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Cluster metrics and temporal coherency in pixel based matrices

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In this thesis, the application of pixel-based vertical axes used within parallel coordinate plots is explored in an attempt to improve how existing tools can explain complex multivariate interactions across temporal data. Several promising visualization techniques are combined, such as:

In this thesis, the application of pixel-based vertical axes used within parallel coordinate plots is explored in an attempt to improve how existing tools can explain complex multivariate interactions across temporal data. Several promising visualization techniques are combined, such as: visual boosting to allow for quicker consumption of large data sets, the bond energy algorithm to find finer patterns and anomalies through contrast, multi-dimensional scaling, flow lines, user guided clustering, and row-column ordering. User input is applied on precomputed data sets to provide for real time interaction. General applicability of the techniques are tested against industrial trade, social networking, financial, and sparse data sets of varying dimensionality.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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Socioemotional competencies, cognitive ability, and achievement in gifted students

Description

This study examined the relations between cognitive ability, socioemotional competency (SEC), and achievement in gifted children. Data were collected on children between the ages of 8 and 15 years (n = 124). Children were assessed via teacher reports of SEC,

This study examined the relations between cognitive ability, socioemotional competency (SEC), and achievement in gifted children. Data were collected on children between the ages of 8 and 15 years (n = 124). Children were assessed via teacher reports of SEC, standardized cognitive assessment, and standardized achievement assessment. Composite achievement significantly correlated with all areas of SEC on the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA). Cognitive ability significantly correlated with all areas of SEC as well. Composite cognitive ability significantly correlated with all composite achievement, as well as with achievement in all subject areas assessed. Achievement scores tended to be higher in older age groups in comparison to younger age groups. When gender differences were found (in some areas of SEC and in language achievement), they tended to be higher in females. Gender moderated the relation between SEC and composite achievement. The areas of SEC that best predicted achievement, over-and-above other SEC scales, were Optimistic Thinking, Self-Awareness, and Relationship Skills. While cognitive scores did not significantly predict achievement when controlling for SEC, SEC did significantly predict achievement over-and-above cognitive ability scores. Overall findings suggest that SEC may be important in children's school achievement; thus it is important for schools and families to promote the development of SEC in gifted children, especially in the areas of optimism and self-awareness.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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How the expression of DNA evidence affects jurors' interpretation of probabilistic fingerprint evidence

Description

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) evidence has been shown to have a strong effect on juror decision-making when presented in court. While DNA evidence has been shown to be extremely reliable, fingerprint evidence, and the way it is presented in court, has

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) evidence has been shown to have a strong effect on juror decision-making when presented in court. While DNA evidence has been shown to be extremely reliable, fingerprint evidence, and the way it is presented in court, has come under much scrutiny. Forensic fingerprint experts have been working on a uniformed way to present fingerprint evidence in court. The most promising has been the Probabilistic Based Fingerprint Evidence (PBFE) created by Forensic Science Services (FSS) (G. Langenburg, personal communication, April 16, 2011). The current study examined how the presence and strength of DNA evidence influenced jurors' interpretation of probabilistic fingerprint evidence. Mock jurors read a summary of a murder case that included fingerprint evidence and testimony from a fingerprint expert and, in some conditions, DNA evidence and testimony from a DNA expert. Results showed that when DNA evidence was found at the crime scene and matched the defendant other evidence and the overall case was rated as stronger than when no DNA was present. Fingerprint evidence did not cause a stronger rating of other evidence and the overall case. Fingerprint evidence was underrated in some cases, and jurors generally weighed all the different strengths of fingerprint testimony to the same degree.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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Environmental, policy and social analysis of photovoltaic technologies

Description

Many expect renewable energy technologies to play a leading role in a sustainable energy supply system and to aid the shift away from an over-reliance on traditional hydrocarbon resources in the next few decades. This dissertation develops environmental, policy and

Many expect renewable energy technologies to play a leading role in a sustainable energy supply system and to aid the shift away from an over-reliance on traditional hydrocarbon resources in the next few decades. This dissertation develops environmental, policy and social models to help understand various aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technologies. The first part of this dissertation advances the life cycle assessment (LCA) of PV systems by expanding the boundary of included processes using hybrid LCA and accounting for the technology-driven dynamics of environmental impacts. Hybrid LCA extends the traditional method combining bottom-up process-sum and top-down economic input-output (EIO) approaches. The embodied energy and carbon of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic systems are assessed using hybrid LCA. From 2001 to 2010, the embodied energy and carbon fell substantially, indicating that technological progress is realizing reductions in environmental impacts in addition to lower module price. A variety of policies support renewable energy adoption, and it is critical to make them function cooperatively. To reveal the interrelationships among these policies, the second part of this dissertation proposes three tiers of policy architecture. This study develops a model to determine the specific subsidies required to support a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) goal. The financial requirements are calculated (in two scenarios) and compared with predictable funds from public sources. A main result is that the expected investments to achieve the RPS goal far exceed the economic allocation for subsidy of distributed PV. Even with subsidies there are often challenges with social acceptance. The third part of this dissertation originally develops a fuzzy logic inference model to relate consumers' attitudes about the technology such as perceived cost, maintenance, and environmental concern to their adoption intention. Fuzzy logic inference model is a type of soft computing models. It has the advantage of dealing with imprecise and insufficient information and mimicking reasoning processes of human brains. This model is implemented in a case study of residential PV adoption using data through a survey of homeowners in Arizona. The output of this model is the purchasing probability of PV.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

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The Cognitive and Social Psychological Bases of Bias in Forensic Mental Health Judgments

Description

This chapter integrates from cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and social psychology the basic science of bias in human judgment as relevant to judgments and decisions by forensic mental health professionals. Forensic mental health professionals help courts make decisions in cases

This chapter integrates from cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and social psychology the basic science of bias in human judgment as relevant to judgments and decisions by forensic mental health professionals. Forensic mental health professionals help courts make decisions in cases when some question of psychology pertains to the legal issue, such as in insanity cases, child custody hearings, and psychological injuries in civil suits. The legal system itself and many people involved, such as jurors, assume mental health experts are “objective” and untainted by bias. However, basic psychological science from several branches of the discipline suggest the law’s assumption about experts’ protection from bias is wrong. Indeed, several empirical studies now show clear evidence of (unintentional) bias in forensic mental health experts’ judgments and decisions. In this chapter, we explain the science of how and why human judgments are susceptible to various kinds of bias. We describe dual-process theories from cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and social psychology that can help explain these biases. We review the empirical evidence to date specifically about cognitive and social psychological biases in forensic mental health judgments, weaving in related literature about biases in other types of expert judgment, with hypotheses about how forensic experts are likely affected by these biases. We close with a discussion of directions for future research and practice.

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Created

Date Created
2017-04-30

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The Cognitive Underpinnings of Bias in Forensic Mental Health Evaluations.

Description

We integrate multiple domains of psychological science to identify, better understand, and manage the effects of subtle but powerful biases in forensic mental health assessment. This topic is ripe for discussion, as research evidence that challenges our objectivity and credibility

We integrate multiple domains of psychological science to identify, better understand, and manage the effects of subtle but powerful biases in forensic mental health assessment. This topic is ripe for discussion, as research evidence that challenges our objectivity and credibility garners increased attention both within and outside of psychology. We begin by defining bias and provide rich examples from the judgment and decision making literature as they might apply to forensic assessment tasks. The cognitive biases we review can help us explain common problems in interpretation and judgment that confront forensic examiners. This leads us to ask (and attempt to answer) how we might use what we know about bias in forensic clinicians’ judgment to reduce its negative effects.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Assessment Practices and Expert Judgment Methods in Forensic Psychology and Psychiatry: An International Snapshot

Description

We conducted an international survey in which forensic examiners who were members of professional associations described their two most recent forensic evaluations (N=434 experts, 868 cases), focusing on the use of structured assessment tools to aid expert judgment. This study

We conducted an international survey in which forensic examiners who were members of professional associations described their two most recent forensic evaluations (N=434 experts, 868 cases), focusing on the use of structured assessment tools to aid expert judgment. This study describes:

1. The relative frequency of various forensic referrals.
2. What tools are used globally.
3. Frequency and type of structured tools used.
4. Practitioners’ rationales for using/not using tools.

We provide general descriptive information for various referrals. We found most evaluations used tools (74.2%) and used several (on average 4). We noted the extreme variety in tools used (286 different tools). We discuss the implications of these findings and provide suggestions for improving the reliability and validity of forensic expert judgment methods. We conclude with a call for an assessment approach that seeks structured decision methods to advance greater efficiency in the use and integration of case-relevant information.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-09-25

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Are Forensic Experts Already Biased Before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

Description

This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the “filtering” effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death

This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the “filtering” effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the “allegiance effect” in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-04-28

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Assessing Usable Ground and Surface Water Level Correlation Factors in the Western United States

Description

The Western Continental United States has a rapidly changing and complex ecosystem that provides valuable resources to a large portion of the nation. Changes in social and environmental factors have been observed to be significantly correlated to usable ground and

The Western Continental United States has a rapidly changing and complex ecosystem that provides valuable resources to a large portion of the nation. Changes in social and environmental factors have been observed to be significantly correlated to usable ground and surface water levels. The assessment of water level changes and their influences on a semi-national level is needed to support planning and decision making for water resource management at local levels. Although many studies have been done in Ground and Surface Water (GSW) trend analysis, very few have attempted determine correlations with other factors. The number of studies done on correlation factors at a semi-national scale and near decadal temporal scale is even fewer. In this study, freshwater resources in GSW changes from 2004 to 2017 were quantified and used to determine if and how environmental and social variables are related to GSW changes using publicly available remotely sensed and census data. Results indicate that mean annual changes of GSW of the study period are significantly correlated with LULC changes related to deforestation, urbanization, environmental trends, as well as social variables. Further analysis indicates a strong correlation in the rate of change of GSW to LULC changes related to deforestation, environmental trends, as well as social variables. GSW slope trend analysis also reveals a negative trend in California, New Mexico, Arizona, and Nevada. Whereas a positive GSW trend is evident in the northeast part of the study area. GSW trends were found to be somewhat consistent in the states of Utah, Idaho, and Colorado, implying that there was no GSW changes over time in these states.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Do daily fluctuations in interpersonal experiences moderate the relation between catastrophizing and self-efficacy in individuals with chronic pain?

Description

Prevailing models describing coping with chronic pain posit that it is a complex day-to-day process that can involve psychosocial factors, including cognitive appraisals about pain, interpersonal challenges such as distressed social relationships, and reduced engagement in enjoyable experiences. Few studies,

Prevailing models describing coping with chronic pain posit that it is a complex day-to-day process that can involve psychosocial factors, including cognitive appraisals about pain, interpersonal challenges such as distressed social relationships, and reduced engagement in enjoyable experiences. Few studies, however, have applied a process-oriented approach to elaborate the relations between key pain-related appraisals, social environmental factors, and self-efficacy, a key self-appraisal for successful adaptation to chronic pain. This study used within-day daily diary methodology to test the following hypotheses: (a) increases in morning pain catastrophizing predict decreases in end of day pain self-efficacy; (b) increases in perceived stressfulness of interpersonal relations occurring during the day exacerbate the negative effects of morning catastrophizing on end-of-day pain self-efficacy; and (c) increases in perceived enjoyment of interpersonal relations occurring during the day mitigate the negative effects of morning pain catastrophizing on end of day pain self-efficacy. Within-day measures, including morning pain catastrophizing, afternoon interpersonal stress and enjoyment ratings, and end-of-day pain self-efficacy, were collected for 21 days via an automated phone system from 223 participants with widespread chronic pain. The use of diary data allowed for examination of time-varying processes related to pain adaptation. Results of multilevel regression models indicated that, consistent with prediction, increases in morning pain catastrophizing and predicted decreases in end-of-day pain self-efficacy. Contrary to prediction, changes in midday interpersonal enjoyment and stress did not moderate the within-day catastrophizing-efficacy relation. Rather increases in midday enjoyment and stable individual differences in enjoyment predicted end-of-day efficacy. Overall, findings suggest a within-day relation between pain cognition and social context and subsequent self-efficacy, and highlight potential targets for intervention in chronic pain.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018