Matching Items (19)

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EmPOWERed: A Study of Solar Energy in Mayan Belize

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The Solar Mamas Program, created by the Indian-based non-profit Barefoot College, brings illiterate and semi-literate older women from rural communities around the world to India for a six-month training on

The Solar Mamas Program, created by the Indian-based non-profit Barefoot College, brings illiterate and semi-literate older women from rural communities around the world to India for a six-month training on solar engineering and entrepreneurship. The Barefoot enterprise is unique in that it contrasts the typical flow of humanitarian aid and implements a South-South development dynamic. Belize is one country that Barefoot selects potential Solar Mamas from with help from its ground partner, Plenty Belize. This ethnographic study aims to identify and assess the direct and indirect impacts the solar project has created in traditional Mayan life in the Toledo District. Interviews were conducted in Santa Elena and Jalacte, which are two villages with and without solar electrification, respectively. The study observed positive impacts on various aspects of health, education, and economics, as well as gender relations. Although relatively successful in its mission, constructive feedback was provided to all actors in the solar project with the aim of enhancing the Solar Mamas’ experience and effectiveness as a “new class of leaders” in their communities, as well as to ensure the continued success that solar electrification has had in the Mayan communities.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

The Impact of Cultural Industries on economic development in developing countries: An Entrepreneurial Perspective

Description

Africa has some of the "fastest growing economies," yet there is a lack of a middle class (Economist). Natural resources have attracted foreign investments, however, most of the revenue exit

Africa has some of the "fastest growing economies," yet there is a lack of a middle class (Economist). Natural resources have attracted foreign investments, however, most of the revenue exit these economies. What remains a consistent, permanent advantage is culture; it has been the most integrated core value before and after colonialism. The concept of culture has become a part of the identity of Africa and it has not been leveraged to its full potential. The 2013 Creative Economy Report states, "Culture is a way to create jobs and improve people's lives. It empowers people. It works for development" (UNESCO/UNDP). Cultural industries create local sustainable jobs that are less susceptible to the fluctuation of the global economy compared to jobs in factories and multinational companies. They are based on "local tacit know how" that is not accessible globally as they are people intensive rather than capital intensive (Scott A.J, 1999). Activ8 seeks to tap into this opportunity by maximizing the economic potential of developing economies by investing in their cultural industries. Activ8 aspires to accomplish this by targeting two sets of customers: creators, who are the activators, and investors. Our activators consist of two target segments: one living and working in these industries in a developing country, and the other being refugee clients who may have been exposed to a cultural industry and may want to pursue developing cultural products in their new country of asylum. Our investors are globally minded individuals who want to be culturally aware, have an appreciation for authentic cultural products, or seek to invest in entrepreneurial pursuits in Africa. During our first phase we will focus on the cultural industries in Ghana, West Africa. This will range from products in the textiles industry to sculptures and traditional instruments. We plan to pilot the first phase in Ghana and in the second phase, form a partnership with the International Rescue Committee, a refugee settlement agency, in Arizona. Our goals are to provide education and mentoring, market accessibility, product development, and financing to encourage and empower activators to be self-sufficient and successful cultural entrepreneurs, whiles improving economic development in their communities. Our online store will feature our activators' authentic products, their stories, and the cultural importance of each product. There will also be a platform for entrepreneurs in other industries in Africa to connect with venture capitalists or angel investors around the world. The educational component will be infused with product development and entrepreneurship training derived from the "From AHA!! to EXIT" strategy coined by Aram Chavez from the College of Technology and Innovation at ASU. In order for Activ8 to successfully execute its mission, Activ8 will need to be able to give our team and our activators access to technology, mentorship, and financial resources to operate an online store and rum Activ8's educational program. We also envision creating partnerships with boutiques and retail corporations to adapt these cultural products. Our long-term goal is formulate the conditions conducive for economic growth and sustainable development to ensure Africans become the main agents of development.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

The History of Advertising in Arizona and the Impact on Economic Development

Description

The following honors thesis analyzes the history of advertising in the state of Arizona since the late 19th century and its overall impact on economic development. Advertising is defined as

The following honors thesis analyzes the history of advertising in the state of Arizona since the late 19th century and its overall impact on economic development. Advertising is defined as the action of calling something to the attention of the public, especially by paid announcements; and economic development is defined as the process whereby simple economies are transformed into modern industrial economies. This paper will analyze the influence of key people, events, locations, and publications on consumer behavior and discuss how they contributed to tourism in the state and, subsequently, economic growth. By speaking to experts on Arizona history, economic development and tourism as well as analyzing a variety of historical multimedia, I will discuss how advertising methods evolved over time and how they contributed to increased interest and growth within the state.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Business Venture Approach to Alleviating Poverty: What is the Bottom of the Pyramid Solution and Can It Work?

Description

Billions of people around the world deal with the struggles of poverty every day. Consequently, a number of others have committed themselves to help alleviate poverty. Many various methods are

Billions of people around the world deal with the struggles of poverty every day. Consequently, a number of others have committed themselves to help alleviate poverty. Many various methods are used, and a current consensus on the best method to alleviate poverty is lacking. Generally the methods used or researched exist somewhere on the spectrum between top-down and bottom-up approaches to fighting poverty. This paper analyzes a specific method proposed by C.K. Prahalad known as the Bottom of the Pyramid solution. The premise of the method is that large multinational corporations should utilize the large conglomerate of money that exists amongst poor people \u2014 created due to the sheer number of poor people \u2014 for business ventures. Concurrently, the poor people can benefit from the company's entrance. This method has received acclaim theoretically, but still needs empirical evidence to prove its practicality. This paper compares this approach with other approaches, considers international development data trends, and analyzes case studies of actual attempts that provide insight into the approach's potential for success. The market of poor people at the bottom of the pyramid is extremely segmented which makes it very difficult for large companies to financially prosper. It is even harder to establish mutual benefit between the large corporation and the poor. It has been found that although aspects of the bottom of the pyramid method hold merit, higher potential for alleviating poverty exists when small companies venture into this space rather than large multinational corporations. Small companies can conform to a single community and niche economy to prosper \u2014 a flexibility that large companies lack. Moving forward, analyzing the actual attempts provides the best and only empirical insights; hence, it will be important to consider more approaches into developing economies as they materialize.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Supply Chain Strategies to Safeguard High-Tech Intellectual Property in Operations Outsourced to China

Description

The surge of United States high-tech firms offshoring operations to China was driven by economic incentives of the early 1990s, low costs of labor, and ample access to an abundance

The surge of United States high-tech firms offshoring operations to China was driven by economic incentives of the early 1990s, low costs of labor, and ample access to an abundance of resources required in high-tech manufacturing. The dawn of the 21st century served as the advent of technological advancement and innovation in congruence with China’s rapid ascension as a prime high-tech manufacturing hub. However, increased allegations of foreign intellectual property (IP) infringement in outsourced research and development (R&D) and manufacturing on behalf of China’s state-owned enterprises (SOE) have evoked concern amongst international speculators, who allege China of weakened intellectual property enforcement and collusive tactics with state-owned enterprises in the cultivation of an anti-competitive marketplace. This thesis applies a trilateral approach to determine the optimal legal, supply chain management, and business strategies to safeguard the intellectual property of high-tech firms with outsourced operations in China.<br/><br/>Firstly, this thesis explores China’s rapid acceleration of manufacturing capabilities in tandem with nationalist initiatives, historical background, and subsequent influence cultural notions; aspirations in attaining global dominance as a high-tech innovator via nationalist programs and incentives. Succeeding is a comparative analysis of intellectual property between the United States and China, associations between intellectual property protection and economic development, and global intellectual property agreeance as set forth by the World Trade Organization (WTO). Following is a legal analysis of China, which assesses legislation, judicial structure, and litigation. Lastly, is an assessment of supply chain management in China, which assesses high-tech outsourcing practices, the vulnerability of intellectual property in research and development, instances of patent infringement, unfair licensing practices, and trade secret misappropriation.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Effects of Smart City Infrastructure on Millennials

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Adopting smart city tactics is important because it allows cities to develop sustainable communities through efficient policy initiatives. This study exemplifies how data analytics enables planners within smart cities to

Adopting smart city tactics is important because it allows cities to develop sustainable communities through efficient policy initiatives. This study exemplifies how data analytics enables planners within smart cities to gain a better understanding of their population, and can make more informed choices based on these consumer choices. As a rising share of the millennial generation enters the workforce, cities across the world are developing policy initiatives in the hopes of attracting these highly educated individuals. Due to this generation's strength in driving regional economic vitality directly and indirectly, it is in the best interests of city planners to understand the preferences of millennials so this information can be used to improve the attractiveness of communities for this high-purchasing power, productive segment of the population. Past research has revealed a tendency within this demographic to make location decisions based on the degree of ‘livability’ in an area. This degree represents a holistic approach at defining quality of life through the interconnectedness of both the built and social environments in cities.

Due to the importance of millennials to cities around the globe, this study uses 2010 ZIP code area data and the Phoenix metropolitan area as a case study to test the relationships between thirteen parameters of livability and the presence of millennials after controlling for other correlates of millennial preference.

The results of a multiple regression model indicated a positive linear association between livability parameters within smart cities and the presence of millennials. Therefore, the selected parameters of livability within smart cities are significant measures in influencing location decisions made by millennials. Urban planners can consequently increase the likelihood in which millennials will choose to live in a given area by improving livability across the parameters exemplified in this study. This mutually beneficial relationship provides added support to the notion that planners should develop solutions to improve livability within smart cities.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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A Review of Consulting Activities with the Havasupai Tribe

Description

For the past two years, New Venture Group (nVg) and the Havasupai Tribe have worked together on a variety of community development projects. The purpose of this paper is to

For the past two years, New Venture Group (nVg) and the Havasupai Tribe have worked together on a variety of community development projects. The purpose of this paper is to provide descriptions and documentation for these projects and how they are related to the economic development of the community. The partnership with the Havasupai Tribe has allowed nVg to learn the history and culture of one of Arizona's oldest communities. It has been necessary to understand the traditional values of the Havasupai to design projects that will benefit the tribe and gain support from its members. The products that nVg has worked on under the direction of the Havasupai include: - Computer training sessions - A tribal website - Financial analyses of Supai enterprises - Data management resources These and additional activities will be explained in the following pages. They were created following several meetings with tribal members and Enterprise Managers in Tempe and Supai, Arizona over the last two years. The goal of these projects is to contribute to the economic development of Supai and the Havasupai people more generally. Economic development means combining the existing strengths of the Havasupai community with nVg's business management experience, creating a stronger and more productive economy that contributes to the overall quality of life for the Havasupai.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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EMINENT DOMAIN AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ARIZONA: When is a use truly public?

Description

This focuses on recent changes in Arizona eminent domain law regarding the question of whether a use be "truly public." In light of the landmark decision in Bailey v City

This focuses on recent changes in Arizona eminent domain law regarding the question of whether a use be "truly public." In light of the landmark decision in Bailey v City of Mesa--often lauded as a great victory for proponents of private property rights-- a few sources will be reviewed to provide an indication of the extent redevelopment in Arizona has been affected by the decision. While the result in Bailey, precluding the City from taking the subject property may have been the correct outcome, the test to which the case now subjects any similar case involving redevelopment has made it unnecessarily difficult for political subdivisions of the state to carry out legislated redevelopment goals. The Bailey case only served to convolute the question of "public use" in the context of economic development, rather than create a workable body of law. In addition to providing a historical context and analyzing the effect of new interpretations on redevelopment generally, this paper will critique the Bailey decision in order to resolve the conflict that the decision created: that of the redevelopment goals of the state and municipalities and the authorized use of condemnation to achieve these goals with the judiciary's decision to greatly restrict the use of condemnation for the achievement of redevelopment goals. Arguably this conflict arose from a failure to fully understand the complexities of the use of the power of eminent domain for redevelopment purposes. Unaware of the need to use eminent domain in order to speed along and make possible economic redevelopment, overzealous proponents of property rights have reduced the issue to a narrow view of the state vs. the individual. Hopefully this paper can offer a more moderate and unbiased view of the use of eminent domain in light of the charge of the state and municipalities to facilitate economic growth.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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The Relationship between the Resource Curse and Economic Development and How to Respond to Rent Seeking Activities

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This paper looks at factors that drive economic growth and show the correlation between economic growth and economic development and how important economic growth is for a developing country because

This paper looks at factors that drive economic growth and show the correlation between economic growth and economic development and how important economic growth is for a developing country because when there is economic growth then the country has potential to develop. This paper continues to explain why there is economic growth in some countries and not in others with specifically focusing on the effects of having a blessed resource endowment. Having an abundance of resources should be a comparative advantage, however as seen in Latin America, South East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa that this surprisingly does not lead to high levels of economic growth. This phenomenon is referred to as the Resource Curse and can be fully explained through assumptions derived from the macroeconomic Heckscher-Ohlin model as well as recent trends in emerging economies. Leading to the conclusion that developing countries abundant in resources are very susceptible to the Resource Curse through the increase inequality that ultimately stunts development. Literature suggests that one of the only solutions to overcoming the Resource Curse is the strengthening the effectiveness of the policies in place, which is a subsequent effect of having quality institutions.

Focusing on how to improve institutions there needs to be consideration of the fact that institutions have rent seeking behaviors because both local governments and foreign investors want to acquire a greater share of the production and the benefits. In attempt to find some solution of how countries can overcome the Resource Curse without having to totally reconstruct the political system the goal should be to be to focus on actions from the private sector. The private sector tends to magnify rent seeking behavior and to solidify any solution I performed interviews from industry leaders who have been working in economic development for the past decades. The purpose was to understand what companies are doing now to ensure sustainable development and how that has changed over the past decades.

In the end, the private industry is focusing on regulations that standardize polices for companies pursuing foreign direct investment requiring them to also focus on local economic growth and development. This requires foreign investors to understand the local culture, environment, and institutions leading to overall better choices for long term profitably, thus fulfilling their rent seeking tendencies. One of the biggest proven solutions is the Social License to Operate which is essentially an agreement created by the private investor that requires the local community to be informed and holds the investor accountable. In the end, if the private sector can positively impact a community whilst maintaining their own agenda then a country can overcome the Resource Curse.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Research on critical indicators of Shanghai international financial center construction

Description

The city of Shanghai is set to become an international financial center (IFC) by 2020. To achieve this goal, it is imperative to clearly define the key characteristics of an

The city of Shanghai is set to become an international financial center (IFC) by 2020. To achieve this goal, it is imperative to clearly define the key characteristics of an IFC. In this study I draw from recent research on the ranking of IFCs to develop an index of these key characteristics that can be used to assess a city’s standings as an IFC. Based on a review of prior research, I first put together a comprehensive list of the indicators that have been used to evaluate IFCs, which includes six first-level indicators and 34 second-level indicators. I then collect information on all these indicators from public sources for the following eight cities each year from 2011 to 2013: London, New York, Paris, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Singapore, Beijing and Shanghai. Next, I conduct a principal component analysis (PCA) on my data, and obtain four primary factors that contain most information of the original 34 indicators. The first factor covers 18 of the original indicators and reflects a city’s level of development in general business environment. The second factor covers 10 of the original indicators and reflects a city’s level of development in financial markets. The third factor covers three of the original indicators and reflects a city’s level of economic vitality. The fourth factor covers three of the original indicators and reflects a city’s level of the costs of living. I further calculate the composite scores for the above eight cities along these four factors, and find that these eight cities can be classified into three tiers on the basis of their scores. The first tier consists of New York and London; the second tier consists of Singapore, Hong Kong, Paris and Tokyo; and the third tier consists of Shanghai and Beijing. I also find that Shanghai has been making progress in its scores along these four factors over the last three years, especially regarding financial market development, economic vitality, and cost of living. What Shanghai needs to focus on next is to improve its business environment so that it can move up to the second tier in IFC status.

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Date Created
  • 2015