Matching Items (20)

The Solar Duck Curve and Sustainable Storage Options: A Policy Recommendation

Description

Before the rise in renewable energy, few people considered the consequences of adding large amounts of intermittent power onto the grid. As renewable energy has become more prevalent, utility companies

Before the rise in renewable energy, few people considered the consequences of adding large amounts of intermittent power onto the grid. As renewable energy has become more prevalent, utility companies must adapt their business practices to accommodate these unique sources of power. This is leading to challenges on how best to manage a grid with large amounts of renewable power. Arizona Public Service (APS), the largest electricity provider in the state of Arizona, has more than 70,000 distributed solar customers on their grid and the number of solar customers increases every day. With this increase in distributed solar customers comes the solar duck curve—the phenomenon whereby solar produces energy during times of low demand. However, with the use of storage, the duck curve problem may be mitigated. This project examines the sustainability of three storage options: pumped hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, and lithium-ion batteries. Using several sustainability indicators, this project makes a policy recommendation to APS on the most sustainable choice for large-scale energy storage. This project found that compressed air energy storage was the most sustainable option for APS. This considered the impacts of compressed air on the environment, communities, and the costs of this storage option. One important aspect to acknowledge regarding this technology is that in its current form, it does emit some carbon emissions. However, the carbon emissions may have less of an impact if this storage facility can allow APS to use its renewable energy assets most efficiently and continue to use energy from Palo Verde, the nuclear facility in Arizona.

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Date Created
  • 2018-04-25

On-Site Renewable Energy Battery Storage

Description

This document contains a feasibility study that explores the necessity, collaborations, and
possible methods of installing a 1 megawatt lithium-ion battery storage facility at San Diego Gas
& Electric’s Century

This document contains a feasibility study that explores the necessity, collaborations, and
possible methods of installing a 1 megawatt lithium-ion battery storage facility at San Diego Gas
& Electric’s Century Park campus located in the Kearny Mesa neighborhood in central San
Diego, California. The battery will serve purposes of adding renewable energy to the energy mix,
reducing operations costs via peak shaving, an educational component for the region, and
meeting stringent State of California and California Public Utilities Commission mandates for
both renewable energy and battery storage capacity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05-15

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Improved convex optimal decision-making processes in distribution systems: enable grid integration of photovoltaic resources and distributed energy storage

Description

This research mainly focuses on improving the utilization of photovoltaic (PV) re-sources in distribution systems by reducing their variability and uncertainty through the integration of distributed energy storage (DES) devices,

This research mainly focuses on improving the utilization of photovoltaic (PV) re-sources in distribution systems by reducing their variability and uncertainty through the integration of distributed energy storage (DES) devices, like batteries, and smart PV in-verters. The adopted theoretical tools include statistical analysis and convex optimization. Operational issues have been widely reported in distribution systems as the penetration of PV resources has increased. Decision-making processes for determining the optimal allo-cation and scheduling of DES, and the optimal placement of smart PV inverters are con-sidered. The alternating current (AC) power flow constraints are used in these optimiza-tion models. The first two optimization problems are formulated as quadratically-constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) problems while the third problem is formu-lated as a mixed-integer QCQP (MIQCQP) problem. In order to obtain a globally opti-mum solution to these non-convex optimization problems, convex relaxation techniques are introduced. Considering that the costs of the DES are still very high, a procedure for DES sizing based on OpenDSS is proposed in this research to avoid over-sizing.

Some existing convex relaxations, e.g. the second order cone programming (SOCP) relaxation and semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation, which have been well studied for the optimal power flow (OPF) problem work unsatisfactorily for the DES and smart inverter optimization problems. Several convex constraints that can approximate the rank-1 constraint X = xxT are introduced to construct a tighter SDP relaxation which is referred to as the enhanced SDP (ESDP) relaxation using a non-iterative computing framework. Obtaining the convex hull of the AC power flow equations is beneficial for mitigating the non-convexity of the decision-making processes in power systems, since the AC power flow constraints exist in many of these problems. The quasi-convex hull of the quadratic equalities in the AC power bus injection model (BIM) and the exact convex hull of the quadratic equality in the AC power branch flow model (BFM) are proposed respectively in this thesis. Based on the convex hull of BFM, a novel convex relaxation of the DES optimizations is proposed. The proposed approaches are tested on a real world feeder in Arizona and several benchmark IEEE radial feeders.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Evaluation of Battery Performance in MMC based BESS

Description

Li-ion batteries are being used on a large scale varying from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. The key to efficient use of batteries is implementing a well-developed battery management system.

Li-ion batteries are being used on a large scale varying from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. The key to efficient use of batteries is implementing a well-developed battery management system. Also, there is an opportunity for research for improving the battery performance in terms of size and capacity. For all this it is imperative to develop Li-ion cell model that replicate the performance of a physical cell unit. This report discusses a dual polarization cell model and a battery management system implemented to control the operation of the battery. The Li-ion cell is modelled, and the performance is observed in PLECS environment.

The main aspect of this report studies the viability of Li-ion battery application in Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) in Modular multilevel converter (MMC). MMC-based BESS is a promising solution for grid-level battery energy storage to accelerate utilization and integration of intermittent renewable energy resources, i.e., solar and wind energy. When the battery units are directly integrated in submodules (SMs) without dc-dc interfaced converters, this configuration provides highest system efficiency and lowest cost. However, the lifetime of battery will be affected by the low-frequency components contained in arm currents, which has not been thoroughly investigated. This paper investigates impact of various low-frequency arm-current ripples on lifetime of Li-ion battery cells and evaluate performance of battery charging and discharging in an MMC-BESS without dc-dc interfaced converters.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Dispatch of bulk energy storage in power systems with wind generation

Description

This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy

This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy storage systems which can serve many applications like economically meeting peak loads, providing spinning reserve. Economic dispatch is performed with bulk energy storage with wind energy penetration in power systems allocating the generation levels to the units in the mix, so that the system load is served and most economically. The results obtained in previous research to solve for economic dispatch uses a linear cost function for a Direct Current Optimal Power Flow (DCOPF). This thesis uses quadratic cost function for a DCOPF implementing quadratic programming (QP) to minimize the function. A Matlab program was created to simulate different test systems including an equivalent section of the WECC system, namely for Arizo-na, summer peak 2009. A mathematical formulation of a strategy of when to charge or discharge the storage is incorporated in the algorithm. In this thesis various test cases are shown in a small three bus test bed and also for the state of Arizona test bed. The main conclusions drawn from the two test beds is that the use of energy storage minimizes the generation dispatch cost of the system and benefits the power sys-tem by serving the peak partially from stored energy. It is also found that use of energy storage systems may alleviate the loading on transmission lines which can defer the upgrade and expansion of the transmission system.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Development of a concentrating solar water heater with phase change energy storage

Description

The complicated, unpredictable, and often chaotic hot water usage pattern of typical households severely limits the effectiveness and efficiency of traditional solar hot water heater systems. Similar to large scale

The complicated, unpredictable, and often chaotic hot water usage pattern of typical households severely limits the effectiveness and efficiency of traditional solar hot water heater systems. Similar to large scale concentrating solar power plants, the use of thermal energy storage techniques to store collected solar energy as latent heat has the potential to improve the efficiency of solar hot water systems. Rather than being used to produce steam to generate electricity, the stored thermal energy would be used to heat water on-demand well after the sun sets. The scope of this thesis was to design, analyze, build, and test a proof of concept prototype for an on-demand solar water heater for residential use with latent heat thermal energy storage. The proof of concept system will be used for future research and can be quickly reconfigured making it ideal for use as a test bed. This thesis outlines the analysis, design, and testing processes used to model, build, and evaluate the performance of the prototype system.

The prototype system developed to complete this thesis was designed using systems engineering principles and consists of several main subsystems. These subsystems include a parabolic trough concentrating solar collector, a phase change material reservoir including heat exchangers, a heat transfer fluid reservoir, and a plumbing system. The system functions by absorbing solar thermal energy in a heat transfer fluid using the solar collector and transferring the absorbed thermal energy to the phase change material for storage. The system was analyzed using a mathematical model created in MATLAB and experimental testing was used to verify that the system functioned as designed. The mathematical model was designed to be adaptable for evaluating different system configurations for future research. The results of the analysis as well as the experimental tests conducted, verify that the proof of concept system is functional and capable of producing hot water using stored thermal energy. This will allow the system to function as a test bed for future research and long-term performance testing to evaluate changes in the performance of the phase change material over time. With additional refinement the prototype system has the potential to be developed into a commercially viable product for use in residential homes.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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A Steady State Thermodynamic Model of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermochemical Energy Storage

Description

Fluids such as steam, oils, and molten salts are commonly used to store and transfer heat in a concentrating solar power (CSP) system. Metal oxide materials have received increasing attention

Fluids such as steam, oils, and molten salts are commonly used to store and transfer heat in a concentrating solar power (CSP) system. Metal oxide materials have received increasing attention for their reversible reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction that permits receiving, storing, and releasing energy through sensible and chemical potential. This study investigates the performance of a 111.7 MWe CSP system coupled with a thermochemical energy storage system (TCES) that uses a redox active metal oxide acting as the heat transfer fluid. A one-dimensional thermodynamic model is introduced for the novel CSP system design, with detailed designs of the underlying nine components developed from first principles and empirical data of the heat transfer media. The model is used to (a) size components, (b) examine intraday operational behaviors of the system against varying solar insolation, (c) calculate annual productivity and performance characteristics over a simulated year, and (d) evaluate factors that affect system performance using sensitivity analysis. Time series simulations use hourly direct normal irradiance (DNI) data for Barstow, California, USA. The nominal system design uses a solar multiple of 1.8 with a storage capacity of six hours for off-sun power generation. The mass of particles to achieve six hours of storage weighs 5,140 metric tonnes. Capacity factor increases by 3.55% for an increase in storage capacity to eight hours which requires an increase in storage volume by 33% or 737 m3, or plant design can be improved by decreasing solar multiple to 1.6 to increase the ratio of annual capacity factor to solar multiple. The solar reduction receiver is the focal point for the concentrated solar energy for inducing an endothermic reaction in the particles under low partial pressure of oxygen, and the reoxidation reactor induces the opposite exothermic reaction by mixing the particles with air to power an air Brayton engine. Stream flow data indicate the solar receiver experiences the largest thermal loss of any component, excluding the solar field. Design and sensitivity analysis of thermal insulation layers for the solar receiver show that additional RSLE-57 insulation material achieves the greatest increase in energetic efficiency of the five materials investigated.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Optimization of Particle Size of α-Alumina Separator on Performance of Lithium Ion Batteries

Description

Lithium ion batteries prepared with a ceramic separator, have proven to possess improved safety, reliability as well as performance characteristics when compared to those with polymer separators which are prone

Lithium ion batteries prepared with a ceramic separator, have proven to possess improved safety, reliability as well as performance characteristics when compared to those with polymer separators which are prone to thermal runaway. Purely inorganic separators are highly brittle and expensive. The electrode-supported ceramic separator permits thinner separators which are a lot more flexible in comparison. In this work, it was observed that not any α-alumina could be used by the blade coating process to get a good quality separator on Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) electrode. In this work specifically, the effect of particle size of α-alumina, on processability of slurry was investigated. The effect of the particle size variations on quality of separator formation was also studied. Most importantly, the effect of alumina particle size and its distribution on the performance of LTO/Li half cells is examined in detail. Large-sized particles were found to severely limit the ability to fabricate such separators. The α-alumina slurry was coated onto electrode substrate, leading to possible interaction between α-alumina and LTO substrate. The interaction between submicron sized particles of α-alumina with the substrate electrode pores, was found to affect the performance and the stability of the separator. Utilizing a bimodal distribution of submicron sized particles with micron sized particles of α-alumina to prepare the separator, improved cell performance was observed. Yet only a specific ratio of bimodal distribution achieved good results both in terms of separator formation and resulting cell performance. The interaction of α-alumina and binder in the separator, and its effect on the performance of substrate electrode was investigated, to understand the need for bimodal distribution of powder forming the separator.

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  • 2017

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Passive thermochemical energy storage system for low power sensor modules for space applications

Description

Surface exploration of the Moon and Asteroids can provide important information to scientists regarding the origins of the solar-system and life . Small robots and sensor modules can enable low-cost

Surface exploration of the Moon and Asteroids can provide important information to scientists regarding the origins of the solar-system and life . Small robots and sensor modules can enable low-cost surface exploration. In the near future, they are the main machines providing these answers. Advanced in electronics, sensors and actuators enable ever smaller platforms, with compromising functionality. However similar advances haven’t taken place for power supplies and thermal control system. The lunar south pole has temperatures in the range of -100 to -150 oC. Similarly, asteroid surfaces can encounter temperatures of -150 oC. Most electronics and batteries do not work below -40 oC. An effective thermal control system is critical towards making small robots and sensors module for extreme environments feasible.

In this work, the feasibility of using thermochemical storage materials as a possible thermal control solution is analyzed for small robots and sensor modules for lunar and asteroid surface environments. The presented technology will focus on using resources that is readily generated as waste product aboard a spacecraft or is available off-world through In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU).

In this work, a sensor module for extreme environment has been designed and prototyped. Our intention is to have a network of tens or hundreds of sensor modules that can communicate and interact with each other while also gathering science data. The design contains environmental sensors like temperature sensors and IMU (containing accelerometer, gyro and magnetometer) to gather data. The sensor module would nominally contain an electrical heater and insulation. The thermal heating effect provided by this active heater is compared with the proposed technology that utilizes thermochemical storage chemicals.

Our results show that a thermochemical storage-based thermal control system is feasible for use in extreme temperatures. A performance increase of 80% is predicted for the sensor modules on the asteroid Eros using thermochemical based storage system. At laboratory level, a performance increase of 8 to 9 % is observed at ambient temperatures of -32oC and -40 oC.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Engineering the implementation of pumped hydro energy storage in the Arizona power grid

Description

This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study.

This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load (store energy when it is inexpensive [energy demand is low] and discharge energy when it is expensive [energy demand is high]). It also has the potential to provide opportunities to avoid transmission and generation expansion, and provide for generation reserve margins. As the level of renewable energy resources increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar resources may be improved by bulk energy storage technologies.

For this study, the MATLab software platform is used, a mathematical based modeling language, optimization solvers (specifically Gurobi), and a power flow solver (PowerWorld) are used to simulate an economic dispatch problem that includes energy storage and transmission losses. A program is created which utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. Actual data from industry are used in this test bed. In this thesis, the full capabilities of Gurobi are not utilized (e.g., integer variables, binary variables). However, the formulation shown here does create a platform such that future, more sophisticated modeling may readily be incorporated.

The developed software is used to assess the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization outputs such as the system wide operating costs. Large levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This research illustrates the use of energy storage which helps minimize the system wide generator operating cost by "shaving" energy off of the peak demand.

The thesis builds on the work of another recent researcher with the objectives of strengthening the assumptions used, checking the solutions obtained, utilizing higher level simulation languages to affirm results, and expanding the results and conclusions.

One important point not fully discussed in the present thesis is the impact of efficiency in the pumped hydro cycle. The efficiency of the cycle for modern units is estimated at higher than 90%. Inclusion of pumped hydro losses is relegated to future work.

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Date Created
  • 2014