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Managed Retreat as a Policy Tool to Combat Sea Level Rise, Flood Risk, and Other Coastal Dangers

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A comprehensive review of the managed retreat literature reveals mixed feelings towards the legality, practicality and cost of the policy action as a way to react to rising sea level and coastal erosion. Existing research shows increasing costs of severe

A comprehensive review of the managed retreat literature reveals mixed feelings towards the legality, practicality and cost of the policy action as a way to react to rising sea level and coastal erosion. Existing research shows increasing costs of severe storm damage borne to insurance companies and private citizens, furthering the need for long-term policy actions that mitigate the negative effects of major storms. Some main policy actions are restricting development, strategically abandoning infrastructure, funding buyout programs, utilizing rolling easements, and implementing a variety of protective structures. These policy actions face various problems regarding their feasibility and practicality as policy tools, including wavering public support and total costs associated with the actions. Managed retreat specifically faces public scrutiny, as many coastal property owners are reluctant to retreat from the shore. This paper will use examples of managed retreat in other countries (Netherlands, Belgium, and France) to develop plans for specific municipalities, using their models, costs and successes to generate in-depth policy plans and proposals. When observing Clatsop County, Oregon and assessing its policy options, its established that the best policy option is a combination of beach nourishment and Controlled Reduced Tides. This paper analyzes several features of the county, such as the importance of its coastal economic activity and its geographical makeup, to decide what policy actions would be best to mitigate its risk from sea level rise and flood damages. The process used to determine the best course of action for Clatsop County can be replicated in other municipalities, although the resulting policies will obviously be unique to the area.

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2017-05

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Cross Comparison of Three Healthcare Systems in Three Subspecialties

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Healthcare systems and health insurance are both concepts implemented in every country to provide access to the general population. Countries undergo healthcare reforms in order to increase the performance of the system. In 2010, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was

Healthcare systems and health insurance are both concepts implemented in every country to provide access to the general population. Countries undergo healthcare reforms in order to increase the performance of the system. In 2010, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was introduced in the United States to increase coverage and create a more inclusive health insurance market. For comparison, the recent reforms in Chile and Singapore were observed as points to determine what concepts work well and what can be implemented in the U.S. system. Unlike the United States, Chile and Singapore completely altered the system that was previously in use. In Chile, the reforms began in the 1970s and made two more major changes in 1973 and early 2000s. Singapore began its reform in the 1960s and created the medical savings account system that is still in use today. To analyze the system further, the medical professions of neurology, physician assistants and optometry were compared in each country. In regards to neurology, the coverage of services in Chile and Singapore are similar in that select medical procedures are covered. In contrast, the United States offers coverage on a case-by-case basis. For physician assistants, such a profession does not exist in Chile or Singapore. In the United States, the profession is rapidly expanding, and coverage is offered for most services provided. Optometry is a stand-alone profession in both the U.S. and Singapore. The services provided by the optometrists are selectively covered by insurance, depending on whether it is considered a medical problem. Chile covers the services often provided by optometrists, however, the ophthalmologist is the provider, as optometry does not exist. This study concluded that the U.S. should continue to provide a more inclusive healthcare system that includes vision and dental care. The U.S., like Singapore, should also adopt a more integrative system. Under this system, patient care would be provided in a way that professionals specializing in the care are included in every step of the process.

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2015-05

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Listing the American Pika (Ochotona princeps): The role of science in a political world

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In 2007, the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) petitioned the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) to list the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an endangered species. After several petition

In 2007, the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) petitioned the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) to list the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an endangered species. After several petition denials, the petition was evaluated during both 90-day, and 12-month reviews. Ultimately, both petitions were denied and the pika was not given protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). During the petitioning years, 2007 through 2013, there were many newspaper publications, press releases, and blog entries supporting the listing of the pika. Information published by these media ranged from misleading, to scientifically inaccurate. The public was swayed by these publications, and showed their support for listing the pika during the public comment period throughout the 12-month status review in California. While the majority of the public comments were in favor of listing the pika, there were a few letters that criticized the CBD for making a poster child out of a "cute" species. During the 12-month status review, the CDFW contacted pika experts and evaluated scientific literature to gain an understanding of the American pika's status. Seven years after the original petition, the CDFW denied listing the pika on the grounds that the species is not expected to become extinct in the next few decades. This case serves as an example where a prominent organization, the CBD, petitions to list a species that does not warrant protection. Their goal of making the pika the face of climate change failed when species was examined.

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2014-05