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Managed Retreat as a Policy Tool to Combat Sea Level Rise, Flood Risk, and Other Coastal Dangers

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A comprehensive review of the managed retreat literature reveals mixed feelings towards the legality, practicality and cost of the policy action as a way to react to rising sea level and coastal erosion. Existing research shows increasing costs of severe

A comprehensive review of the managed retreat literature reveals mixed feelings towards the legality, practicality and cost of the policy action as a way to react to rising sea level and coastal erosion. Existing research shows increasing costs of severe storm damage borne to insurance companies and private citizens, furthering the need for long-term policy actions that mitigate the negative effects of major storms. Some main policy actions are restricting development, strategically abandoning infrastructure, funding buyout programs, utilizing rolling easements, and implementing a variety of protective structures. These policy actions face various problems regarding their feasibility and practicality as policy tools, including wavering public support and total costs associated with the actions. Managed retreat specifically faces public scrutiny, as many coastal property owners are reluctant to retreat from the shore. This paper will use examples of managed retreat in other countries (Netherlands, Belgium, and France) to develop plans for specific municipalities, using their models, costs and successes to generate in-depth policy plans and proposals. When observing Clatsop County, Oregon and assessing its policy options, its established that the best policy option is a combination of beach nourishment and Controlled Reduced Tides. This paper analyzes several features of the county, such as the importance of its coastal economic activity and its geographical makeup, to decide what policy actions would be best to mitigate its risk from sea level rise and flood damages. The process used to determine the best course of action for Clatsop County can be replicated in other municipalities, although the resulting policies will obviously be unique to the area.

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2017-05

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Listing the American Pika (Ochotona princeps): The role of science in a political world

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In 2007, the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) petitioned the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) to list the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an endangered species. After several petition

In 2007, the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) petitioned the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) to list the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an endangered species. After several petition denials, the petition was evaluated during both 90-day, and 12-month reviews. Ultimately, both petitions were denied and the pika was not given protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). During the petitioning years, 2007 through 2013, there were many newspaper publications, press releases, and blog entries supporting the listing of the pika. Information published by these media ranged from misleading, to scientifically inaccurate. The public was swayed by these publications, and showed their support for listing the pika during the public comment period throughout the 12-month status review in California. While the majority of the public comments were in favor of listing the pika, there were a few letters that criticized the CBD for making a poster child out of a "cute" species. During the 12-month status review, the CDFW contacted pika experts and evaluated scientific literature to gain an understanding of the American pika's status. Seven years after the original petition, the CDFW denied listing the pika on the grounds that the species is not expected to become extinct in the next few decades. This case serves as an example where a prominent organization, the CBD, petitions to list a species that does not warrant protection. Their goal of making the pika the face of climate change failed when species was examined.

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2014-05

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Criteria Setting for Law Enforcement Agency Usage of Facial Recognition Technology

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This study analyzed currently existing statute at the state, federal, and international level to ultimately build a criteria of recommendations for policymakers to consider when building regulations for facial recognition technology usage by law enforcement agencies within the United States.

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2021-05

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The AfCFTA in Context of Developmental Policy

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The African Continental Free Trade Agreement is one of the latest developments in the world of African politics. It influences several key policy arenas, including the focus of this paper: developmental policy. The AfCFTA hopes to integrate the intra-African trading

The African Continental Free Trade Agreement is one of the latest developments in the world of African politics. It influences several key policy arenas, including the focus of this paper: developmental policy. The AfCFTA hopes to integrate the intra-African trading system, as well as implement several measures to integrate their entire economies. This paper examines the intersection between the AfCFTA and developmental policy defining how it helps and hinders African development goals. This thesis intends to give a clear picture of how this agreement coincides with developmental policy through both economic and political research. The goal of this paper is to provide readers with a detailed report on how this economic agreement could be shaping the developmental policy of the African world.

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2019-05

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Science, practice, and policy: : the Committee on Rare and Endangered Wildlife Species and the development of U.S. federal endangered species policy, 1956-1973

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The Committee on Rare and Endangered Wildlife Species (CREWS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) made important and lasting contributions to one of the most significant pieces of environmental legislation in U.S. history: the Endangered Species Act of

The Committee on Rare and Endangered Wildlife Species (CREWS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) made important and lasting contributions to one of the most significant pieces of environmental legislation in U.S. history: the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). CREWS was a prominent science-advisory body within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) in the 1960s and 1970s, responsible for advising on the development of federal endangered-wildlife policy. The Committee took full advantage of its scientific and political authority by identifying a particular object of conservation--used in the development of the first U.S. list of endangered species--and establishing captive breeding as a primary conservation practice, both of which were written into the ESA and are employed in endangered-species listing and recovery to this day. Despite these important contributions to federal endangered-species practice and policy, CREWS has received little attention from historians of science or policy scholars. This dissertation is an empirical history of CREWS that draws on primary sources from the Smithsonian Institution (SI) Archives and a detailed analysis of the U.S. congressional record. The SI sources (including the records of the Bird and Mammal Laboratory, an FWS staffed research group stationed at the Smithsonian Institution) reveal the technical and political details of CREWS's advisory work. The congressional record provides evidence showing significant contributions of CREWS and its advisors and supervisors to the legislative process that resulted in the inclusion of key CREWS-inspired concepts and practices in the ESA. The foundational concepts and practices of the CREWS's research program drew from a number of areas currently of interest to several sub-disciplines that investigate the complex relationship between science and society. Among them are migratory bird conservation, systematics inspired by the Evolutionary Synthesis, species-focused ecology, captive breeding, reintroduction, and species transplantation. The following pages describe the role played by CREWS in drawing these various threads together and codifying them as endangered-species policy in the ESA.

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2011