Matching Items (22)

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The Cognitive and Social Psychological Bases of Bias in Forensic Mental Health Judgments

Description

This chapter integrates from cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and social psychology the basic science of bias in human judgment as relevant to judgments and decisions by forensic mental health professionals.

This chapter integrates from cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and social psychology the basic science of bias in human judgment as relevant to judgments and decisions by forensic mental health professionals. Forensic mental health professionals help courts make decisions in cases when some question of psychology pertains to the legal issue, such as in insanity cases, child custody hearings, and psychological injuries in civil suits. The legal system itself and many people involved, such as jurors, assume mental health experts are “objective” and untainted by bias. However, basic psychological science from several branches of the discipline suggest the law’s assumption about experts’ protection from bias is wrong. Indeed, several empirical studies now show clear evidence of (unintentional) bias in forensic mental health experts’ judgments and decisions. In this chapter, we explain the science of how and why human judgments are susceptible to various kinds of bias. We describe dual-process theories from cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and social psychology that can help explain these biases. We review the empirical evidence to date specifically about cognitive and social psychological biases in forensic mental health judgments, weaving in related literature about biases in other types of expert judgment, with hypotheses about how forensic experts are likely affected by these biases. We close with a discussion of directions for future research and practice.

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  • 2017-04-30

Designing Social Behaviors

Description

Today, successful design is not only pleasing to the eye but may also help to manage social behaviors which can lead to increased satisfaction and increased revenue for clients. Designers

Today, successful design is not only pleasing to the eye but may also help to manage social behaviors which can lead to increased satisfaction and increased revenue for clients. Designers function as problem solvers to provide solutions to challenges certain spaces face promoting or driving desired human interaction through effective design of the built environment. The experience-based economy of the 21st century prompts companies to attempt to stage an experience by connecting on a personal level with consumers in order to create value and support consumer needs. In experience-based design, interior design embraces social psychology by structuring the built environment to function as a tool to manage social interactions. Due to the nature of the human animal, social interactions in turn alter the culture of a specific place in an iterative process. Through this dynamic relationship, interior design can seek to either support the culture or function of a place and its users or work to effect change.

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  • 2016-05

HIV Stigma: A Research and Art Investigation

Description

In the years following the HIV epidemic, much has changed in the way of public health, the social epidemic of stigma has remained. It is the assertion of the authors

In the years following the HIV epidemic, much has changed in the way of public health, the social epidemic of stigma has remained. It is the assertion of the authors that stigma can be combatted through the propagation of accurate education and exposure to the lasting negative impacts of social stigma on persons living with HIV in the United States at present. Although individuals who are not apart of this community cannot truly understand the impacts of HIV-related stigma on those directly impacted by it, a sense of understanding and compassion may be elicited through the breakdown of social stigma into comprehensible components and the provision of stigma-inspired artwork. In addition to providing a background on the scientific basis of Human immunodeficiency virus and its spread, the authors have elected to utilize public engagement by means of an anonymous survey as well as personal interactions with HIV advocates to synthesize paintings. Responses were collected from approximately 300 survey participants via social media with no demographic information collected. It was the hope of the authors that the lack of identifying questions may prompt participants to answer freely and honestly to improve overall understanding of social perceptions of HIV and its related stigma. These paintings and resources deemed appropriate based on the results of the aforementioned survey are to be displayed on a webpage for easier access and engagement with a broader audience.Moreover, this webpage is intended to be maintained and utilized beyond the timeframe of this Undergraduate Honors Thesis for the intended purpose of promoting stigma-free HIV advocacy and education.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

Adaptation Podcast: The Physiological Adaptation to Isolation

Description

The purpose of this project was to discuss the physiological effects of isolation on the human body and how the body adapts. Through reviewing stories and studies of social and

The purpose of this project was to discuss the physiological effects of isolation on the human body and how the body adapts. Through reviewing stories and studies of social and perceptual isolation, the adaptations of the human mind are detailed. This project explores the experiences of prisoners, sensory deprivation tanks, cave explorations, as well as studies involving monkeys and carpenter ants. The adaptations witnessed include hallucinations, increased mortality, anxiety, agitation, altered sense of time, delayed response, and lowered blood pressure. Knowing the factors surrounding the isolation experience is crucial to understand the presenting adaptation methods. These factors include duration, voluntary or involuntary participation, mental strength, and the restriction level of the isolation.

DISCLAIMER: Due to the unexpected COVID-19 pandemic, the attached podcast is a draft recording in lieu of the final recording

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  • 2020-05

Social Media's Effect on Political Mobilization

Description

This thesis explores the effect that social media has on political mobilization. Going over the arguments that social media is a an effective tool for political mobilization, and the arguments

This thesis explores the effect that social media has on political mobilization. Going over the arguments that social media is a an effective tool for political mobilization, and the arguments that social media is not an effective tool for political mobilization. Analyzing different mobilization movements it is shown that social media is an effective tool for political mobilization.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

Scuttlebutt and Whuffie: Reputation in Distributed Networks

Description

Secure Scuttlebutt is a digital social network in which the network data is distributed among the users.<br/>This is done to secure several benefits, like offline browsing, censorship resistance, and to

Secure Scuttlebutt is a digital social network in which the network data is distributed among the users.<br/>This is done to secure several benefits, like offline browsing, censorship resistance, and to imitate natural social networks, but it comes with downsides, like the lack of an obvious implementation of a recommendation algorithm.<br/>This paper proposes Whuffie, an algorithm that tracks each user's reputation for having information that is interesting to a user using conditional probabilities.<br/>Some errors in the main Secure Scuttlebutt network prevent current large-scale testing of the usefulness of the algorithm, but testing on my own personal account led me to believe it a success.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Assessing Social Sustainability in U.S. Cities: A Systems Approach

Description

Brundtland’s definition of sustainability is the ability to “meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (IISD, 2021). But what if

Brundtland’s definition of sustainability is the ability to “meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (IISD, 2021). But what if there are no future generations? Social sustainability, the sector of sustainability that foregrounds the well-being and livelihoods of people (and thereby continuation of humanity), is included in definitions within the sustainability field, but less developed in sustainability practice. In an effort to bridge this gap of knowledge, 14 U.S. cities and over 100 sustainability policies were analyzed for their social sustainability performance. An eight-item analytical framework that deals with differing areas of social equity guided the analysis. Results found that most cities’ sustainability departments fell short of truly addressing social sustainability concerns. Out of the eight items, the most frequently addressed were housing security and racial and gender equality whereas few, if any, cities addressed the more specific social concerns of immigration, technology and media, or arts/cultural preservation. Future research is recommended to gain a better understanding of the ways existing cities can improve in this area.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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How COVID-19 Has Affected the Social and Clinical Practices of Deaf People: A Qualitative Study

Description

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in preventative measures and has led to extensive changes in lifestyle for the vast majority of the American population. As the pandemic progresses, a

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in preventative measures and has led to extensive changes in lifestyle for the vast majority of the American population. As the pandemic progresses, a growing amount of evidence shows that minority groups, such as the Deaf community, are often disproportionately and uniquely affected. Deaf people are directly affected in their ability to personally socialize and continue with daily routines. More specifically, this can constitute their ability to meet new people, connect with friends/family, and to perform in their work or learning environment. It also may result in further mental health changes and an increased reliance on technology. The impact of COVID-19 on the Deaf community in clinical settings must also be considered. This includes changes in policies for in-person interpreters and a rise in telehealth. Often, these effects can be representative of the pre-existing low health literacy, frequency of miscommunication, poor treatment, and the inconvenience felt by Deaf people when trying to access healthcare. Ultimately, these effects on the Deaf community must be taken into account when attempting to create a full picture of the societal shift caused by COVID-19.

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  • 2021-05

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Fos Expression in Response to Nicotine and Social Reward in Adolescent Male Rats

Description

Previous findings from our lab have demonstrated that nicotine and social reward have synergistic effects when experienced together versus when experienced separately. The purpose of this experiment is to understand

Previous findings from our lab have demonstrated that nicotine and social reward have synergistic effects when experienced together versus when experienced separately. The purpose of this experiment is to understand the neural mechanisms underlying this synergistic effect by quantifying Fos protein, a marker for neural activation, in various brain regions. We utilized the conditioning place preference (CPP) model to assess reward. Four groups of adolescent male rats (n=120) were given either nicotine (Nic) (0.1 mg/kg/mL) or saline (Sal) and were placed in the CPP apparatus either with a social partner (Soc) or alone (Iso). Thus, groups were: 1.)Sal+Iso, 2).Sal+Soc, 3).Nic+Iso, 4).Nic+Soc. Brains of some the rats (n=40) were collected for Fos staining 90 minutes after the last conditioning session to obtain Fos data in response to direct exposure to the stimuli. The following regions were analyzed for Fos expression: central amygdala (CeA), medial amygdala (MeA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), nucleus accumbens core (NAcCore), and nucleus accumbens shell (NAcShell). Place preference changes occurred in socially-conditioned groups reflecting social reward and in nicotine-conditioned groups reflecting nicotine reward. As expected, the Sal+Iso control group failed to display a preference change. Fos data revealed a significant increase in Fos expression in the CeA, MeA, NAcCore and NAcShell for socially-conditioned animals and a significant decrease in the NAcCore for nicotine-conditioned groups. Experiencing both social and nicotine rewards together appeared to produce greater activation in the BLA. However, there was an increase in Fos expression in the negative control group relative to Nic+Iso group. The results of CPP suggest that social, nicotine and their combination are rewarding. The combination of the nicotine and social reward could have been more rewarding than social and nicotine separately, but the test was not sensitive to reward magnitude. The increase in Fos expression in the negative control group in the BLA could be due to isolation stress. Overall, these results suggest that these brain regions had greater activation to social reward.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Speakshield.com \u2014 Constructing a Private Social Networking Tool For Businesses

Description

Speakshield.com will be a social networking site in the style of Twitter.com, but created for businesses that need a more secure way to communicate with their employees without compromising their

Speakshield.com will be a social networking site in the style of Twitter.com, but created for businesses that need a more secure way to communicate with their employees without compromising their organization's trade secrets and their employees' personal data. This website will be used by businesses to allow coworkers to collaborate on projects, communicate their ideas publicly to the company, and network with each other, without having that private information leak out to unintended recipients or be vulnerable in case of hacking incidents.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05