the study; data collected was qualitative in the form of three video-recorded interview sessions, with quantitative data in the form of surveys. Participants were presented with support tools and tasked with picking a goal to work towards, as well as creating a plan to reach that goal. It was found that users struggled to create specific and detailed plans, even with the support tools provided, but this improved after the first meeting. Past experience was the most helpful support tool for creating better plans, however participants used this tool before being briefed on it. These results suggest a system should incorporate behavior change, self-tracking, and past experience earlier in the plan creation experience, allowing users a more concrete knowledge of these tools before beginning plan creation. By including these ideas in a framework, GALLAG can later implement that framework to better support users with a physical system. Keywords: behavior change, goal creation, motivation, self-efficacy, ubiquitous computing, pervasive game, human computer interaction

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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An Evaluation of HEAL International's Health Education Program in Tanzania, Africa

Description

This study investigated the potential efficacy of HEAL International's prevention education program in inducing health behavior change in HIV/AIDS, malaria, and communicable disease to children in grade levels ranging from

This study investigated the potential efficacy of HEAL International's prevention education program in inducing health behavior change in HIV/AIDS, malaria, and communicable disease to children in grade levels ranging from primary school to secondary school. The health education program was aimed at changing health behavior by increasing knowledge. This increase in knowledge was analyzed as a modifying factor in the Health Belief Model suggesting that knowledge, along with five other modifying factors, are directly responsible for an individual's health perceptions. These health perceptions ultimately result in an individual's health behavior. As a result, it is argued that an increase in knowledge can lead to health behavior change so long as it is coupled with a strong theoretical framework. Administering pre-evaluations at the beginning of the program, post evaluations at the end of the program, and a second post evaluation again two months later completed the evaluation. It was hypothesized that if there was a significant difference between the percent of correct answers at the pre-evaluation compared the second post-evaluation then there is evidence that HEAL's health education program is, or at least has the potential to, create sustainable health behavior change. A paired samples t-test was completed on the data and showed a statistically significant difference between the percent of correct answers at pre-evaluation and the percent of correct answers at second post-evaluation. These results indicated that the number of students with a comprehensive knowledge of the subjects that HEAL taught during the program had increased. It was concluded that the results of the study indicate evidence that HEAL's program has the potential to deliver sustainable health behavior change but that it will be more quantifiable once HEAL is able to adopt a theoretical framework on which to base future programs.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Dynamic Social Norms as an Intervention Tool for Reducing Food Waste in a Community Dining Setting

Description

As a cause of negative economic, societal, and environmental effects, food waste is increasingly being seen as a sustainability issue that needs to be addressed. Reduction of food waste is

As a cause of negative economic, societal, and environmental effects, food waste is increasingly being seen as a sustainability issue that needs to be addressed. Reduction of food waste is preferred to recycling because it reduces the financial burden and technological innovations needed to address the issue. While there are many different approaches to reduce food waste, this paper investigates dynamic social norms as an avenue for reducing food waste. Recent studies showcased the effectiveness of using dynamic social norms to reduce meat consumption and the use of to-go cups. However, there appears to be a gap in research that investigates the impact of dynamic social norms in U.S. university community dining settings. This study piloted the use of dynamic social norms to intervene in post-consumer food waste behaviors at Arizona State University. Specifically, this study compared food waste amounts in a location with and without an intervention tool as well as conducted interviews to monitor any self-reported behavior change. Results show that dynamic social norms can promote behavior change in terms of food waste when compared to a control location without the intervention. Further, this study advocates for monitoring food habits through both quantitative and qualitative analysis in order to identify potential behavior changes that could not be captured to the same extent by a mono-methodological approach.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Social Media Strategies to Increase Likes on Instagram

Description

Many individuals are not following healthy lifestyles as evidenced by the high obesity rates and poor physical activity levels. Many do not know how to eat healthy and exercise effectively,

Many individuals are not following healthy lifestyles as evidenced by the high obesity rates and poor physical activity levels. Many do not know how to eat healthy and exercise effectively, especially given busy schedules and no time to cook or go to the gym. However, people do spend a significant amount of time on their mobile device using social media. This outlet can potentially be used to inspire and teach individuals how to cook healthy simple meals, or find motivation to get off the couch for some exercise. In this study, strategies were identified that would increase the comments, likes, and followers of the investigator's Instagrams, which were designed to motivate followers to live a healthier lifestyle. Initially, 462 posts were assessed retrospectively to determine how the number of likes and comments were influenced by hashtags, category of posts (nutrition, fitness, or inspiration), and/or type of app, PicPlayPost, Instaframe, and the updated Instagram. These results were used in a 1-month prospective study to increase likes and followers to the investigator's Instagrams. In the retrospective study, it was determined that hashtags influenced the number of comments and likes across the categories and that the PicPlayPost app increased the likes in all categories. Hence, for the prospective study, the investigator wrote 1 nutrition and 1 fitness post daily for 28 days using a minimum of 15 hashtags per post. In addition, 3 nutrition posts and 3 fitness posts per week used the PicPlayPost app. This posting strategy increased the number of likes per post by 100%, and the number of followers increased from 369 to 1082 in one month. Interestingly, the nutrition posts received 27% more likes than the fitness posts, and the PicPlayPost app increased comments by 134%. In conclusion, the use of hashtags, PicPlayPost, and Instaframe apps increased the likes and comments on social media. These strategies may increase audience's attention on a certain topic and be used to improve individuals' lifestyles.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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A comparison of Los Angeles and Phoenix homeowners' attitudes and behaviors towards outdoor water conservation

Description

Los Angeles, California and Phoenix, Arizona are two naturally water-scarce regions that rely on imported water to meet their local water needs. Both areas have been experiencing an ongoing drought

Los Angeles, California and Phoenix, Arizona are two naturally water-scarce regions that rely on imported water to meet their local water needs. Both areas have been experiencing an ongoing drought that has negatively affected their local water supply. Populations in both cities continue to grow, increasing overall demand for water as the supply decreases. Water conservation is important for the sustainability of each town. However, the methods utilized to conserve residential water in the two areas differ drastically; Los Angeles has implemented involuntary water rationing and Phoenix has not.

The widespread effectiveness of involuntary restrictions makes them a popular management scheme. Despite their immediate effectiveness, little is known about how involuntary restrictions affect attitudinal precursors towards the behavior in question and thus, whether or not the restrictions are potentially helpful or harmful to lasting behavior change. This study adapted the Theory of Planned Behavior to survey 361 homeowners in Los Angeles and Phoenix to examine how involuntary water restrictions shape attitudinal precursors to outdoor water conservation.

This study found that when involuntary water restrictions are present, residents feel less in control of their outdoor water use. However, in the presence of involuntary water restrictions, stronger social norms and stronger support for policy prescriptions over outdoor water use were found. The favorable societal support towards water conservation, conceptualized as social norms and policy attitudes, in the presence of involuntary water restrictions is potentially promising for lasting behavior change.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Does It Work for Me? Supporting Self-Experimentation of Simple Health Behavior Interventions

Description

Many individual-level behavioral interventions improve health and well-being. However, most interventions exhibit considerable heterogeneity in response. Put differently, what might be effective on average might not be effective for specific

Many individual-level behavioral interventions improve health and well-being. However, most interventions exhibit considerable heterogeneity in response. Put differently, what might be effective on average might not be effective for specific individuals. From an individual’s perspective, many healthy behaviors exist that seem to have a positive impact. However, few existing tools support people in identifying interventions that work for them, personally.

One approach to support such personalization is via self-experimentation using single-case designs. ‘Hack Your Health’ is a tool that guides individuals through an 18-day self-experiment to test if an intervention they choose (e.g., meditation, gratitude journaling) improves their own psychological well-being (e.g., stress, happiness), whether it fits in their routine, and whether they enjoy it.

The purpose of this work was to conduct a formative evaluation of Hack Your Health to examine user burden, adherence, and to evaluate its usefulness in supporting decision-making about a health intervention. A mixed-methods approach was used, and two versions of the tool were tested via two waves of participants (Wave 1, N=20; Wave 2, N=8). Participants completed their self-experiments and provided feedback via follow-up surveys (n=26) and interviews (n=20).

Findings indicated that the tool had high usability and low burden overall. Average survey completion rate was 91%, and compliance to protocol was 72%. Overall, participants found the experience useful to test if their chosen intervention helped them. However, there were discrepancies between participants’ intuition about intervention effect and results from analyses. Participants often relied on intuition/lived experience over results for decision-making. This suggested that the usefulness of Hack Your Health in its current form might be through the structure, accountability, and means for self-reflection it provided rather than the specific experimental design/results. Additionally, situations where performing interventions within a rigorous/restrictive experimental set-up may not be appropriate (e.g., when goal is to assess intervention enjoyment) were uncovered. Plausible design implications include: longer experimental and phase durations, accounting for non-compliance, missingness, and proximal/acute effects, and exploring strategies to complement quantitative data with participants’ lived experiences with interventions to effectively support decision-making. Future work should explore ways to balance scientific rigor with participants’ needs for such decision-making.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Development, implementation, and evaluation of sustainability education through the integration of behavioral science into pedagogy and practice

Description

For some time it has been recognized amongst researchers that individual and collective change should be the goal in educating for sustainability, unfortunately education has generally been ineffective in developing

For some time it has been recognized amongst researchers that individual and collective change should be the goal in educating for sustainability, unfortunately education has generally been ineffective in developing pro-environmental behaviors among students. Still, many scholars and practitioners are counting on education to lead us towards sustainability but suggest that in order to do so we must transition away from current information-intensive education methods. In order to develop and test novel sustainability education techniques, this research integrates pedagogical methods with psychological knowledge to target well-established sustainable behaviors. Through integrating education, behavior change, and sustainability research, I aim to answer: How can we motivate sustainable behavioral change through education programs? More specifically: How do diverse knowledge domains (declarative, procedural, effectiveness, and social) influence sustainable behaviors, both in general as well as before and after a sustainability education program? And: What are barriers hindering education approaches to changing behaviors? In answering these questions, this research involved three distinct stages: (1) Developing a theoretical framework for educating for sustainability and transformative change; (2) Implementing a food and waste focused sustainability educational program with K-12 students and teachers while intensively assessing participants' change over the course of one year; (3) Developing and implementing an extensive survey that examines the quantitative relationships between diverse domains of knowledge and behavior among a large sample of K-12 educators. The results from the education program demonstrated that significant changes in knowledge and behaviors were achieved but social knowledge in terms of food was more resistant to change as compared to that of waste. The survey results demonstrated that K-12 educators have high levels of declarative (factual or technical) knowledge regarding anthropocentric impacts on the environment; however, declarative knowledge does not predict their participation in sustainable behaviors. Rather, procedural and social knowledge significantly influence participation in sustainable food behaviors, where as procedural, effectiveness, and social knowledge impact participation in sustainable waste behaviors. Overall, the findings from this research imply that in order to effectively educate for sustainability, we must move away from nature-centric approaches that focus on declarative knowledge and embrace different domains of knowledge (procedural, effectiveness, and social) that emphasis the social implications of change.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

Driving Sustainable Behavior in the Office at Arizona State

Description

The purpose of this project was to drive and enhance the sustainability behavior of office workers at Arizona State University. Sustainability behavior is understood to mean behavior that is not

The purpose of this project was to drive and enhance the sustainability behavior of office workers at Arizona State University. Sustainability behavior is understood to mean behavior that is not solely pro-environmental in nature, but also that which provides clear economic and human benefits to ASU and its employees. Pro-environmental interventions and outcomes, while critical, are just one third of the holistic sustainability sought by ASU. This project focuses on pro-environmental behavior (PEB), as a driver of overall sustainability. As defined by Kollmuss and Agyeman, PEB is “behavior that consciously seeks to minimize the negative impact of one’s actions on the natural and built world” (2002).

The problem for this project is that participation with the ASU Sustainability Certification for Offices is low, and to date, the certification has not enhanced the sustainability of offices at ASU. 

University Sustainability Practices, who administer the office certification and much of ASU sustainability efforts, is looking for ways to drive greater participation and engagement in the certification process. Three actions have been taken in the projecti n an attempt to improve participation and engagement. Surveys, focus groups, and interviews have collected data from ASU's office worker  to ascertain the attitudes of workers surrounding office culture and sustainability, and to identify barriers to their greater participation in PEB.

The conclusions drawn from this phase of the project inform a robust set of recommendations that will help overcome key barriers revealed by the research, such as a knowledge gap among ASU office staff about the existence of the office certification. Conclusions and solution sets were provided to USP in a set of documents that will allow them to easily implement the recommendations, and provide a path for next steps.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-07-22

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Compost Competition

Description

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cause climate change, and if the world does not lower its GHG emissions soon, it will cause irreversible damage that will have overwhelmingly negative cascading effects

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cause climate change, and if the world does not lower its GHG emissions soon, it will cause irreversible damage that will have overwhelmingly negative cascading effects on the entire planet (Mann & Kump, 2008). Up to 47% of the United States GHG emissions are the result of energy used to produce, process, transport, and dispose of the food we eat and the goods that we consume (US EPA, 2009). The linear-economy status quo does nothing to slow down climate change because it puts resources into landfills. This project promotes a circular economy which combats climate change by reusing resources that are at the end of their life cycle, e.g., food waste soil. The project was a month-long compost competition at an apartment building in Phoenix, AZ that houses 194 residents. The apartment building, Urban Living 2 (UL2), is subsidized housing owned by Native American Connections (NAC), a non-profit organization. The project’s main objective was to increase waste diversion. This was done through composting and improving zero-waste capacity. The compost competition included activities to change community behavior such as private and public commitments, a community barbecue, a movie night (which replaced a planned field trip), and a visioning meeting. By the end of the project, 22% of the tenants were composting. Over a year-long period, this equates to a diversion of, 6000 pounds from the landfill and 1.59 metric tons of Carbon Dioxide equivalent (MTCO2E). The waste diversion increased from 28% to 38%. Tenant participation trended upwards during the project and as the social norm develops over time, more tenant participation is expected even after the competition is over. The six indicators that were used to determine the zero-waste capacity, collectively went up by 1.24 points on a five-point scale. This project will be used as a model for NAC for its other 16 properties in the Valley.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-04-10