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Cigarette Litter Prevention at the Virginia Beach Oceanfront

Description

A city based on tourism, military installations, agriculture, and home to the first landing of Jamestown colonists, Virginia Beach boasts 28 miles of coastline along the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean. Comparable to other beaches worldwide, the utter volume of

A city based on tourism, military installations, agriculture, and home to the first landing of Jamestown colonists, Virginia Beach boasts 28 miles of coastline along the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean. Comparable to other beaches worldwide, the utter volume of visitors has taken its toll on the city, resulting in unsightly destruction and pollution. It is not unusual to read or hear about marine animals dying from eating or being trapped by waste that is deposited into oceans, or how oil spills are harmful to marine mammals, birds, and fish; yet somehow, it is uncommon to come upon the mentioning of butt litter, the most frequently littered item on Earth. Cigarette butts are strewn about the Virginia Beach boardwalk, resort strip, and the beach. In 2014, Clean Virginia Waterways collected more than 47,600 butts along streams, rivers, bays, and coastlines (CVW, 2015). With no smoking restrictions on the beach (or boardwalk,) tourists and local beachgoers alike frequently discard their butts on the sand and face no known consequences. Small but mighty, both smoked and unsmoked butts have severe impacts on waterways, economies, air quality, and public health. An economic analysis found that cities the size of San Francisco spend, on average, between $500,000 and $6 million annually to keep their beaches, streets, and parks clear of cigarette litter (Schneider et al., 2011).

This paper examines strategies to:
1. Drastically reduce butt litter within the city - Disposable/pocket ashtrays, additional butt/ash receptacles. 2. Increase community awareness on the economic impacts of litter - Organized cleanups, advertisements /marketing, partnerships with local NGOs.
3. Enhance citations and alternative penalties for those who discard their butts on the sand.
Additionally, this paper aims to discuss the potential implementation of a beach-wide smoking ban.

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Date Created
2020-05-18

Contento Recycling: The Evolution of Sustainability

Description

While the term sustainability is commonly used in 2019, in 1950, it was sparsely uttered. To understand how Contento Recycling LLC became Central New York’s leader in sustainable development, you must go back to Gerald Contento Sr, and the year

While the term sustainability is commonly used in 2019, in 1950, it was sparsely uttered. To understand how Contento Recycling LLC became Central New York’s leader in sustainable development, you must go back to Gerald Contento Sr, and the year 1950. This was the year my grandfather started our family’s vehicle dismantling and scrap metal recycling business. Over the course of the next 70 years, Contento’s and now, Contento Recycling, has evolved into a leader in recycling and environmental work in Central New York. To see how I created a sustainable business enterprise, you must analyze my family’s past. My family’s history provides a roadmap to a more sustainable future.
When I established Contento Recycling LLC in 2017, it was poised to be Central New York’s first ever construction and demolition debris recycling business. I was tasked with the challenge that many sustainability professionals are tasked with and that was to show the community why they should stop taking their construction debris to the landfill, and instead bring it to my recycling center for processing, recycling, and landfill diversion. Over the last several years I applied for state grant funding, spread awareness about my new business, designed and constructed a material recovery facility, outfitted equipment, and trained staff. I now have a facility that accepts about 40 tons of mixed C&D debris per day, and diverts about 20% of that from the landfill.
On a more personal level, I learned a tremendous amount about dealing with change management. I’ve learned a lot about business development, and some keys to success when building a business. I’ve figured out how to help my employees and customers grow. I’ve learned to be more patient and flexible with my business endeavors. I have a much clearer vision of what I want for my business and for myself. I have developed a rousing optimism on the impact that my business, and myself can have on the sustainable development of Central New York. I will be a leader in environmental stewardship and partner with other people and organizations who want to work towards a more sustainable future.

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2019-05-15

Cultivating Strategic Partnerships in Garden-Based Learning: Martin Luther King Jr. Early Childhood Center and The Farm at South Mountain

Description

This project is an exploration of a K-3 Early Childhood Center and the Roosevelt School District’s progress towards the Farm to School movement and focuses on the transformations and strategic partnerships required to maintain gardens as an educational resource over

This project is an exploration of a K-3 Early Childhood Center and the Roosevelt School District’s progress towards the Farm to School movement and focuses on the transformations and strategic partnerships required to maintain gardens as an educational resource over the long term. Martin Luther King Jr. Early Childhood Center is a Title 1 elementary school in South Mountain Village, Phoenix and is the primary research location for this study. South Mountain Village contains a series of urban food deserts which are low-income regions without adequate access to fresh, affordable, and healthy food options. The baseline for the school garden’s integration status was measured through the usage and adaptation of the Garden Resources Education and Environmental Nexus (GREEN) tool for well-integrated school gardens. The school has existing partnerships with the University of Arizona Co-operative Extension, and Farm at South Mountain to help establish their school garden and organize a series of educational field trips centered around sustainable agricultural practices. As a part of this Culminating Experience, I also worked with the Sustainability Teachers Academy to create, plan and execute Sustainability and School Gardening workshop on March 11-12 for teachers, and members of the Farm to School Network across Arizona. The end goal of this project and workshop is to create a framework to cultivate and sustain critical partnerships for farms and schools interested in being a part of the Farm-to-School program in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area.

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2019-05-15

Assessing Adaptation Strategies for Extreme Heat: A Public Health Evaluation of Cooling Centers in Maricopa County, Arizona

Description

Preventing heat-associated morbidity and mortality is a public health priority in Maricopa County, Arizona (United States). The objective of this project was to evaluate Maricopa County cooling centers and gain insight into their capacity to provide relief for the public

Preventing heat-associated morbidity and mortality is a public health priority in Maricopa County, Arizona (United States). The objective of this project was to evaluate Maricopa County cooling centers and gain insight into their capacity to provide relief for the public during extreme heat events. During the summer of 2014, 53 cooling centers were evaluated to assess facility and visitor characteristics. Maricopa County staff collected data by directly observing daily operations and by surveying managers and visitors. The cooling centers in Maricopa County were often housed within community, senior, or religious centers, which offered various services for at least 1500 individuals daily. Many visitors were unemployed and/or homeless. Many learned about a cooling center by word of mouth or by having seen the cooling center’s location. The cooling centers provide a valuable service and reach some of the region’s most vulnerable populations. This project is among the first to systematically evaluate cooling centers from a public health perspective and provides helpful insight to community leaders who are implementing or improving their own network of cooling centers.

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2016-09-23

Arizona Climate and Health Adaptation Plan 2017

Description

Extreme weather events including heat waves, wildfires, dust storms, flooding, and drought, along with adverse air quality events, are climatesensitive public health hazards in Arizona. Climatesensitive hazards are environmental events that pose risks to human health and could be affected

Extreme weather events including heat waves, wildfires, dust storms, flooding, and drought, along with adverse air quality events, are climatesensitive public health hazards in Arizona. Climatesensitive hazards are environmental events that pose risks to human health and could be affected by long-term changes in temperature, precipitation, and other weather conditions. These events occur at a wide range of time scales, spanning shortterm events like dust storms to long-term events like drought. Climate-sensitive hazards are among many environmental determinants of health. They can create or worsen health conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, asthma and other respiratory illnesses, and can lead to injury or premature death. For example, a heavy downpour can lead to an acute, flash flooding event that poses risk of injury such as falls, lacerations and puncture. Long-term changes in precipitation patterns can modify the suitability of certain regions for vectors (such as mosquitos) that transmit infectious diseases or for the growth of fungus in soils. Demography, infrastructure, social capital, personal and institutional preparedness, and the evolution of technology will also shape the nature of the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards on public health in Arizona. Building resilience across social, ecological, and technological systems will help prepare the State for these hazards.

The Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) is leading the development of a statewide climate and health adaptation plan as a participating agency in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) ClimateReady States and Cities Initiative. This document, released in April 2017, is the first version of Arizona’s Climate and Health Adaptation Plan (ACHAP). The goal of ACHAP is to support the mission of the ADHS: to promote, protect, and improve the health and wellness of individuals and communities in Arizona. In coordinating ACHAP, ADHS intends to support the development of interventions and enhancement of public health preparedness activities related to climate-sensitive hazards and minimize adverse impacts on the people of Arizona.

The guidance contained herein was generated using the ongoing work of current and future collaborations and through review and collaboration with other states. ACHAP 2017 serves to compile ideas, direction, and activities that stakeholders may wish to adapt in building resilience against the effects of climate-sensitive hazards. This document is intended to serve as a tool for state and local agencies to support related public health initiatives. Furthermore, it is intended to promote communication among partners by highlighting successful local and regional efforts and by exploring and reviewing new ideas.

Federal, state, county and local collaborators that have and are anticipated to contribute to the continued development of ACHAP include, but are not limited to: federal, state, and local government agencies, Native American tribal governments, Arizona universities and colleges, community-based organizations, healthcare organizations, non-governmental organizations, professional societies, and residents of Arizona. Representatives from several of these types of organizations participated in a climate and health workshop coordinated by ADHS in June 2016. Perspectives from these workshop participants contributed to the development of ACHAP 2017.

A second version of ACHAP will be released in 2018 after a year-long collaborative process with stakeholders and researchers. This collaborative process will identify the best strategies for protecting the health and wellbeing of all Arizonans, drawing guidance from the CDC’s Climate and Health Implementation and Monitoring Strategy. Ultimately, ACHAP will showcase the strengths and capacities of many organizations across Arizona that can play a role in protecting public health from climate-sensitive hazards. Successfully preparing Arizona requires a collaborative approach across many diverse stakeholders. Bringing to the table perspectives from many different local settings and operations will be key to the development of an effective plan. As such, ADHS and other contributors to ACHAP are encouraged to treat all perspectives as fair and valid in the deliberation about adaptation activities for reducing climate-sensitive health impacts in communities across the state.

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2017

Addendum to the Arizona Climate and Health Adaptation Plan 2018

Description

Purpose:
This addendum to the 2017 State of Arizona Climate and Health Adaptation Plan (ACHAP) describes the progress on specific preparedness activities that protect the health and well-being of Arizonans from current and future climate sensitive hazards. As a means

Purpose:
This addendum to the 2017 State of Arizona Climate and Health Adaptation Plan (ACHAP) describes the progress on specific preparedness activities that protect the health and well-being of Arizonans from current and future climate sensitive hazards. As a means for providing brief updates, the scope of this addendum does not focus on public health data regarding environmental hazards and health effects such as extreme heat, fires, floods, drought, and vector borne diseases affected by temperature and precipitation. More information about these topics are described in prior Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) reports published online. Rather, this addendum focuses on initiatives currently taking place within Arizona. With continued funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Climate Ready States and Cities Initiative, ADHS collaborated with local health departments and universities to implement activities identified under the first iteration of the ACHAP. Stakeholders contributed success stories detailing how they collaborated across multiple sectors, implemented pilot projects, and evaluated their efforts over the past year. These stories are meant to help disseminate lessons learned with the aim of informing other jurisdictions to facilitate implementation of effective adaptation actions against future extreme weather challenges facing public health. Additionally, these success stories provide evidence of the public health sector planning and preparing for extreme weather threats to human health.

New Science Available:
Since the 2017 ACHAP, several federal and state level reports published help detail challenges and solutions for public health adaptation planning. In 2018, the federal government released the Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA 4). This report specifically summarized climate impacts for the Southwest and to health. Within this report, specific health impacts in the Southwest include the implications of extreme heat, poor air quality, and changes in conditions to foster the spread of infectious pathogens. Efforts by ADHS and local stakeholders were highlighted in public health sections within the NCA 4, such as an evaluation of cooling centers used to protect vulnerable populations during the summer heat in Maricopa County and assessments on vector-borne diseases. Within Arizona, ADHS released two reports during the winter of 2017 about the health effects of these hazards. The first report was an Assessment of Climate and Health Impacts on Vector-Borne Diseases and Valley Fever in Arizona and the second report described the estimated Projections of Climate Impacts on Vector-Borne Diseases and Valley Fever in Arizona. In an effort to support continued work in understanding the implications of climate on health, in August 2017 Arizona became part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Through this initiative, ADHS has implemented enhanced surveillance on the human health impacts of poor air quality, increased temperature, changes in precipitation, drought, and identifying vulnerable populations through 2022.

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2018

Arizona Extreme Weather, Climate and Health Profile Report - March 2015

Description

Observed and projected changes to the climate (e.g. more/less precipitation and higher temperatures) can pose significant health risks to the residents of Arizona. As in other locations in the Southwest, across the United States, and around the world, these changes

Observed and projected changes to the climate (e.g. more/less precipitation and higher temperatures) can pose significant health risks to the residents of Arizona. As in other locations in the Southwest, across the United States, and around the world, these changes are likely to coincide with an increased frequency of drought, flooding, severe heat events, and wildfires; and disruption of civil infrastructure, including transportation, energy, and water systems. These impacts can lead directly to illness and death and are likely to worsen existing health conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. A number of other factors are expected to compound these health issues.

Achieving air quality goals may be more difficult because of changes in the emission rates of ozone precursors including nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), along with changes in meteorological conditions that facilitate high pollutant concentrations. Additionally, the timing and potency of aeroallergens may be hastened and increased. Finally, vector-borne illnesses carried by insects (i.e., mosquitos, mites, and ticks) are likely to become increasingly widespread. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed the Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework (Figure A) to provide local health officials with a mechanism for addressing climate-related public health effects and to support the creation of regional public health adaptation and mitigation efforts. The framework uses the principles of adaptive management to achieve these goals.

This report addresses Step 1 of the framework, focusing on two climate-related hazards and associated health impacts of major importance to Arizona—extreme heat events and air pollution. The frequency and intensity of extreme heat events already are increasing in the state and this trend is expected to continue. Likewise, under some future climate scenarios, ozone formation and accumulation are expected to increase (Weaver et al. 2009; Kim et al. 2015). Furthermore, historical monitoring of air pollution, especially ozone and coarse particulate matter (PM10), has identified these pollutants as a problem in the state. This report describes the link between these hazards and human health outcomes, and identifies the segments of the population that would be at-risk or vulnerable to their effects. The work involved extracting downscaled climate projections for Arizona and identifying populations vulnerable to extreme heat and poor air quality. Further work will include projecting future public health burdens, identifying mitigating measures, evaluating their cost-effectiveness, and developing an adaptation plan. Flood- and drought-related hazards will also be analyzed. Throughout these activities, Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) and the project team will evaluate the framework’s effectiveness and revise their efforts, as needed.

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2015-03

Climate and Health Strategic Plan for Maricopa County, 2016-2021

Description

Maricopa County experiences extreme heat, which has adverse effects on community health and has been recognized as a serious public health issue. Therefore, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) has conducted surveillance activities to assess morbidity and mortality

Maricopa County experiences extreme heat, which has adverse effects on community health and has been recognized as a serious public health issue. Therefore, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) has conducted surveillance activities to assess morbidity and mortality due to extreme heat for the past 10 years. In 2016, MCDPH was interested in expanding their scope to include other climate-sensitive public health hazards. Subsequently, a network of stakeholders with an interest in the health effects of climate-sensitive hazards was established as the Bridging Climate Change and Public Health (BCCPH) stakeholder group. A smaller Strategic Planning Workgroup of key stakeholders from the BCCPH group was then convened over three sessions to work on a strategic plan for the group, which culminated in this document.

Practical Vision
The driving discussion question to identify the Strategic Planning Workgroup’s practical vision was, “What do we want to see in place in the next 3-5 years as a result of our actions?” The goal of this question was to help the group develop concrete outcomes that the BCCPH workgroup would like to achieve through activities included in the strategic plan. The following goals were identified:
 A healthy community infrastructure design
 Reframed messaging for multiple stakeholder needs
 A coordinated multi-scale education effort
 Improved health strategies and outcomes
 A diverse network of partnerships for climate change adaptation and mitigation planning and development
 New funding opportunities
 Policy and research strategies, and private sector engagement.

Underlying Contradictions
The driving discussion question to identify underlying contradictions was, “What is blocking us from moving towards our practical vision?” The following challenges were identified:
 People act out of self-interest vs. common good
 Siloed effects lead to poor coordination
 Political partisanship delays unified action
 Conflicting information leads to biases
 Culture and convenience impacts action
 Vulnerable populations not represented, and normalization of climate change related negative effects

Strategic Directions
During the BCCPH Strategic Planning Workgroup meetings, participants identified five strategic directions for addressing environmental concerns affecting the health and well-being of the community. These strategic directions are in agreement with the climate and health adaptation strategies outlined in the Arizona Climate and Health Adaptation Plan. The strategic directions for Maricopa County are:
 Fostering Environmental Action for a Healthier Community
 Coordinating Research and Collaborative Efforts to Catalyze Change
 Developing a Strategic and Targeted Communication Plan
 Promoting Community Awareness and Public Education about Climate and Health
 Celebrating Success and Champions

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2018

Modeling Effects of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies on Heat-Related Morbidity: A Case Study for Phoenix, Arizona, USA

Description

This established model is applied here to show the relative effects of four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) percentage of vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of

This established model is applied here to show the relative effects of four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) percentage of vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of percentage increases by 5, 10, 15, and 20% from baseline values.

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2009-07-26

The Social Impacts of the Heat–Health Watch/Warning System in Phoenix, Arizona: Assessing the Perceived Risk and Response of the Public

Description

Here, 201 surveys were distributed in Metropolitan Phoenix to determine the social impacts of the heat warning system, or more specifically, to gauge risk perception and warning response.

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2007-01-30