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Future of Wastewater Sensing Workshop Guide

Description

The Future of Wastewater Sensing workshop is part of a collaboration between Arizona State University Center for Nanotechnology in Society in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society,

The Future of Wastewater Sensing workshop is part of a collaboration between Arizona State University Center for Nanotechnology in Society in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society, the Biodesign Institute’s Center for Environmental Security, LC Nano, and the Nano-enabled Water Treatment (NEWT) Systems NSF Engineering Research Center. The Future of Wastewater Sensing workshop explores how technologies for studying, monitoring, and mining wastewater and sewage sludge might develop in the future, and what consequences may ensue for public health, law enforcement, private industry, regulations and society at large. The workshop pays particular attention to how wastewater sensing (and accompanying research, technologies, and applications) can be innovated, regulated, and used to maximize societal benefit and minimize the risk of adverse outcomes, when addressing critical social and environmental challenges.

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  • 2015-11-01

Transit Planning and Climate Change: Reducing Rider’s Vulnerability to Heat

Description

Public transit systems have been identified as a critical component to reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector to mitigate future climate change impacts. A

Public transit systems have been identified as a critical component to reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector to mitigate future climate change impacts. A unique aspect of public transit is its use almost always necessitates environmental exposure and the design of these systems directly influences rider exposure via rider ingress, egress, and waiting. There is a tension between policies and programs which promote transit use to combat climate change and the potential impact an uncertain climate future may have on transit riders.

In the American Southwest, extreme heat events, a known public health threat, are projected to increase between 150 and 840% over the next decade, and may be a health hazard for transit riders. There are opportunities to incorporate rider health risks in the overall planning process and develop alternative transit schedules during extreme heat events to minimize these risks. Using Los Angeles Metro as a case studies, we show that existing transit vehicles can be reallocated across the system to significantly reduce exposure for riders who are more vulnerable to heat while maintaining a minimum level of service across the system. As cities continue to invest in public transit it is critical for them to understand transit use as an exposure pathway for riders and to develop strategies to mitigate potential health risks.

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  • 2017-10-24

Environmental Research Letters Connecting People and Place: A New Framework for Reducing Urban Vulnerability to Extreme Heat

Description

Climate change is predicted to increase the intensity and negative impacts of urban heat events, prompting the need to develop preparedness and adaptation strategies that reduce societal vulnerability to extreme

Climate change is predicted to increase the intensity and negative impacts of urban heat events, prompting the need to develop preparedness and adaptation strategies that reduce societal vulnerability to extreme heat. Analysis of societal vulnerability to extreme heat events requires an interdisciplinary approach that includes information about weather and climate, the natural and built environment, social processes and characteristics, interactions with stakeholders, and an assessment of community vulnerability at a local level. In this letter, we explore the relationships between people and places, in the context of urban heat stress, and present a new research framework for a multi-faceted, top-down and bottom-up analysis of local-level vulnerability to extreme heat. This framework aims to better represent societal vulnerability through the integration of quantitative and qualitative data that go beyond aggregate demographic information. We discuss how different elements of the framework help to focus attention and resources on more targeted health interventions, heat hazard mitigation and climate adaptation strategies.

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  • 2010-03-26

Designing a Geospatial Information Infrastructure for Mitigation of Heat Wave Hazards in Urban Areas

Description

Extreme heat is a natural hazard that could rapidly increase in magnitude in the 21st century. The combination of increasingurbanization, growing numbers of vulnerable people, and the evidence of global

Extreme heat is a natural hazard that could rapidly increase in magnitude in the 21st century. The combination of increasingurbanization, growing numbers of vulnerable people, and the evidence of global warming indicate an urgent need for improved heat-wavemitigation and response systems. A review of the literature on heat-wave impacts in urban environments and on human health revealsopportunities for improved synthesis, integration, and sharing of information resources that relate to the spatial and temporal nature ofthreats posed by extreme heat. This paper illustrates how geospatial technologies can aid in the mitigation of urban heat waves.

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  • 2004-07-15

Neighborhood Microclimates and Vulnerability to Heat Stress

Description

Human exposure to excessively warm weather, especially in cities, is an increasingly important public health problem. This study examined heat-related health inequalities within one city in order to understand the

Human exposure to excessively warm weather, especially in cities, is an increasingly important public health problem. This study examined heat-related health inequalities within one city in order to understand the relationships between the microclimates of urban neighborhoods, population characteristics, thermal environments that regulate microclimates, and the resources people possess to cope with climatic conditions. A simulation model was used to estimate an outdoor human thermal comfort index (HTCI) as a function of local climate variables collected in 8 diverse city neighborhoods during the summer of 2003 in Phoenix, USA. HTCI is an indicator of heat stress, a condition that can cause illness and death. There were statistically significant differences in temperatures and HTCI between the neighborhoods during the entire summer, which increased during a heat wave period. Lower socioeconomic and ethnic minority groups were more likely to live in warmer neighborhoods with greater exposure to heat stress. High settlement density, sparse vegetation, and having no open space in the neighborhood were significantly correlated with higher temperatures and HTCI. People in warmer neighborhoods were more vulnerable to heat exposure because they had fewer social and material resources to cope with extreme heat. Urban heat island reduction policies should specifically target vulnerable residential areas and take into account equitable distribution and preservation of environmental resources.

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  • 2006-09-25

Challenges Associated with Projecting Urbanization-Induced Heat-Related Mortality

Description

Maricopa County, Arizona, anchor to the fastest growing megapolitan area in the United States, is located in a hot desert climate where extreme temperatures are associated with elevated risk of

Maricopa County, Arizona, anchor to the fastest growing megapolitan area in the United States, is located in a hot desert climate where extreme temperatures are associated with elevated risk of mortality. Continued urbanization in the region will impact atmospheric temperatures and, as a result, potentially affect human health. We aimed to quantify the number of excess deaths attributable to heat in Maricopa County based on three future urbanization and adaptation scenarios and multiple exposure variables.

Two scenarios (low and high growth projections) represent the maximum possible uncertainty range associated with urbanization in central Arizona, and a third represents the adaptation of high-albedo cool roof technology. Using a Poisson regression model, we related temperature to mortality using data spanning 1983–2007. Regional climate model simulations based on 2050-projected urbanization scenarios for Maricopa County generated distributions of temperature change, and from these predicted changes future excess heat-related mortality was estimated. Subject to urbanization scenario and exposure variable utilized, projections of heat-related mortality ranged from a decrease of 46 deaths per year (− 95%) to an increase of 339 deaths per year (+ 359%).

Projections based on minimum temperature showed the greatest increase for all expansion and adaptation scenarios and were substantially higher than those for daily mean temperature. Projections based on maximum temperature were largely associated with declining mortality. Low-growth and adaptation scenarios led to the smallest increase in predicted heat-related mortality based on mean temperature projections. Use of only one exposure variable to project future heat-related deaths may therefore be misrepresentative in terms of direction of change and magnitude of effects. Because urbanization-induced impacts can vary across the diurnal cycle, projections of heat-related health outcomes that do not consider place-based, time-varying urban heat island effects are neglecting essential elements for policy relevant decision-making.

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  • 2014-04-28

Predicting Hospitalization for Heat-Related Illness at the Census-Tract Level: Accuracy of a Generic Heat Vulnerability Index in Phoenix, Arizona (USA)

Description

Background: Vulnerability mapping based on vulnerability indices is a pragmatic approach for highlighting the areas in a city where people are at the greatest risk of harm from heat, but

Background: Vulnerability mapping based on vulnerability indices is a pragmatic approach for highlighting the areas in a city where people are at the greatest risk of harm from heat, but the manner in which vulnerability is conceptualized influences the results.

Objectives: We tested a generic national heat-vulnerability index, based on a 10-variable indicator framework, using data on heat-related hospitalizations in Phoenix, Arizona. We also identified potential local risk factors not included in the generic indicators.

Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the generic index in a city-specific context, we used factor scores, derived from a factor analysis using census tract–level characteristics, as independent variables, and heat hospitalizations (with census tracts categorized as zero-, moderate-, or highincidence) as dependent variables in a multinomial logistic regression model. We also compared the geographical differences between a vulnerability map derived from the generic index and one derived from actual heat-related hospitalizations at the census-tract scale.

Results: We found that the national-indicator framework correctly classified just over half (54%) of census tracts in Phoenix. Compared with all census tracts, high-vulnerability tracts that were misclassified by the index as zero-vulnerability tracts had higher average income and higher proportions of residents with a duration of residency < 5 years.

Conclusion: The generic indicators of vulnerability are useful, but they are sensitive to scale, measurement, and context. Decision makers need to consider the characteristics of their cities to determine how closely vulnerability maps based on generic indicators reflect actual risk of harm.

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  • 2015-06-01

Arizona Climate and Health Adaptation Plan 2017

Description

Extreme weather events including heat waves, wildfires, dust storms, flooding, and drought, along with adverse air quality events, are climatesensitive public health hazards in Arizona. Climatesensitive hazards are environmental events

Extreme weather events including heat waves, wildfires, dust storms, flooding, and drought, along with adverse air quality events, are climatesensitive public health hazards in Arizona. Climatesensitive hazards are environmental events that pose risks to human health and could be affected by long-term changes in temperature, precipitation, and other weather conditions. These events occur at a wide range of time scales, spanning shortterm events like dust storms to long-term events like drought. Climate-sensitive hazards are among many environmental determinants of health. They can create or worsen health conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, asthma and other respiratory illnesses, and can lead to injury or premature death. For example, a heavy downpour can lead to an acute, flash flooding event that poses risk of injury such as falls, lacerations and puncture. Long-term changes in precipitation patterns can modify the suitability of certain regions for vectors (such as mosquitos) that transmit infectious diseases or for the growth of fungus in soils. Demography, infrastructure, social capital, personal and institutional preparedness, and the evolution of technology will also shape the nature of the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards on public health in Arizona. Building resilience across social, ecological, and technological systems will help prepare the State for these hazards.

The Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) is leading the development of a statewide climate and health adaptation plan as a participating agency in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) ClimateReady States and Cities Initiative. This document, released in April 2017, is the first version of Arizona’s Climate and Health Adaptation Plan (ACHAP). The goal of ACHAP is to support the mission of the ADHS: to promote, protect, and improve the health and wellness of individuals and communities in Arizona. In coordinating ACHAP, ADHS intends to support the development of interventions and enhancement of public health preparedness activities related to climate-sensitive hazards and minimize adverse impacts on the people of Arizona.

The guidance contained herein was generated using the ongoing work of current and future collaborations and through review and collaboration with other states. ACHAP 2017 serves to compile ideas, direction, and activities that stakeholders may wish to adapt in building resilience against the effects of climate-sensitive hazards. This document is intended to serve as a tool for state and local agencies to support related public health initiatives. Furthermore, it is intended to promote communication among partners by highlighting successful local and regional efforts and by exploring and reviewing new ideas.

Federal, state, county and local collaborators that have and are anticipated to contribute to the continued development of ACHAP include, but are not limited to: federal, state, and local government agencies, Native American tribal governments, Arizona universities and colleges, community-based organizations, healthcare organizations, non-governmental organizations, professional societies, and residents of Arizona. Representatives from several of these types of organizations participated in a climate and health workshop coordinated by ADHS in June 2016. Perspectives from these workshop participants contributed to the development of ACHAP 2017.

A second version of ACHAP will be released in 2018 after a year-long collaborative process with stakeholders and researchers. This collaborative process will identify the best strategies for protecting the health and wellbeing of all Arizonans, drawing guidance from the CDC’s Climate and Health Implementation and Monitoring Strategy. Ultimately, ACHAP will showcase the strengths and capacities of many organizations across Arizona that can play a role in protecting public health from climate-sensitive hazards. Successfully preparing Arizona requires a collaborative approach across many diverse stakeholders. Bringing to the table perspectives from many different local settings and operations will be key to the development of an effective plan. As such, ADHS and other contributors to ACHAP are encouraged to treat all perspectives as fair and valid in the deliberation about adaptation activities for reducing climate-sensitive health impacts in communities across the state.

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  • 2017

Addendum to the Arizona Climate and Health Adaptation Plan 2018

Description

Purpose:
This addendum to the 2017 State of Arizona Climate and Health Adaptation Plan (ACHAP) describes the progress on specific preparedness activities that protect the health and well-being of Arizonans

Purpose:
This addendum to the 2017 State of Arizona Climate and Health Adaptation Plan (ACHAP) describes the progress on specific preparedness activities that protect the health and well-being of Arizonans from current and future climate sensitive hazards. As a means for providing brief updates, the scope of this addendum does not focus on public health data regarding environmental hazards and health effects such as extreme heat, fires, floods, drought, and vector borne diseases affected by temperature and precipitation. More information about these topics are described in prior Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) reports published online. Rather, this addendum focuses on initiatives currently taking place within Arizona. With continued funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Climate Ready States and Cities Initiative, ADHS collaborated with local health departments and universities to implement activities identified under the first iteration of the ACHAP. Stakeholders contributed success stories detailing how they collaborated across multiple sectors, implemented pilot projects, and evaluated their efforts over the past year. These stories are meant to help disseminate lessons learned with the aim of informing other jurisdictions to facilitate implementation of effective adaptation actions against future extreme weather challenges facing public health. Additionally, these success stories provide evidence of the public health sector planning and preparing for extreme weather threats to human health.

New Science Available:
Since the 2017 ACHAP, several federal and state level reports published help detail challenges and solutions for public health adaptation planning. In 2018, the federal government released the Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA 4). This report specifically summarized climate impacts for the Southwest and to health. Within this report, specific health impacts in the Southwest include the implications of extreme heat, poor air quality, and changes in conditions to foster the spread of infectious pathogens. Efforts by ADHS and local stakeholders were highlighted in public health sections within the NCA 4, such as an evaluation of cooling centers used to protect vulnerable populations during the summer heat in Maricopa County and assessments on vector-borne diseases. Within Arizona, ADHS released two reports during the winter of 2017 about the health effects of these hazards. The first report was an Assessment of Climate and Health Impacts on Vector-Borne Diseases and Valley Fever in Arizona and the second report described the estimated Projections of Climate Impacts on Vector-Borne Diseases and Valley Fever in Arizona. In an effort to support continued work in understanding the implications of climate on health, in August 2017 Arizona became part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Through this initiative, ADHS has implemented enhanced surveillance on the human health impacts of poor air quality, increased temperature, changes in precipitation, drought, and identifying vulnerable populations through 2022.

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  • 2018

Arizona Extreme Weather, Climate and Health Profile Report - March 2015

Description

Observed and projected changes to the climate (e.g. more/less precipitation and higher temperatures) can pose significant health risks to the residents of Arizona. As in other locations in the Southwest,

Observed and projected changes to the climate (e.g. more/less precipitation and higher temperatures) can pose significant health risks to the residents of Arizona. As in other locations in the Southwest, across the United States, and around the world, these changes are likely to coincide with an increased frequency of drought, flooding, severe heat events, and wildfires; and disruption of civil infrastructure, including transportation, energy, and water systems. These impacts can lead directly to illness and death and are likely to worsen existing health conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. A number of other factors are expected to compound these health issues.

Achieving air quality goals may be more difficult because of changes in the emission rates of ozone precursors including nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), along with changes in meteorological conditions that facilitate high pollutant concentrations. Additionally, the timing and potency of aeroallergens may be hastened and increased. Finally, vector-borne illnesses carried by insects (i.e., mosquitos, mites, and ticks) are likely to become increasingly widespread. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed the Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework (Figure A) to provide local health officials with a mechanism for addressing climate-related public health effects and to support the creation of regional public health adaptation and mitigation efforts. The framework uses the principles of adaptive management to achieve these goals.

This report addresses Step 1 of the framework, focusing on two climate-related hazards and associated health impacts of major importance to Arizona—extreme heat events and air pollution. The frequency and intensity of extreme heat events already are increasing in the state and this trend is expected to continue. Likewise, under some future climate scenarios, ozone formation and accumulation are expected to increase (Weaver et al. 2009; Kim et al. 2015). Furthermore, historical monitoring of air pollution, especially ozone and coarse particulate matter (PM10), has identified these pollutants as a problem in the state. This report describes the link between these hazards and human health outcomes, and identifies the segments of the population that would be at-risk or vulnerable to their effects. The work involved extracting downscaled climate projections for Arizona and identifying populations vulnerable to extreme heat and poor air quality. Further work will include projecting future public health burdens, identifying mitigating measures, evaluating their cost-effectiveness, and developing an adaptation plan. Flood- and drought-related hazards will also be analyzed. Throughout these activities, Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) and the project team will evaluate the framework’s effectiveness and revise their efforts, as needed.

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  • 2015-03