Matching Items (12)

131080-Thumbnail Image.png

What Drives Electric Vehicle Sales?

Description

In March 2019, the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released a report describing the critical importance of the next decade in mitigating the effects of climate change.

In March 2019, the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released a report describing the critical importance of the next decade in mitigating the effects of climate change. From a consumer perspective, the most impactful method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is by altering and/or reducing usage of personal and public transportation. Despite the significant technological advances in vehicle electrification, vehicle mileage, and hybrid technology, there is a gap in analysis performed about the relationship between oil prices and electric vehicle sales. This can be largely attributed to the large variation in oil and gas prices within the last decade and the short timeframe in which electric vehicles have been available to the average consumer. In addition to oil prices, significant driving factors of consumer electric vehicle purchases include battery range, availability and accessibly of charging infrastructure, and tax incentives. While consumers clearly have a significant role to play in driving electric vehicle sales, by virtue of the time commitment required to research and develop these emerging technologies, manufacturers have an arguably greater role in determining the market share EVs possess. The concept of “market disruption” versus “market replacement” is an intriguing explanation for the failure of electric vehicles, which as of early 2019 held a market share of less than 2%, to become the primary mode of transportation for most Americans, despite their wide-ranging financial and societal benefits, which will be a key challenge for the industry to overcome in the years to come.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

147516-Thumbnail Image.png

An Environmental and Economic Analysis of The Near Future of Lithium Ion Batteries

Description

Lithium ion batteries are quintessential components of modern life. They are used to power smart devices — phones, tablets, laptops, and are rapidly becoming major elements in the automotive industry.

Lithium ion batteries are quintessential components of modern life. They are used to power smart devices — phones, tablets, laptops, and are rapidly becoming major elements in the automotive industry. Demand projections for lithium are skyrocketing with production struggling to keep up pace. This drive is due mostly to the rapid adoption of electric vehicles; sales of electric vehicles in 2020 are more than double what they were only a year prior. With such staggering growth it is important to understand how lithium is sourced and what that means for the environment. Will production even be capable of meeting the demand as more industries make use of this valuable element? How will the environmental impact of lithium affect growth? This thesis attempts to answer these questions as the world looks to a decade of rapid growth for lithium ion batteries.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

147570-Thumbnail Image.png

Consumer Perception of Electric Vehicles

Description

This project examines the correlation between consumer perception and willingness to pay for electric vehicles (EVs). Using secondary research regarding sustainability, pricing and other factors influencing or swaying purchasing decisions,

This project examines the correlation between consumer perception and willingness to pay for electric vehicles (EVs). Using secondary research regarding sustainability, pricing and other factors influencing or swaying purchasing decisions, newfound details were uncovered. A survey was then created to collect primary research data, gauging general interest using a side-by-side comparison of the top three U.S. auto manufacturers and their efforts to transition to the next era of the automobile. From this, new marketing and advertising techniques are offered to allow for a more widespread adoption and quicker transition to full EV lineups in the near future - essentially, closing the gap from interest to action.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

148184-Thumbnail Image.png

The Carbon Impact of the Electrification of the Transportation System

Description

In theory, Electric Vehicle (EV) ownership and renewable energy seem like a perfect solution to our climate crisis; however, unless done properly, the effects can be less than ideal. We

In theory, Electric Vehicle (EV) ownership and renewable energy seem like a perfect solution to our climate crisis; however, unless done properly, the effects can be less than ideal. We need to find a way to maximize the impact of our efforts to reduce carbon emissions, which is exactly what the heart of my paper gets to. Carbon emissions are bad for the environment because they comprise a large majority of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases have recently become dramatically out of balance and have resulted in an increase in respiratory diseases from smog and air pollution, as well as extreme weather and an increase in wildfires. Getting these greenhouse gases back in balance and maintaining an ecological balance is the goal of sustainability. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (the EPA), transportation makes up 29% of greenhouse gas emissions in the US followed closely by electricity generation at 28%, which makes Electric Vehicles the perfect target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions<br/>Arizona has many unique constraints when it comes to its electric infrastructure and its electric generation energy mix, which means the impacts of EV ownership become extremely complicated.<br/> In my paper, I aim to address the question: What are the carbon impact effects of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in Arizona through the lens of 1) the time of day that charging occurs, 2) the infrastructure needed to support EV penetration and 3) the incentives given to the public to help provide the impetus for making greener choices? Using the best available research on how EVs are being adopted to reduce emissions, I will provide conclusive recommendations and a framework for how Arizona can best reduce carbon emissions through EVs.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

156403-Thumbnail Image.png

EV battery performance in the desert area and development of a new drive cycle for Arizona

Description

Commercial Li-ion cells (18650: Li4Ti5O12 anodes and LiCoO2 cathodes) were subjected to simulated Electric Vehicle (EV) conditions using various driving patterns such as aggressive driving, highway driving, air conditioning load,

Commercial Li-ion cells (18650: Li4Ti5O12 anodes and LiCoO2 cathodes) were subjected to simulated Electric Vehicle (EV) conditions using various driving patterns such as aggressive driving, highway driving, air conditioning load, and normal city driving. The particular drive schedules originated from the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), including the SC-03, UDDS, HWFET, US-06 drive schedules, respectively. These drive schedules have been combined into a custom drive cycle, named the AZ-01 drive schedule, designed to simulate a typical commute in the state of Arizona. The battery cell cycling is conducted at various temperature settings (0, 25, 40, and 50 °C). At 50 °C, under the AZ-01 drive schedule, a severe inflammation was observed in the cells that led to cell failure. Capacity fading under AZ-01 drive schedule at 0 °C per 100 cycles is found to be 2%. At 40 °C, 3% capacity fading is observed per 100 cycles under the AZ-01 drive schedule. Modeling and prediction of discharge rate capability of batteries is done using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). High-frequency resistance values (HFR) increased with cycling under the AZ-01 drive schedule at 40 °C and 0 °C. The research goal for this thesis is to provide performance analysis and life cycle data for Li4Ti5O12 (Lithium Titanite) battery cells in simulated Arizona conditions. Future work involves an evaluation of second-life opportunities for cells that have met end-of-life criteria in EV applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

153294-Thumbnail Image.png

Profitability and environmental benefit of providing renewable energy for electric vehicle charging

Description

This study evaluates the potential profitability and environmental benefit available by providing renewable energy from solar- or wind-generated sources to electric vehicle drivers at public charging stations, also known as

This study evaluates the potential profitability and environmental benefit available by providing renewable energy from solar- or wind-generated sources to electric vehicle drivers at public charging stations, also known as electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE), in the U.S. Past studies have shown above-average interest in renewable energy by drivers of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), though no study has evaluated the profitability and environmental benefit of selling renewable energy to PEV drivers at public EVSE. Through an online survey of 203 U.S.-wide PEV owners and lessees, information was collected on (1) current PEV and EVSE usage, (2) potential willingness to pay (WTP) for upgrading their charge event to renewable energy, and (3) usage of public EVSE if renewable energy was offered. The choice experiment survey method was used to avoid bias known to occur when directly asking for WTP. Sixty percent of the participants purchased their PEVs due to environmental concerns. The survey results indicate a 506% increase in the usage of public pay-per-use EVSE if renewable energy was offered and a mean WTP to upgrade to renewable energy of $0.61 per hour for alternating current (AC) Level 2 EVSE and $1.82 for Direct Current (DC) Fast Chargers (DCFC). Based on data from the 2013 second quarter (2Q) report of The EV Project, which uses the Blink public EVSE network, this usage translates directly to an annual gross income increase of 668% from the original $1.45 million to $11.1 million. Blink would see an annual cost of $16,005 per year for the acquisition of the required renewable energy as renewable energy credits (RECs). Excluding any profit seen purely from the raise in usage, $3.8 million in profits would be gained directly from the sale of renewable energy. Relative to a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine passenger vehicle, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are 42% less for the U.S. average blend grid electricity-powered electric vehicle and 99.997% less when wind energy is used. Powering all Blink network charge events with wind energy would reduce the annualized 2Q 2013 GHG emissions of 1,589 metric tons CO2 / yr to 125 kg CO2 / yr, which is the equivalent of removing 334 average U.S. gasoline passenger cars from the road. At the increased usage, 8,031 metric tons CO2 / yr would be prevented per year or the equivalent of the elimination of 1,691 average U.S. passenger cars. These economic and environmental benefits will increase as PEV ownership increases over time.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

158263-Thumbnail Image.png

A Novel Location-Allocation-Routing Model for Siting Multiple Recharging Points on the Continuous Network Space

Description

Due to environmental and geopolitical reasons, many countries are embracing electric vehicles (EVs) as an alternative to gasoline powered automobiles. Other alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) powered by compressed gas, hydrogen or

Due to environmental and geopolitical reasons, many countries are embracing electric vehicles (EVs) as an alternative to gasoline powered automobiles. Other alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) powered by compressed gas, hydrogen or biodiesel have also been tested for replacing gasoline powered vehicles. However, since the associated refueling infrastructure of AFVs is sparse and is gradually being built, the distance between recharging points (RPs) becomes a crucial prohibitive attribute in attracting drivers to use such vehicles. Optimally locating RPs will both increase demand and help in developing the refueling infrastructure.

The major emphasis in this dissertation is the development of theories and associated algorithms for a new set of location problems defined on continuous network space related to siting multiple RPs for range limited vehicles.

This dissertation covers three optimization problems: locating multiple RPs on a line network, locating multiple RPs on a comb tree network, and locating multiple RPs on a general tree network. For each of the three problems, finding the minimum number of RPs needed to refuel all Origin-Destination (O-D) flows is considered as the first objective. For this minimum number, the location objective is to locate this number of RPs to minimize weighted sum of the travelling distance for all O-D flows. Different exact algorithms are proposed to solve each of the three algorithms.

In the first part of this dissertation, the simplest case of locating RPs on a line network is addressed. Scenarios include single one-way O-D pair, multiple one-way O-D pairs, round trips, etc. A mixed integer program with linear constraints and quartic objective function is formulated. A finite dominating set (FDS) is identified, and based on the existence of FDS, the problem is formulated as a shortest path problem. In the second part, the problem is extended to comb tree networks. Finally, the problem is extended to general tree networks. The extension to a probabilistic version of the location problem is also addressed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

154779-Thumbnail Image.png

Performance, modeling, and characteristics of LFP pack for HEV using FUDS (depleting) in hot and arid conditions

Description

There was a growing trend in the automotive market on the adoption of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) for consumers to purchase. This was partially due to external pressures such

There was a growing trend in the automotive market on the adoption of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) for consumers to purchase. This was partially due to external pressures such as the effects of global warming, cost of petroleum, governmental regulations, and popularity of the vehicle type. HEV technology relied on a variety of factors which included the powertrain (PT) of the system, external driving conditions, and the type of driving pattern being driven. The core foundation for HEVs depended heavily on the battery pack and chemistry being adopted for the vehicle performance and operations. This paper focused on the effects of hot and arid temperatures on the performance of LiFePO4 (LFP) battery packs and presented a possible modeling method for overall performance.

Lithium-ion battery (LIB) packs were subjected to room and high temperature settings while being cycled under a current profile created from a drive cycle. The Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) was selected and modified to simulate normal city driving situation using an electric only drive mode. Capacity and impedance fade of the LIB packs were monitored over the lifetime of the pack to determine the overall performance through the variables of energy and power fade. Regression analysis was done on the energy and power fade of the LIB pack to determine the duration life of LIB packs for HEV applications. This was done by comparing energy and power fade with the average lifetime mileage of a vehicle.

The collected capacity and impedance data was used to create an electrical equivalent model (EEM). The model was produced through the process of a modified Randles circuit and the creation of the inverse constant phase element (ICPE). Results indicated the model had a potential for high fidelity as long as a sufficient amount of data was gathered. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed on a fresh and cycled LFP battery. SEM results suggested a dramatic growth on LFP crystals with a reduction in carbon coating after cycling. XRD effects showed a slight uniformed strain and decrease in size of LFP olivine crystals after cycling.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

152456-Thumbnail Image.png

Routing and scheduling of electric and alternative-fuel vehicles

Description

Vehicles powered by electricity and alternative-fuels are becoming a more popular form of transportation since they have less of an environmental impact than standard gasoline vehicles. Unfortunately, their success is

Vehicles powered by electricity and alternative-fuels are becoming a more popular form of transportation since they have less of an environmental impact than standard gasoline vehicles. Unfortunately, their success is currently inhibited by the sparseness of locations where the vehicles can refuel as well as the fact that many of the vehicles have a range that is less than those powered by gasoline. These factors together create a "range anxiety" in drivers, which causes the drivers to worry about the utility of alternative-fuel and electric vehicles and makes them less likely to purchase these vehicles. For the new vehicle technologies to thrive it is critical that range anxiety is minimized and performance is increased as much as possible through proper routing and scheduling. In the case of long distance trips taken by individual vehicles, the routes must be chosen such that the vehicles take the shortest routes while not running out of fuel on the trip. When many vehicles are to be routed during the day, if the refueling stations have limited capacity then care must be taken to avoid having too many vehicles arrive at the stations at any time. If the vehicles that will need to be routed in the future are unknown then this problem is stochastic. For fleets of vehicles serving scheduled operations, switching to alternative-fuels requires ensuring the schedules do not cause the vehicles to run out of fuel. This is especially problematic since the locations where the vehicles may refuel are limited due to the technology being new. This dissertation covers three related optimization problems: routing a single electric or alternative-fuel vehicle on a long distance trip, routing many electric vehicles in a network where the stations have limited capacity and the arrivals into the system are stochastic, and scheduling fleets of electric or alternative-fuel vehicles with limited locations to refuel. Different algorithms are proposed to solve each of the three problems, of which some are exact and some are heuristic. The algorithms are tested on both random data and data relating to the State of Arizona.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

157568-Thumbnail Image.png

Thermal cycling of LTO-LCO batteries subjected to electric vehicle schedule and its second life evaluation

Description

Lithium titanium oxide (LTO), is a crystalline (spinel) anode material that has recently been considered as an alternative to carbon anodes in conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIB), mainly due to the

Lithium titanium oxide (LTO), is a crystalline (spinel) anode material that has recently been considered as an alternative to carbon anodes in conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIB), mainly due to the inherent safety and durability of this material. In this paper commercial LTO anode 18650 cells with lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) cathodes have been cycled to simulate EV operating condition (temperature and drive profiles) in Arizona. The capacity fade of battery packs (pack #1 and pack#2), each consisting 6 such cells in parallel was studied. While capacity fades faster at the higher temperature (40°C), fading is significantly reduced at the lower temperature limit (0°C). Non-invasive techniques such as Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) show a steady increase in the high-frequency resistance along with capacity fade indicating Loss of Active Material (LAM) and formation of co-intercalation products like Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI). A two-stage capacity fade can be observed as previously reported and can be proved by differential voltage curves. The first stage is gradual and marks the slow degradation of the anode while the second stage is marked by a drastic capacity fade and can be attributed to the fading cathode. After an effective capacity fading of ~20%, the battery packs were disassembled, sorted and repackaged into smaller packs of 3 cells each for second-life testing. No major changes were seen in the crystal structure of LTO, establishing its electrochemical stability. However, the poor built of the 18650-cell appears to have resulted in failures like gradual electrolytic decomposition causing prominent swelling and failure in a few cells and LAM from the cathode along with cation dissolution. This result is important to understand how LTO batteries fail to better utilize the batteries for specific secondary-life applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019