Matching Items (198)

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Individual Rights vs. the Public Good: How Do State Exemption Policies Impact Childhood Vaccination Rates?

Description

Growing hotspots of unvaccinated children corroborate with states that have highly permissive vaccination policies. State-based nonmedical exemption (NME) policies such as religious or philosophical exemptions make it easy for parents to opt out of vaccinating their children thus lowering herd

Growing hotspots of unvaccinated children corroborate with states that have highly permissive vaccination policies. State-based nonmedical exemption (NME) policies such as religious or philosophical exemptions make it easy for parents to opt out of vaccinating their children thus lowering herd immunity and increasing the risk of outbreaks. Recent studies have revealed that Phoenix is the metropolitan area with the highest number of nonmedical exemptions in the country with vaccination rates below herd immunity. This thesis investigates the role of the law in enabling low vaccination rates and develops a set of policy recommendations that lawmakers may use as a tool to restore these rates to herd immunity levels. To do this, an in-depth literature review was performed and supplemented with a case study of California’s policy response to the 2014 Disneyland measles outbreak. This information was synthesized into an in-depth policy analysis addressing the political, social, practical, and economic factors of the issue and four potential policy responses for state lawmakers. Based on the analysis and California’s example, eliminating nonmedical vaccine exemptions was identified as the most effective policy option to reach the intended goal of restoring vaccination rates to herd immunity levels. This policy option is both the most cost-effective and productive in reaching herd immunity but infringes the most on parental rights and will be met with the most significant political pushback. Despite these challenges, lawmakers should take this policy step to protect our community and the most vulnerable among us.

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2019-05

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Socioeconomic and Cultural Ideas of Endometriosis in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Narrative Literature Review

Description

Background: Endometriosis is a condition characterized by the growth of the endometrium, or the tissue that lines the uterus, outside of the uterus, and it is diagnosed through the presence of endometriotic lesions in the pelvic region. The disease is

Background: Endometriosis is a condition characterized by the growth of the endometrium, or the tissue that lines the uterus, outside of the uterus, and it is diagnosed through the presence of endometriotic lesions in the pelvic region. The disease is most often associated with abnormal and painful vaginal bleeding. Currently, minimal literature exists concerning the management of endometriosis in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), which may influence the lack of a cultural competent understanding of menstruation in LMICs and, therefore, a lack of evidence-based policies concerning menstruation.

Methods: Social and cultural barriers influencing endometriosis reporting and management in LMICs were examined through a systematic literature review. Online databases yielded a list of relevant studies. Then, use of MAXQDA, a qualitative data analysis software program, helped to extract and code specific text segments from each study that pertain to the research topic. In-context analysis of coded segments revealed the most common trends, which were organized into broader themes.

Results: Findings demonstrated that social and cultural ideas regarding vaginal bleeding influenced the lack of disease reporting and management of endometriosis in LMICs. Socioeconomic challenges include a lack of hygiene and sanitation measures and education regarding menstruation and vaginal bleeding. Also, many diseases associated with the abnormal vaginal bleeding are often disregarded and not prioritized in clinical settings. It also became clear that cultural taboos regarding menstruation and vaginal bleeding often create feelings of anxiety and fear in women and girls throughout communities in LMICs. However, further research is needed to examine the ways in which women in those communities treat symptoms of irregular vaginal bleeding related to endometriosis.

Conclusions: Socioeconomic, gender, and sex-related factors may influence the ways in which endometriosis is reported and treated and may affect the way the related diseases are understood. Evidence-based policies using a culturally competent understanding of abnormal vaginal bleeding in LMICs may help positively affect the reproductive health of women and girls in such areas.

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2019-05

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Latrine use, boiled water, and bed nets: associations between biomarkers of immune status and public health in a subsistence population

Description

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with heads of household (n=710, aged 18-92, median age 40 years)

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with heads of household (n=710, aged 18-92, median age 40 years) were conducted to ascertain household water sources, ownership and usage of mosquito nets, and latrine use. In this sample, 21% of households used latrines, 20% always boiled their water, and 85% used mosquito nets. Regression models estimate their associations biomarkers of pathogen exposure, including white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), eosinophils, and sedimentation rate (ESR). Controlling for age, sex, and distance from the closest market town, latrine use (Std. β = -0.11, p= 0.017) and boiling water (Std. β = -0.08, p= 0.059) are associated with lower WBCs. Latrine use is marginally associated with higher hemoglobin (Std. β = 0.09, p= 0.048), but not boiling water (p= 0.447). ESR trends toward lower levels for households that always boil water (Std. β= -0.09, p= 0.131), but is not associated with latrine use (p=0.803). Latrine use was significantly associated with lower eosinophil counts (Std. β= -0.14, p=0.013), but not boiling water (p=0.240). Mosquito nets are not associated with any of these biomarkers. Both boiling water and latrine use are associated with better health outcomes in this sample. These results suggest that scarce public health resources in rural subsistence populations without malarial risk may wish to prioritize boiling water and latrine use to improve health outcomes.

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Date Created
2019-05

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An Assessment of Vaccine Hesitancy in the context of the Flu in Maricopa County, Arizona

Description

Objective: To provide insight into the World Health Organization SAGE Working Group Vaccine Hesitancy Survey by applying the tool to populations across Maricopa County, Arizona. Design: An online survey was conducted using the Qualtrics Survey Software, of individuals residing in

Objective: To provide insight into the World Health Organization SAGE Working Group Vaccine Hesitancy Survey by applying the tool to populations across Maricopa County, Arizona. Design: An online survey was conducted using the Qualtrics Survey Software, of individuals residing in Maricopa County, Arizona during the month of October 2019. Results: Of 209 respondents, the followed demonstrated to be the top 3 reasons for either having not received the flu shot yet or having not planned to receive the flu shot: “I’m healthy, I don’t need it”(20.1%); “Worried I might get the flu from it”(17.7%); “I don’t think it works”(17.7%) Statistical analysis demonstrated that vaccine hesitant and non-hesitant respondents are likely to respond differently to topics covering: safety of vaccines; self-perceived health status; importance of the flu shot among one’s peers; flu vaccine related knowledge Conclusions: The WHO VHS applied to the population of Maricopa County, Arizona reported little hesitancy towards the seasonal flu vaccine. Statistical analysis of Vaccine Hesitant respondents vs. Non-Hesitant respondents demonstrates that specified public health education focused on the immunological implications of vaccines may be needed for the hesitant population to gain confidence in vaccine efficacy. A more diverse respondent group that consists of residents beyond the county lines of Maricopa is needed to understand the full scope of vaccine hesitancy that exists in Arizona.

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2020-05

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Operation Toothbrush: Understanding Pediatric Dentistry in Low Income Communities

Description

Operation Toothbrush is an initiative established to combat the oral healthcare disparity within young children who reside in Arizona. By working with elementary and preschool children, the project educated them and their families about the importance of oral hygiene in

Operation Toothbrush is an initiative established to combat the oral healthcare disparity within young children who reside in Arizona. By working with elementary and preschool children, the project educated them and their families about the importance of oral hygiene in informative and intuitive manner. The project incorporated the help of Pre-Dental volunteers, dental practices, and the Woodside Grant to obtain the supplies, information, and assistance necessary to conduct the initiative.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-05

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Sociocultural perspectives on antibiotic consumption and resistance

Description

In 2015, the World Health Organization cited antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest current challenges to global public health. A major driver of the evolution of antibiotic resistance is the overuse and misuse of these drugs. While antibiotic stewardship,

In 2015, the World Health Organization cited antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest current challenges to global public health. A major driver of the evolution of antibiotic resistance is the overuse and misuse of these drugs. While antibiotic stewardship, education campaigns, and health policy attempt to limit drug use globally, public understanding of antibiotic resistance and its consequences are lacking. The goal of this study is to analyze the social and cultural influences of antibiotic knowledge and usage behavior. Over a three-month period, I interviewed 211 laypersons in Guatemala, Spain, the Netherlands, India, South Africa, and New Zealand to understand their ideas, perceptions, and behaviors regarding antibiotics and compared results across countries. While an overall consensus across countries does exist, I found significant differences between low and high income countries as well as between low and high antibiotic consumption countries. Additionally, I found that having increased public health knowledge is related to lower antibiotic "risky" behavior. These results help contextualize national data on antibiotic consumption and resistance by illustrating relationships between access, beliefs, and consumption patterns within populations. The results also inform the development of community and culture specific educational campaigns regarding antibiotic resistance.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Network Analysis of a Diabetes Prevention Collaboration in Maryvale, Arizona

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My aims with this research project were to conduct a network analysis on collaborators in the ¡Viva Maryvale! project, a diabetes prevention program in Maryvale, AZ. The goals of the social network analysis were to measure the connections that collaborating

My aims with this research project were to conduct a network analysis on collaborators in the ¡Viva Maryvale! project, a diabetes prevention program in Maryvale, AZ. The goals of the social network analysis were to measure the connections that collaborating organizations have to each other, the strength of these connections, and the activities that connected organizations collaborate on. I hypothesized that performing a network analysis would inform me of the strengths and weaknesses of the ¡Viva Maryvale! project in order to advise the next steps of a targeted approach to diabetes prevention among vulnerable populations, thus affecting public health outcomes in the greater Phoenix Valley.

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Date Created
2017-05

Developing and Pilot Testing Digital Storytelling Interventions to Promote HPV Vaccinations among Vietnamese American Adolescents

Description

Significance Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection, affecting 79 million Americans today and an additional 14 million Americans becoming infected with HPV each year. HPV infection may lead to the development of genital warts

Significance Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection, affecting 79 million Americans today and an additional 14 million Americans becoming infected with HPV each year. HPV infection may lead to the development of genital warts and several types of cancers including both cervical and oropharyngeal cancers. The promotion of currently available HPV vaccines is important to prevent HPV transmission and reduce the prevalence of the comorbidities associated with infection. Promotion to Vietnamese-Americans in particular is important because of the increased rates of cervical cancers seen in this population. As Vietnamese-American mothers often act as the primary healthcare decision maker for their children, they were chosen as the target population for this intervention. Purpose: This study aims to (1) develop personal digital stories about HPV and HPV vaccination among Vietnamese women with adolescent children who are vaccinated against HPV; and (2) share these stories with a group of Vietnamese American mothers and assess the effect of the stories in changing the attitudes, beliefs, and intention to vaccinate for HPV. Methods: This study used a two-step process to design, implement, and evaluate digital stories to improve Vietnamese mothers' attitudes, beliefs, and intention to vaccinate their adolescent children against HPV. The first step was a formative research design to develop the digital stories. The second step was quasi-experimental with a pre and posttest design to evaluate the effect of the stories. Results: The first phase has produced two digital stories which will be screened recruitment has been completed for phase two. Content analysis showed the importance of community resources, the desire to protect children, a history of familial and/or personal cancer, concerns about side effects, and the influence of healthcare providers as themes in both stories. Recruitment efforts are underway to recruit eligible Vietnamese mothers to assess the effect of these stories. Data collection is ongoing. Conclusions and lessons learned: The project has yielded two digital stories and recruitment for phase two is underway. This project has been successful in obtaining IRB approval, recruiting phase one participants, holding a digital storytelling workshop, designing the phase two survey, and beginning data collection efforts. The phase two recruitment has been challenging and will necessitate a change in strategy to find participants.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Future of Wastewater Sensing Workshop Guide

Description

The Future of Wastewater Sensing workshop is part of a collaboration between Arizona State University Center for Nanotechnology in Society in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society, the Biodesign Institute’s Center for Environmental Security, LC Nano, and

The Future of Wastewater Sensing workshop is part of a collaboration between Arizona State University Center for Nanotechnology in Society in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society, the Biodesign Institute’s Center for Environmental Security, LC Nano, and the Nano-enabled Water Treatment (NEWT) Systems NSF Engineering Research Center. The Future of Wastewater Sensing workshop explores how technologies for studying, monitoring, and mining wastewater and sewage sludge might develop in the future, and what consequences may ensue for public health, law enforcement, private industry, regulations and society at large. The workshop pays particular attention to how wastewater sensing (and accompanying research, technologies, and applications) can be innovated, regulated, and used to maximize societal benefit and minimize the risk of adverse outcomes, when addressing critical social and environmental challenges.

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2015-11-01

Arizona Immunization Rates: An Overview and Resource Guide

Description

The national average of children aged 19-35 months receiving all recommended vaccines was under 75 percent for the year 2014. In Arizona the average was 65.1 percent, ranking them as 46th in the nation. Language, availability and education are all

The national average of children aged 19-35 months receiving all recommended vaccines was under 75 percent for the year 2014. In Arizona the average was 65.1 percent, ranking them as 46th in the nation. Language, availability and education are all barriers affecting the rates in Arizona. Appropriate education has the biggest impact on vaccination rates in Arizona. A review of resources available in Arizona was conducted and presented for parents of children in need of the vaccines. A poster designed to educate the population and promote vaccinations was created and distributed to the Maricopa County Department of Public Health and Mayo Clinic Hospital as well.

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2016-05