Matching Items (43)

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On Empathy Development in Young Children

Description

During the formative years, habits, outlooks, and attitudes develop which influence social interaction throughout life. Because empathy is crucial in social interaction, empathy development should be supported. Evidence of empathy is first observed around the age of two (Radke-Yarrow et

During the formative years, habits, outlooks, and attitudes develop which influence social interaction throughout life. Because empathy is crucial in social interaction, empathy development should be supported. Evidence of empathy is first observed around the age of two (Radke-Yarrow et al., 1983, 1984; Spinrad & Fabes, 2009). The purpose of this thesis is to examine empathy in children from multiple perspectives. The scientific literature reviews the discovery of the mirror neuron system (MNS). A study on nine- and ten-year-old children showed a correlation between MNS activity and empathic concern (Pfeifer et al. 2008). Another study with a mean age of 11 demonstrated that high emotional intelligence (EI) resulted in more nominations for "cooperation" and less for "aggression" (Petrides, Sangareau, Furnham & Frederickson, 2006). The three most common EI tests (MSCEIT, TEIQue, Bar-On) are modeled to measure empathy (Bar-On, 2006; Goleman 1998, 1995; Mayer & Caruso 1997; Petrides & Furnham 2001). Psychologists agree that low measures are linked to narcissistic and aggressive behavior. The Observational Study analyzed both evidence of empathy and a lack of empathy in interactions with three- and four-year-old children. Personal experiences were also shared on how empathy was understood and practiced. Lastly, the children's short story was written to support empathy development through fiction-reading.

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Date Created
2018-12

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Changing Conceptions of the Israel-Palestine Situation: An Analysis of the Effects of Study Abroad

Description

An ever increasing number of university students partake in study abroad opportunities. Extant research has measured the effects of such experiences on the students who participate in them. Nonetheless, this research tends to rely on comparative analyses between study abroad

An ever increasing number of university students partake in study abroad opportunities. Extant research has measured the effects of such experiences on the students who participate in them. Nonetheless, this research tends to rely on comparative analyses between study abroad participants and control groups of students who do not travel abroad. Furthermore, data are often retrospectively collected and are thus subject to individual retention, which may entail significant limitations. This research attempts to subvert these limitations by using a pre- and post-test methodology coupled with qualitative analysis. The study consists of in-depth qualitative interviews with nineteen participants who partook in a semester abroad at the Rothberg International School at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In contrast to previous research which has attempted to ascertain general effects, the aim of this research is to measure the effects of study abroad on individuals’ conceptions and perspectives as they relate to the Israel-Palestine situation and the groups involved. The results indicate that the participant group which consisted of both Jewish and non-Jewish individuals did, in fact, demonstrate changes in their perceptions and perspectives at the conclusion of their study abroad experience. Specifically, the majority of individuals reported more critical views of the Israeli state and its governmental policies in addition to demonstrated increases in empathetic sentiment towards Palestinian individuals. The results are discussed in relation to future research which perhaps could be utilized to further promote perception change and subversion of dominant narratives by fostering intergroup openness and interaction.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Religious and Moral Determinants of Active Euthanasia Acceptance in the United States

Description

In this honors thesis certain religious and moral beliefs were analyzed and used to predict active euthanasia acceptance for Christians in the United States. The factors used to predict euthanasia acceptance for a suffering, terminally ill individual were religiosity, empathy,

In this honors thesis certain religious and moral beliefs were analyzed and used to predict active euthanasia acceptance for Christians in the United States. The factors used to predict euthanasia acceptance for a suffering, terminally ill individual were religiosity, empathy, God representations, and attitudes toward God. Negative correlations were observed between acceptance of euthanasia and religiosity, empathy, positive attitudes toward God, and a benevolent God representation. Positive correlations were observed between acceptance of euthanasia and negative attitudes toward God, whereas there was no significant correlation between support for euthanasia and an authoritarian God representation. When acceptance of euthanasia was regressed on these independent variables, religiosity was the most significant predictor of acceptance. It was concluded that highly religious Christians may tend to prioritize their religious teachings over their instinctual empathy for a suffering person because prematurely ending a patient’s life interferes with God’s will and reduces his role in worldly affairs.

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2019-05

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An Analysis of the Medical Scribe Experience and the Role of Narrative Medicine for Pre-Medical Students

Description

The medical scribe industry is relatively new and populated with pre-medical students trying to gain the necessary experience to be considered qualified candidates for medical school. However, with the emergence of any new industry, there are bound to be flaws

The medical scribe industry is relatively new and populated with pre-medical students trying to gain the necessary experience to be considered qualified candidates for medical school. However, with the emergence of any new industry, there are bound to be flaws in the infrastructure of the position. I chose to investigate the discrepancies between what medical scribe companies were advertising to attract pre-medical students and what pre-medical students reported that they were gaining from the experience. I used qualitative content analysis and a deductive research design based on my own experience and the experience of my fellow scribes. I looked at how medical scribing affected pre-medical students and what struggles they faced when working as a medical scribe. I found that while students reported many negative components of scribing, and that medical scribing companies did not prepare their applicants well for those challenges, most scribes still expressed a significant education benefit to the experience which outweigh the drawbacks. Lastly, I propose the importance of narrative medicine in helping to deal with the hardships of the position and how narrative medicine can serve as a tool for self-reflection on the path to making the next generation of physicians.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Reinforcing Empathy through Formalized Instruction

Description

This project is meant to measure and assess empathy through the Empathy Assessment Index (EAI) and Social Empathy Index (SEI) instruments. Researchers believe that empathy is an involuntary but dynamic aspect of people's affective and cognitive responses to emotional stimuli.

This project is meant to measure and assess empathy through the Empathy Assessment Index (EAI) and Social Empathy Index (SEI) instruments. Researchers believe that empathy is an involuntary but dynamic aspect of people's affective and cognitive responses to emotional stimuli. This project used the EAI and SEI instruments to see whether a course taught at Arizona State University \u2014 PAF 300 \u2014increased empathy and its seven components within students. The results suggest that different modular interventions were effective in increasing four of the seven empathic components \u2014 affective response, perspective-taking, contextual understanding of systemic barriers, and macro self-other awareness/ perspective-taking \u2014 but that it was detrimental to two components, self-other awareness and affective mentalizing. Future studies are necessary to understand how aspects of a course curriculum can target and increase the seven components in individuals, as well as how these components relate to one another within the greater concept of empathy. Still, this research is important in the greater scheme of empathy as it seeks to understand and expand individuals' empathic levels in an increasingly bleak and desolate political climate.

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2018-05

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The Enneagram and Empathetic Development: How Personality Indexes May Explain and Predict Empathetic Interactions in a Professional Working Environment

Description

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between an individual’s Enneagram type
and their empathetic capacity within interpersonal relationships in a professional environment.
As a personality index, the Enneagram is a relatively new concept that

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between an individual’s Enneagram type
and their empathetic capacity within interpersonal relationships in a professional environment.
As a personality index, the Enneagram is a relatively new concept that typifies human
interactions and emotions into a set of nine types. For this study, a population of Community
Assistants at Barrett, the Honors College at Arizona State University were observed in their
development of empathy with respect to their Enneagram types. Both qualitative and quantitative
measures were analyzed. The results of the study indicate that there was a significant
development in the empathy quotient of the subjects, suggesting that the Enneagram could be
used as a helpful tool to understand the interpersonal interactions in a demanding workplace.

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2020-05

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Empathy Eternal: Vonnegut's Enduring Conviction

Description

Throughout his many works, Kurt Vonnegut Jr. explored a multitude of topics and issues central to the human condition, becoming a highly vocal social critic whose messages still retain significance even decades after publishing the majority of his novels. His

Throughout his many works, Kurt Vonnegut Jr. explored a multitude of topics and issues central to the human condition, becoming a highly vocal social critic whose messages still retain significance even decades after publishing the majority of his novels. His characteristic wit and tendency towards science-fiction created a signature style through which readers are not only entertained, but greatly impacted by the observations on society he displays through his writing. He had a special affinity for writing about the care of all people and the inequality on which capitalistic societies thrive, perceiving the harsh realities of what this system does to those who have not the fortune, luck, or circumstances required to be successful under capitalism. His humanistic beliefs shine through in his writing, showing his dedication to the idea of empathy for all human beings. This concept of empathy will be the main focus of this paper, as it comes through within Vonnegut’s writing and relates to different issues that continue to plague modern America.

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2020-05

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The Effect of In Utero Androgen Exposure on Juror Decision-Making

Description

Factors affecting juror decision-making have been studied extensively to determine what drives juror's decisions (Skorinko, Laurent, Bountress, Nyein, and Kuckuck, 2014). In utero androgen exposure measured using the 4D:2D ratio has been studied to understand how the amount of in

Factors affecting juror decision-making have been studied extensively to determine what drives juror's decisions (Skorinko, Laurent, Bountress, Nyein, and Kuckuck, 2014). In utero androgen exposure measured using the 4D:2D ratio has been studied to understand how the amount of in utero androgen individuals are exposed to affects their personality and emotional development (Manning et. al., 2010; Kempe and Heffernan, 2011; Hampson, Ellis and Tenk, 2008; Fink, Manning and Neave, 2004; Knickmeyer, Baron-Cohen, Raggatt, Taylor and Hackett, 2006; Knickmeyer and Baron-Cohen, 2006; Wakabayashi and Nakazawa, 2010). Using 106 undergraduate students, the current study sought to understand how the 4D:2D ratio affects juror decision-making in civil cases by having participants assign a proportion of liability to a defendant. Participants reviewed jury instructions, as well as three case vignettes. One of these case vignettes was removed due to a description error that led almost all of the participants to find the plaintiff at fault. This study had three different experimental groups where age of the plaintiff was counterbalanced to control age as a factor in the amount of liability assigned. It was hypothesized that a higher 4D:2D ratio would result in lower defendant liability. Here we show that there was a significantly lower proportion of defendant liability assigned by the high 4D:2D ratio group as compared to the low 4D:2D ratio group; t(210) = 2.89, p < 0.01, d = 0.36. Interestingly, despite the difference between the group means, variability was such that the 4D:2D ratio was not predictive of the proportion of defendant liability assigned for experimental conditions.

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Date Created
2017-12

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Empathy and Pro-Human Social Behavior in Dogs: Will Dogs Attempt to Rescue a Person in Distress?

Description

There are many anecdotal stories of dogs rescuing their owners from dangerous situations, but this rescue behavior has yet to be shown in an experimental setting. Studies have shown that dogs behave differently towards crying humans, but do not seek

There are many anecdotal stories of dogs rescuing their owners from dangerous situations, but this rescue behavior has yet to be shown in an experimental setting. Studies have shown that dogs behave differently towards crying humans, but do not seek help for their owners when they are in distress. This study sought to determine if a dog could recognize when its owner was in distress and would attempt to rescue the owner. The experiment consisted of three conditions: a distress condition to determine how dogs respond to an owner calling for help, a reading condition to control for proximity-seeking and sound, and a food control to use as a basis for motivation and door-opening ability of the dog. Sixty dogs were tested in all three conditions in a pseudo-random order so that an equal number of dogs completed the conditions in each order. 38% of the dogs opened the apparatus for any condition, while 32% opened for the food and distress conditions and 27% opened for the reading condition, which shows that rescue in general is unlikely. There was no significant difference in the proportion of dogs who opened the apparatus for each condition, indicating that dogs are no more likely to rescue their distressed owners than they are to open the apparatus for other conditions and may not be able to sense that the owner is in distress. The similarities in the success rates also show that the owner can be just as motivating for a dog as food. Overall, the low success rates suggest that dogs are not generally likely to rescue a person who is trapped, even when they are calling for help.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Cultivating Empathy for English Language Learners Through Study Abroad Experiences

Description

Traditionally, a study abroad program is a semester or year-long program. However, short-term study abroad (STSA) programs are becoming increasingly more popular for those who want to study abroad but feel as though they cannot for various reasons. A STSA

Traditionally, a study abroad program is a semester or year-long program. However, short-term study abroad (STSA) programs are becoming increasingly more popular for those who want to study abroad but feel as though they cannot for various reasons. A STSA experience provides opportunities for cultural immersion and second language acquisition. Additionally, the population of English language learners (ELLs) in American classrooms, specifically Arizona, is increasing. Pre-service teachers are often not properly equipped with the tools and skills necessary to address the needs of ELLs in the classroom. Previous literature reported that pre-service teachers who participated in a STSA program working with ELLs showed an increase in empathy in regards to language learning. This study merges the two mentioned above, where Arizona State University undergraduate students from various colleges participated in a one-week short-term study abroad experience to the Dominican Republic working with ELLs. Six participants share their experiences about how their work with English language learners impacted their views about ELLs here in the United States. One-on-one structured interviews were conducted after which the data was analyzed qualitatively for various themes and patterns that emerged across all participants. These themes include reasons why participants chose to participate in a STSA program and how the participants' perspective changed in regards to language learning after this experience. Additionally, participants developed an increase in empathy for English language learners, a commitment to participating in more international and local service events, and expressing the need to advocate for more support of ELLs in American classrooms. Implications for various key stakeholders within and outside of the university setting will be shared.

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2016-12